Negative Image (negative + image)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Visitor and non-visitor images of Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

Howard L. Hughes
Abstract This study examines the image of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) as a holiday destination. The countries are linked by having had communist governments and being inaccessible to tourists from outside the communist bloc. Currently, they seek new tourist markets and this study examines the views of a number of UK residents about destination image of CEE. The study examines, through semi-structured interviews, images held by people who have and who have not visited CEE. The data is analysed qualitatively. Few significant differences were found between views of visitors and non-visitors; most views were positive and associated favourably with ,culture'. Negative images were usually associated with the eastern part of the area especially ex-Yugoslavia. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Barriers in initiating insulin therapy in a South Asian Muslim community

U. S. Ahmed
Diabet. Med. 27, 169,174 (2010) Abstract Aims, Insulin therapy is often required for optimal glycaemic control. Pakistani patients display reluctance to use insulin. We aimed to determine the reasons for this and to assess impressions after initiation of insulin in our patients. Methods, Patients with Type 2 diabetes attending Aga Khan Hospital were surveyed using a questionnaire detailing opinions on insulin use. This was a cross-sectional study of two groups, one with no experience with insulin use and the other who were insulin users. Results, Three hundred and seventeen patients were interviewed, 55.8% male, mean age 53.6 years. Of 210 patients who had never used insulin, 72.9% felt insulin was a measure of last resort and 45.2% thought that tolerance developed to insulin. Only 45.7% felt insulin would reduce complications, while 24% thought that insulin use would interfere with religious obligations. Thirty-four percent thought that it was difficult or very difficult to learn insulin administration, 41% felt that they could not self-inject even if absolutely necessary and 25% stated they would not use insulin in any circumstances. There was an association of lack of education with negative image of insulin usage. Among 107 patients using insulin, 52.3% were hesitant before initiation. However, 78.5% noted an improvement in glucose control and 86% said they would recommend insulin to others. Conclusions, Reluctance to use insulin prior to initiation is high, but views improve considerably after insulin initiation. Further awareness of the benefits of insulin use needs to be highlighted and the concerns of our population addressed. [source]

What I think you see is what you get: Influence of prejudice on assimilation to negative meta-stereotypes among Dutch Moroccan teenagers

Elanor Kamans
This research examined how Dutch Moroccan teenagers in the Netherlands deal with the negative stereotype that they believe the Dutch have about their group. We hypothesize that Moroccans act in line with this negative image when they are prejudiced against the Dutch and feel personally meta-stereotyped. A survey study among 88 Dutch Moroccan teenagers revealed that Moroccan teenagers who felt negative about the Dutch and thought that they were personally negatively stereotyped, expressed attitudes in line with this negative "meta-stereotype." That is, they act in line with the outgroup's negative image by legitimizing criminality, aggression, loitering teenagers, and Muslim extremism. These findings suggest that being confronted with a negative stereotype about one's group might sometimes lead to a reaction that is both harmful for the stereotyped group as well as society in general. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Undergraduate nursing students attitude to mental health nursing: a cluster analysis approach

Karla Gough
Aims., The use of cluster analysis to determine if specific groups of students could be identified based on their attitudes towards mental health nursing following the completion of a clinical experience in a mental health setting. Background., Research suggests that nursing students generally have a negative image of mental health nursing. This can be improved following clinical exposure in mental health settings, however, specific aspects of clinical experience that might facilitate attitudinal change have been under-researched. Design., Survey. Methods., A survey was administered to students (n = 703) immediately after completion of their clinical experience. Cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings within the study cohort. Results., Three distinct clusters were identified. Cluster 1 demonstrated more positive attitudes, greater confidence and viewed mental health more positively than students in the other two Clusters. They were more likely to be male, have spent at least 30 minutes per shift with a preceptor and have completed shifts of eight hours rather than seven hours. Conclusions., Attitudes to mental health nursing may be influenced by specific demographic characteristics of students and by specific aspects of their clinical experience. Relevance to clinical practice., The nursing workforce is an essential element of quality mental health service delivery. Knowledge about factors influencing more positive attitudes is important for structuring clinical experience and designing effective recruitment strategies to attract more students into this field of practice. [source]

Synthesis of photosensitive and thermosetting poly(phenylene ether) based on poly[2,6-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol- co -2,6-dimethyl-phenol] and a photoacid generator

Kazuya Matsumoto
Abstract A chemically amplified photosensitive and thermosetting polymer based on poly[2,6-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol (15 mol %)- co -2,6-dimethylphenol (85 mol %)] (3c) and a photoacid generator [(5-propylsulfonyloxyimino-5H-thiophen-2-ylidene)-(2-methylphenyl)acetonitrile] was developed. Poly[2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol]- co -2,6-dimethylphenol)] (3) with high molecular weights (number-average molecular weight , 24,000) was prepared by the oxidative coupling copolymerization of 2,6-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol with 2,6-dimethylphenol in the presence of copper(I) chloride and pyridine as the catalyst under a stream of oxygen. The structures of 3 were characterized with IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. 3 was crosslinked by a thermal treatment at 300 C for 1 h under N2. The 5% weight loss temperatures and glass-transition temperatures of the cured copolymers reached around 420 C in nitrogen and 300 C, respectively. The average refractive index of the cured copolymer (3c) film was 1.5452, from which the dielectric constant at 1 MHz was estimated to be 2.6. The resist showed a sensitivity of 35 mJ cm,2 and a contrast of 1.6 when it was exposed to 436-nm light, postexposure-baked at 145 C for 5 min, and developed with toluene at 25 C. A fine negative image featuring 8-,m line-and-space patterns was obtained on a film exposed to 100 mJ cm,2 with 436-nm light in the contact-printed mode. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 149,156, 2005 [source]

Science versus Human Welfare?

Understanding Attitudes toward Animal Use
Scientists have been portrayed as having an uncaring attitude toward the use of animals and being inclined to reject the possibility of animal mind (Baldwin, 1993; Blumberg & Wasserman, 1995), yet there is little empirical research to support these claims. We examined why disparate attitudes toward animal use are held. Scientists, animal welfarists, and laypersons (N = 372) were compared on questionnaire responses that measured attitudes toward four types of animal use, and factors that might underlie these views (including belief in animal mind). As expected, scientists and animal welfarists held polarized views on all measures, whereas laypersons fell between the two. Animal welfarists were consistently opposed to all types of animal use, whereas scientists expressed support for the use of animals for medical research, but not for dissection, personal decoration, and entertainment. Animal welfarists showed high levels of belief in animal mind for 13 animal types, and scientists believed some of the 13 animals to have at least a moderate capacity for cognition and most to have at least a moderate capacity for sentience. Hence, the negative image of the science community that is often portrayed was not supported by our data. Findings were discussed in relation to external (group membership) and internal (belief systems) factors, and it is concluded that some people hold fixed attitudes toward animal use, whereas others are more influenced by context. [source]

Physician and patient survey of allergic rhinitis in France: perceptions on prevalence, severity of symptoms, care management and specific immunotherapy

ALLERGY, Issue 8 2008
P. Demoly
Background:, Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only aetiological treatment used in allergic rhinitis (AR). A telephone survey of patients and physicians in France was carried out to understand better the real and perceived advantages and inconveniences of this therapeutic approach. Methods:, A cohort of 453 individuals with AR was selected using the Score For Allergic Rhinitis questionnaire. The survey evaluated the level of understanding of allergic rhinitis and its management, including both pharmacotherapy and SIT. A parallel survey was conducted with 400 general practitioners, allergists and nonallergist specialists. Results:, Approximately 50% of patients had heard about SIT as a therapeutic option. Of these, 56% had a positive view of SIT and 14% a negative image. A majority of patients and physicians with a positive opinion associated SIT with improved well-being and quality of life, while those with a negative opinion considered it to be a long and inconvenient treatment, with uncertain results. Over 50% of patients who had been offered SIT had accepted it and approximately 60% of these were satisfied with it. The future availability of SIT as sublingual tablets was perceived positively by both patients and physicians. Conclusions:, Many patients with AR are unaware of their pathology and few seek help from health professionals. When patients take medication, they are generally satisfied with their treatment, even if it is only symptomatic. Patients and physicians see the notion of definitive recovery as the main benefit of SIT, whereas the main disadvantage is the duration of treatment. [source]

Descriptive information about Down syndrome: a content analysis of serum screening leaflets

Louise D. Bryant
Abstract It is recommended practice that prior to prenatal screening, women receive information about the condition(s) being tested for. The present study critically evaluated information about Down syndrome as contained in 80 leaflets provided to pregnant women in the UK prior to serum screening. First, a content analysis by information type was conducted to give an overall picture of the material provided. Second, the image of the condition as conveyed by the content was analysed and compared with a similar study of cystic fibrosis (CF) screening leaflets. The majority of information (89%) was of a medico-clinical nature, with 11% addressing other issues associated with Down syndrome. The median number of sentences describing the condition was one, with 33% of the leaflets containing no descriptive information. Overall, a negative image of Down syndrome was conveyed by the leaflets, which contrasted with a more neutral image of CF in the comparison study. In order to facilitate informed choices, more attention should be paid to providing women with information about Down syndrome prior to serum screening. Such information needs to be more balanced in its construction, with thought given to the needs of the reader, and to the tone and the content of the message conveyed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Image Contrast Inversion of a Solvent Cast SEBS Film

Xia Han
Abstract The image contrast inversion was investigated in detail when soft polymeric materials were imaged with tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). Solvent cast film of polystyrene- block -poly(ethylene/butylene)- block -polystyrene (SEBS) triblock copolymers was used as a model system in this study, which showed phase separation domains with a size of several tens of nanometers. AFM contrast reversal process, through positive image, to an intermediary and till negative image, could be clearly seen in height images of the soft block copolymer using different tapping force. The higher tapping force would lead to not only contrast inversion, but also the different size of the microdomains and different roughness of the images. Moreover, contrast inversion was explained on the basis of attractive and repulsive contributions to the tip-sample interaction and indentation of the soft domains. [source]

Toward Improved Public Confidence in Farmed Fish Quality: A Canadian Perspective on the Consequences of Diet Selection

Anthony P. Farrell
Marine fish oils (MFO) are used in salmon diets to mimic the natural diet, to ensure that essential fatty acid requirements for good fish growth and health are met, and to provide salmon flesh with an omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content that can benefit human health. However, an extensive use of MFO in formulated salmonid diets is perceived as an unsustainable use of wild marine fish stocks. In addition, MFOs have a background level of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) unrelated to aquaculture practices. This review considers recently completed studies using alternative lipid sources of terrestrial origin as replacements for MFO and shows that the composition of conventional finfish diets can be altered to reduce the reliance on MFO while concurrently maintaining fish health as well as reducing background levels of POPs. A challenge still ahead is the need for a concerted and sustained outreach to ensure that the public is aware of such improvements to seafood quality so that the preoccupation of the news media with presenting negative images of fish culture to the public is combated. [source]

Tahiti Intertwined: Ancestral Land, Tourist Postcard, and Nuclear Test Site

Miriam Kahn
In this article, I apply ideas from Foucault, Lefebvre, and Soja about thirdspace, or space beyond dualisms, to an understanding of'Tahiti" as a complex, intertwined place. For most Tahitians, a sense of place is rooted in land, which individuals describe as a nurturing mother. Genealogical ties to land define personal identities and social relationships. For the world at large, however, the perception of Tahiti is based on seductive, mass-mediated, touristic images. The perpeiuation of these images, whose origins go back two-hundred years, has become increasingly enmeshed in the economic and political agendas of the French colonial government. The resumption of nuclear testing in French Polynesia in 1995-96 and the subsequent rioting by Tahitians, which disseminated negative images throughout the world, provide a setting for an analysis of Tahiti that moves beyond dualisms. Tahiti is understood instead as an intertwined thirdspace, equally real and imagined, immediate and mediated, [place, colonialism, imagery, tourism, nuclear testing] [source]