Neighbouring Plants (neighbouring + plant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Phosphorus uptake, not carbon transfer, explains arbuscular mycorrhizal enhancement of Centaurea maculosa in the presence of native grassland species

C. A. Zabinski
Summary 1Previous studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) enhance the growth of the invasive forb Centaurea maculosa when growing with native grass species. Using 13CO2, we tested the hypothesis that this enhancement is explained by carbon transfer from native species to C. maculosa via mycorrhizal hyphal linkages. 2A C. maculosa plant was paired with one of five native species , three grasses (Festuca idahoensis, Koeleria cristata and Pseudoroegneria spicata) and two forbs (Achillea millefolium and Gaillardia aristata) , in pots that separated the plants with either a mesh barrier (28 m, excludes fine roots but not hyphae) or a membrane barrier (045 m, excludes roots and hyphae). 313CO2 was added to the atmosphere of either Centaurea or the native species after 20 weeks' growth. A 25 min pulse application was followed by 7 days' growth and subsequent harvest. 4The biomass response of C. maculosa was consistent with previous experiments: C. maculosa was larger when growing in mesh barrier pots, when hyphae were able to access the opposite side of the pot; in mesh barrier pots only, biomass varied with neighbouring species. Native plant biomass did not vary between mesh- vs membrane-barrier pots. 5There was no evidence of carbon transfer, either from the native plant to C. maculosa or in the reverse direction. 6Centaurea maculosa contained significantly more phosphorus in mesh-divided pots, but this depended on the neighbouring plant. The P concentration in C. maculosa was significantly higher in mesh-divided pots when growing with a grass and not a forb. Native species contained more P in mesh-divided pots than membrane-divided pots, and P concentration differed between species (higher in forbs than grasses), but did not vary between mesh- and membrane-divided pots. 7Our study suggests that C. maculosa is able to exploit its mycorrhizal symbiosis more effectively than the native grassland species. The mechanism for this appears to be luxury consumption of P through efficient utilization of extra-radical hyphae, but that effect is dependent on neighbouring species, and occurs when growing with a grass neighbour. 8Although no single study can disprove the carbon-transfer hypothesis, our work suggests that AM-mediated neighbour effects are the result of mycorrhizal networks that increase species' access to P. Whether the synergistic effects of neighbours are due to complementarity of AM fungal symbionts utilized by different plant species, or have to do with the structure of AM networks that develop more extensively with multiple host plants, remains to be investigated. [source]

Air pollution impedes plant-to-plant communication by volatiles

James D. Blande
Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 1172,1181 Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by damaged plants convey information to undamaged neighbouring plants, and previous research has shown that these signals are effective over short distances in nature. Many herbivore-induced VOCs react with ozone, which is the most important tropospheric air pollutant in rural areas. We used extrafloral nectar (EFN) secretion as a phenotypic indicator of between-plant communication in Phaseolus lunatus L. (Lima bean) and show that an ozone-rich (80 ppb) atmosphere reduces the distance over which signalling occurs. We found that ozone degrades several herbivore-induced VOCs, a likely mechanism reducing communication distances. Direct exposure to 80-ppb ozone did not affect the VOC emissions from P. lunatus. In addition, we demonstrated that high ozone concentrations, 120 and 160 ppb, induced EFN secretion in exposed plants, whereas more moderate concentrations, 80 and 100 ppb, did not. This suggests that ozone can play a complex role in the indirect defence of P. lunatus. [source]

Dispersal capacity in the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides

M. Eizaguirre
Abstract Corn (Zea mays L.) borers are the primary target of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) transgenic maize. Management of corn borer resistance to Bt requires information on larval and adult dispersal capacities, a feature that is particularly unknown in Sesamia nonagrioides Lefbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the most damaging corn borer in Spain. Larval dispersal was studied over a 3 year period by infesting plants with egg masses and dissecting the neighbouring plants 7, 14, and 32 days later to measure larval dispersal at several ages. The number and age of larvae were recorded in the dissected plants. Only mature larvae dispersed in significant numbers; they moved at least to rows adjacent to those containing the infested plant, and down the row five plants. The percentage of larvae that dispersed from the infested plant was density-dependent. Adult dispersal was studied with directional light and pheromone uni-traps over 5 and 3 year periods, respectively. Directional light traps were placed in the margins between Bt and non-Bt maize fields, half oriented towards each of the two kinds of maize field. Pheromone traps were placed in the Bt and non-Bt fields at increasing distances (0,100 m) from the border. The numbers of males and females caught in directional light traps were not different in traps oriented towards Bt or non-Bt fields, but the number of males caught in the third flight in Bt fields was lower than in non-Bt fields. These results suggest that males from adjacent Bt and non-Bt fields mate indiscriminately with females emerging in any of the two kinds of maize fields. However, male movement in the third flight may not be sufficient to randomly distribute males between the two fields. [source]

Foraging efficiency of a parasitoid of a leaf herbivore is influenced by root herbivory on neighbouring plants

Summary 1Root feeding insects can influence foliar quality of the host plant, which can affect the development and behaviour of leaf herbivores and parasitoids. Thus far, such interactions have been reported in situations where root and leaf associated organisms share a host-plant. We tested whether root herbivory influences searching behaviour of an above-ground parasitoid when the foliar feeding host of the parasitoid and the root herbivore are feeding on different plants. 2We manipulated the proportion of 25 plants (ranging from 0 to 1) exposed to root herbivory by Delia radicum (neighbouring-plants). Five additional plants were infested above-ground with Pieris brassicae larvae (host-infested plants) and were placed in-between the neighbouring plants. We then released females of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata which attacks P. brassicae and studied foraging efficiency of the parasitoid. 3Overall, parasitoids located more host-infested plants during the maximum allowed searching time, and found their hosts about three times faster when neighbouring plants were exposed to root herbivory, than when neighbouring plants were not infested with D. radicum. Similar results were found when the host-infested plants were also exposed to root herbivory. 4Our results show that the interaction between an above-ground foliar feeding insect and its parasitoid can be influenced by the presence of non-host herbivores feeding on the roots of neighbouring conspecific plants. [source]

The influence of below-ground herbivory and defoliation of a legume on nitrogen transfer to neighbouring plants

Summary 1Both foliar and root herbivory can alter the exudation of carbon from plant roots, which in turn can affect nitrogen availability in the soil. However, few studies have investigated the effects of herbivory on N fluxes from roots, which can directly increase N availability in the soil and uptake by neighbouring plants. Moreover, the combined effects of foliar and root herbivory on N fluxes remains unexplored. 2We subjected the legume white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to defoliation (through clipping) and root herbivory (by an obligate root-feeding nematode, Heterodera trifolii Goggart) to examine how these stresses individually, and simultaneously, affected the transfer of T. repens -derived N to neighbouring perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants using 15N stable-isotope techniques. We also examined the effects of defoliation and root herbivory on the size of the soil microbial community and the growth response of L. perenne. 3Neither defoliation nor root herbivory negatively affected T. repens biomass. On the contrary, defoliation increased root biomass (34%) and total shoot production by T. repens (100%). Furthermore, defoliation resulted in a fivefold increase in T. repens -derived 15N recovered in L. perenne roots, and increased the size of the soil microbial biomass (77%). In contrast, root herbivory by H. trifolii slightly reduced 15N transfer from T. repens to L. perenne when T. repens root 15N concentration was included as a covariate, and root herbivory did not affect microbial biomass. Growth of L. perenne was not affected by any of the treatments. 4Our findings demonstrate that defoliation of a common grassland legume can substantially increase the transfer of its N to neighbouring plants by directly affecting below-ground N fluxes. These finding require further examination under field conditions but, given the prevalence of N-limitation of plant productivity in terrestrial ecosystems, increased transfer of N from legumes to non-N-fixing species could alter competitive interactions, with implications for plant community structure. [source]

How do floral display size and the density of surrounding flowers influence the likelihood of bumble bee revisitation to a plant?

Summary 1Most pollination biologists have used the collective pollinator visits to a plant as the measure of its pollinator attraction. However, we know very little about how many returns by the same individuals compose these visits, and how far each visitor travels after leaving the plant. Such behavioural aspects of individual pollinators are essential to understand the patterns of pollen flow among plants. 2We observed plant visits by tagged bumble bees Bombus diversus in a field population of Cirsium purpuratum. By dissecting the collective visitation data into visits made by individual foragers, we addressed how ,visitor density' (number of individuals that visited a plant per 2 h) and ,individual visitation rate' (number of visits made by each individual per 2 h) are related to floral display size (number of flowering heads on a plant) and local flower density (number of flowering heads on neighbouring plants). We also tracked individual bees to determine how display size and local flower density of a plant influences its relative position in a bee's foraging area. 3Plants attracted both regular visitors (bees that visited a plant more than three times per 2 h) and occasional visitors (bees that visited a plant fewer than four times per 2 h). Densities of both types of visitors increased with floral display size, whereas only occasional visitor's density increased with local flower density. 4Individual bees preferred to visit central plants within their own foraging areas, plants with larger displays, and plants with lower local flower density. However, these preferences were independent from one another. Plants with large displays were not necessarily chosen by a bee as the centre of its own foraging area. On the other hand, plants with high local flower density were often located near the centre of a bee's foraging area. 5The observed pollinator movements have implications for pollen flow in the plant population. Plants with larger displays probably experience greater mate diversity by attracting more occasional visitors, but they also assure matings with particular plants by increasing returns from regular visitors. [source]

Factors affecting the invasion success of Senecio inaequidens and S. pterophorus in Mediterranean plant communities

L. Cao
Abstract Question: Plant invasions result from complex interactions between species traits, community characteristics and environmental variations. We examined the effect of these interactions on the invasion potential of two invasive Senecio species, S. inaequidens and S. pterophorus, across three Mediterranean plant communities in a natural park. Location: Catalonia, NE Spain. Methods: We carried out two series of experimental seedling transplantations, in the spring and fall of 2003, in grassland, shrubland and Quercus ilex forest. Competition with neighbouring plants and water availability were manipulated. We evaluated the survival, growth and reproduction with respect to each treatment combination. Results: Any habitat can be colonised if disturbance occurs. In the absence of disturbance, shrubland enhanced the survival of seedlings. Competition with resident vegetation dramatically reduced survival in grassland and forest when establishment occurred in the spring. However, establishment in the fall promoted invasion in grassland and shrubland, even in the undisturbed treatment. Grassland allowed the highest growth and reproductive performance of both species while forest was the most resistant habitat to invasion. S. inaequidens had a higher growth rate and a shorter pre-reproductive period than S. pterophorus. S. pterophorus produced more biomass and was more dependent on water availability than S. inaequidens. Conclusions: In the light of our results, we recommend surveying open shrublands and grasslands after periods of rainfall. Special attention should be paid to S. pterophorus, which is currently spreading. A preliminary assessment of the invasive-ness of this plant is given in this study. [source]

The Plant's Capacity in Regulating Resource Demand

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
R. Matyssek
Abstract: Regulation of resource allocation in plants is the key to integrate understanding of metabolism and resource flux across the whole plant. The challenge is to understand trade-offs as plants balance allocation between different and conflicting demands, e.g., for staying competitive with neighbours and ensuring defence against parasites. Related hypothesis evaluation can, however, produce equivocal results. Overcoming deficits in understanding underlying mechanisms is achieved through integrated experimentation and modelling the various spatio-temporal scaling levels, from genetic control and cell metabolism towards resource flux at the stand level. An integrated, interdisciplinary research concept on herbaceous and woody plants and its outcome to date are used, while drawing attention to currently available knowledge. This assessment is based on resource allocation as driven through plant-pathogen and plant-mycorrhizosphere interaction, as well as competition with neighbouring plants in stands, conceiving such biotic interactions as a "unity" in the control of allocation. Biotic interaction may diminish or foster effects of abiotic stress on allocation, as changes in allocation do not necessarily result from metabolic re-adjustment but may obey allometric rules during ontogeny. Focus is required on host-pathogen interaction under variable resource supply and disturbance, including effects of competition and mycorrhization. Cost/benefit relationships in balancing resource investments versus gains turned out to be fundamental in quantifying competitiveness when related to the space, which is subject to competitive resource exploitation. A space-related view of defence as a form of prevention of decline in competitiveness may promote conversion of resource turnover across the different kinds of biotic interaction, given their capacity in jointly controlling whole plant resource allocation. [source]

Movement of aphid-transmitted Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) within and between sugarcane plants

A. T. Lehrer
Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) is distributed worldwide and has been shown to be the cause of the disease sugarcane yellow leaf syndrome (YLS). This study was an investigation of the transmission and spread of ScYLV in Hawaii. Several aphids are known to transmit the virus, but investigation of infestation and transmission efficiency showed Melanaphis sacchari to be the only vector important for field spread of the disease. The initial multiplication of ScYLV in a virus-free plant occurred exclusively in very young sink tissues. When a single leaf was inoculated on a plant, that leaf and all older leaves remained virus-free, based on tissue-blot immunoassay, whereas meristems and all subsequently formed new leaves became infected. Therefore, only after those leaves which had already developed before inoculation had been shed, did the complete plant contain ScYLV. Spread of the viral infection to neighbouring plants in the plantation fields via aphids was relatively slow and in the range of a few metres per year. No indication of long-distance transfer could be seen. This indicates that it may be possible to produce and use virus-free seed cane for planting of high-yielding but YLS-susceptible cultivars. [source]