Negative Health Effects (negative + health_effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A dynamic process convolution approach to modeling ambient particulate matter concentrations

Catherine A. Calder
Abstract Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air have been shown to be associated with certain adverse human health effects. As a result, monitoring networks that track PM levels have been established across the United States. Some of the older monitors measure PM less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10), while the newer monitors track PM levels less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5); it is now believed that this fine component of PM is more likely to be related to the negative health effects associated with PM. We propose a bivariate dynamic process convolution model for PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. Our aim is to extract information about PM2.5 from PM10 monitor readings using a latent variable approach and to provide better space-time interpolations of PM2.5 concentrations compared to interpolations made using only PM2.5 monitoring information. We illustrate the approach using PM2.5 and PM10 readings taken across the state of Ohio in 2000. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mitigating on-call symptoms through organizational justice and job control: a cross-sectional study among Finnish anesthesiologists

Background: On-call duty has been shown to be associated with health problems among physicians. However, it cannot be abolished, as patient safety has to be assured. Thus, we need to find factors that could mitigate the negative health effects of on-call duty. Methods: The cross-sectional questionnaire of the buffering effects of organizational justice, job control, and social support on on-call stress symptoms was sent to all working Finnish anesthesiologists (n=550). Results: The response rate was 60% (n=328, 53% men). High organizational justice, job control, and social support were associated with a low number of symptoms while on call or the day after in crude analysis and when adjusted for age, gender, and place of work. Only the association between justice and symptoms was robust to additional adjustments for on-call burden and self-rated health. In the interaction analysis among those being on call at the hospital, we found that the higher the levels of job control or organizational justice, the lower the number of symptoms. Conclusions: Job control and organizational justice successfully mitigated stress symptoms among those who had on-call hospital duties. It would be worth enhancing decision-making procedures, interpersonal treatment, and job control routines when aiming to prevent on-call stress and related symptoms. [source]

Migration of mercury from dental amalgam through human teeth

Hugh H. Harris
Exposure to mercury from dental amalgams, with possible negative health effects, has generally been considered to occur via either erosion or evaporation directly from the surface of fillings, followed by ingestion. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the direct migration of mercury through the tooth as an alternative exposure pathway. X-ray fluorescence imaging has been used to determine quantitatively the spatial distribution of Hg, Ca, Zn and Cu in sections of human teeth that had been filled with amalgam for more than 20 years. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was also employed to gain chemical information on the mercury present in the teeth. Hg (up to ,10,mg,g,1) and Zn (>100,mg,g,1) were detected in the teeth several millimetres from the location of the amalgams. At high resolution, Hg showed higher concentrations in dentinal tubules while Zn was generally evenly distributed. XANES showed that the chemical form of Hg that had migrated into the tooth had been altered from that present in the amalgam. The differing spatial distributions of Hg and Zn suggest distinct transport mechanisms for the two metals, presumably chemical for Zn and initially physical for Hg. Subsequent oxidation of Hg may lead to a loss of mobility or the development of a secondary transport mechanism. Most importantly the detection of Hg in areas of the tooth that once contained an active bloodstream and in calculus indicates that both exposure pathways should be considered as significant. [source]

Cover Picture , Mol.

This special issue covers various properties of arsenic: how arsenic enters into the food chain, how it may exert its toxicity, and to what extent protein expression is influenced by arsenic exposure. In addition to these negative health effects, the issue reports about arsenics use as a medicine, also covering its anticancer activity. [source]

Moralising geographies: stigma, smoking islands and responsible subjects

AREA, Issue 4 2007
Lee Thompson
As the long-term negative health effects of continued smoking have become more obvious, smoking cessation has become a key focus of government attention across the developed world. Smoking cessation programmes have had mixed outcomes, with rates of smoking in certain socio-economically disadvantaged and ethnic minority groups remaining high. The increasing stigmatisation of those who continue to smoke, coupled with the spatial segregation of poor and minority populations, may compound to produce ,smoking islands' that may serve to reinforce rather than discourage continued smoking. This paper examines practices of compliance and resistance by disadvantaged smokers and ex-smokers to strategies of biopower. [source]

Is fertility reduced among men exposed to radiofrequency fields in the Norwegian Navy?

Ole J. Møllerløkken
Abstract The effects of radiofrequency fields on human health are not well understood, and public concern about negative health effects has been rising. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between workers exposed to electromagnetic fields and their reproductive health. We obtained data using a questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of naval military men, response rate 63% (n,=,1487). We asked the respondents about exposure, lifestyle, reproductive health, previous diseases, work and education. An expert group categorized the work categories related to electromagnetic field exposure. We categorized the work categories "tele/communication," "electronics" and "radar/sonar" as being exposed to electromagnetic fields. Logistic regression adjusted for age, ever smoked, military education, and physical exercise at work showed increased risk of infertility among tele/communication odds ratio (OR,=,1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.04,2.85), and radar/sonar odds ratio (OR,=,2.28, 95% confidence interval 1.27,4.09). The electronics group had no increased risk. This study shows a possible relationship between exposure to radiofrequency fields during work with radiofrequency equipment and radar and reduced fertility. However, the results must be interpreted with caution. Bioelectromagnetics 29:345,352, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comprehensive Review of Patulin Control Methods in Foods

Matthew M. Moake
ABSTRACT The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo [3, 2c] pyran-2[6H]-one), is produced by a number of fungi common to fruit- and vegetable-based products, most notably apples. Despite patulin's original discovery as an antibiotic, it has come under heavy scrutiny for its potential negative health effects. Studies investigating these health effects have proved inconclusive, but there is little doubt as to the potential danger inherent in the contamination of food products by patulin. The danger posed by patulin necessitates its control and removal from foods products, creating a demand for handling and processing techniques capable of doing so, preferably at low cost to industry. With this being the case, much research has been devoted to understanding the basic chemical and biological nature of patulin, as well as its interaction within foods and food production. While past resarch has elucidated a great deal, patulin contamination continues to be a challenge for athe food industry. Here, we review in depth the past research on patulin with an emphasis upon its influence within the food industry, including its regulation, health effects, biosynthesis, detection, quantification, distribution within foods, and control, during the various stages of apple juice production. Finally, key areas where future patulin research should focus to best control the patulin contamination problem within the food industry are addressed. [source]