Negative Groups (negative + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Paucity of enkephalin production in neostriatal striosomal neurons: analysis with preproenkephalin,green fluorescent protein transgenic mice

Yoshinori Koshimizu
Abstract Whether or not the striosome compartment of the neostriatum contained preproenkephalin (PPE)-expressing neurons remained unresolved. To address this question by developing a sensitive detection method, we generated transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the specific transcriptional control of the PPE gene. Eight transgenic lines were established, and three of them showed GFP expression which was distributed in agreement with the reported localization of PPE mRNA in the central nervous system. Furthermore, in the matrix compartment of the neostriatum of the three lines, intense GFP immunoreactivity was densely distributed in the neuronal cell bodies and neuropil, and matrix neurons displayed > 94% co-localization for GFP and PPE immunoreactivities. In sharp contrast, GFP immunoreactivity was very weak in the striosome compartment, which was characterized by intense immunoreactivity for mu-opioid receptors (MOR). Although neostriatal neurons were divided into GFP-immunopositive and -negative groups in both the striosome and matrix compartments, GFP immunoreactivity of cell bodies was much weaker (,1/5) in GFP-positive striosomal neurons than in GFP-positive matrix neurons. A similar reciprocal organization of PPE and MOR expression was also suggested in the ventral striatum, because GFP immunoreactivity was weaker in intensely MOR-immunopositive regions than in the surrounding MOR-negative regions. As PPE-derived peptides are endogenous ligands for MOR in the neostriatum and few axon collaterals of matrix neurons enter the striosome compartment, the present results raised the question of the target of those peptides produced abundantly by matrix neurons. [source]

Respiratory Changes in Vasovagal Syncope

Respiratory Changes in Vasovagal Syncope. introduction: Respiratory changes accompany the cardiovascular changes during head-up. tilt test-induced vasovagal syncope. Methods and Results: Using the 45-minute 60 head-up Westminster protocol, 29 patients were studied (mean age 53.9 20.0 years; 19 females). Two groups resulted: tilt-induced vasovagal syncope positive and negative. The cardiorespiratory parameters blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), tidal volume, and minute volume were measured. Comparisons of the cardiorespiratory parameters were made within the positive group and negative group, and then between the two groups. There were 14 in the positive group and 15 in the negative group. Baseline measurements were normalized to 1.0. Comparing the late tilt periods between the positive and negative groups, there were differences in BP (P < 0.002), HR (P < 0.002), tidal volume (P < 0.05), and minute volume (P < 0.002). In the positive group comparing early with late intervals: BP l.11 0.09 versus 0.49 0.17, P < 0.0001; HR 1.18 0.12 versus 0.85 0.35, P < 0.009; tidal volume 1.39 0.34 versus 2.17 1.00, P < 0.015; and minute volume 1.24 0.26 versus 3.3 2.03, P < 0.0025. There were no comparable cardiorespiratory changes in the negative group. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the respiratory and cardiovascular parameters measured between those who were positive and those who were negative for tilt-induced vasovagal syncope. Within the positive group, in addition to the falls in HR and BP, there were significant increases in minute volume and tidal volume during late tilt. This suggests that there may be a role for respiratory sensors in vasovagal syncope that may permit earlier and hence possibly more effective therapy for selected patients. [source]

Helicobacter pylori infection detected by 14C-Urea breath test is associated with iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women

s Mulayim
Abstract Aims:, To determine whether there is a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, iron deficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia in pregnant women. Methods:, Hemoglobin and ferritin levels and platelet counts of pregnant women were measured during the third trimester. H. pylori infection was determined using a 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) after delivery. Statistical analyses were determined with a Mann,Whitney U -test and the ,2 test. Statistical significance was determined with a P -value less than .05. Results:, Seventy-two of 117 women had positive results on the 14C-UBT. Overall, 27 of 117 pregnant women had anemia (23.1%), and all them were in the H. pylori -positive group; 18 of 27 (66.7%) had iron deficiency anemia. Median hemoglobin levels and neonatal body weights were 12.0 g/dL vs 12.0 g/dL and 3320.0 grams vs 3520.0 grams in the H. pylori -positive and negative groups, respectively. Serum hemoglobin and ferritin levels and neonatal body weight were found to be lower in the anemic group compared with the non-anemic group among H. pylori -infected women (P = 0.0001, P = 0.02, P = 0.008, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences with regard to gestational thrombocytopenia between the H. pylori -positive and H. pylori -negative groups (P = 0.532). Conclusions:, Our study indicates that there is a strong relationship between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia in women with uncomplicated pregnancy. However, an association between H. pylori infection and thrombocytopenia was not found. [source]

Oral parafunctions and association with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Japanese university students

R. Miyake
summary, We examined whether oral parafunctions are associated with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in 3557 Japanese university students, aged between 18 and 26 years. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding various oral parafunctions and subjective symptoms related to TMD, and underwent a dental examination. The prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) noise, TMJ pain and impaired mouth opening was 417, 160 and 163%, respectively. The most prevalent parafunction was sleeping on one side (602%), followed by supporting the jaw by leaning on the palm of the hand (448%). Mean age, decayed, missing and filled teeth, and number of teeth were not significantly different between TMD positive and negative groups according to unpaired t -test. The chi-squared test revealed that the ratio of females was significantly higher among students with TMD than without TMD. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender demonstrated that chewing on one side caused an increased risk of TMJ noise [odds ratio (OR) = 152, P < 0001], TMJ pain (OR = 154, P < 0001), and impaired mouth opening (OR = 200, P < 0001). Tooth clenching also increased the risk of TMJ noise (OR = 186, P < 0001), TMJ pain (OR = 179, P = 0001) and impaired mouth opening (OR = 188, P < 0001). Further prospective cohort studies, including other potential risk factors, are required to clarify these relationships. [source]

Dysfunction of oesophageal motility in Helicobacter pylori -infected patients with reflux oesophagitis

J. C. Y. Wu
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to be protective against gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. However, a significant proportion of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are infected by H. pylori. Aim: To study oesophageal motor function in H. pylori -infected patients with reflux oesophagitis. Methods: Patients with erosive reflux oesophagitis were recruited prospectively for stationary oesophageal manometry and 24-h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring. H. pylori status was determined by biopsy urease test. Non-reflux volunteers were recruited as controls. Results: Seventy-four patients with erosive oesophagitis (34 H. pylori -positive, 40 H. pylori -negative) and 48 non-reflux patient controls (22 H. pylori -positive, 26 H. pylori -negative) were recruited. There was no difference in severity of oesophagitis (median grade, 1; P=0.53) or oesophageal acid exposure (total percentage time oesophageal pH < 4, 7.6% vs. 6.8%; P=0.57) between H. pylori -positive and H. pylori -negative groups. Compared to H. pylori -negative patients, H. pylori -positive patients had significantly lower basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (12.2 mmHg vs. 15.3 mmHg; P=0.03) and amplitude of distal peristalsis (56.9 mmHg vs. 68.4 mmHg; P=0.03). Ineffective oesophageal motility (14% vs. 7%; P=0.02) and failed oesophageal peristalsis were also significantly more prevalent in H. pylori -positive patients. Conclusions: Among patients with a similar degree of reflux oesophagitis, H. pylori -infected patients have more severe oesophageal dysmotility and lower oesophageal sphincter dysfunction. Oesophageal motor dysfunction probably plays a dominant role in the development of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in patients with H. pylori infection. [source]

Is Helicobacter pylori related to endothelial dysfunction during childhood?

Senol Coskun
Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been proposed to have a role in the development of atherosclerosis preceded by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between H. pylori infection in childhood and endothelial dysfunction and level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods: Between October 2003 and November 2004, 28 subjects who were anti- H. pylori IgG-positive and 25 who were anti- H. pylori IgG-negative were included in the study. Mean ages of the H. pylori -positive and negative groups were not significantly different. Endothelial functions were evaluated on Doppler ultrasonography of the brachial artery. Percent ratio of the change in systolic diameter during hyperemic phase to the basal diameter was evaluated. Each subject's serum was tested for hsCRP, homocysteine and lipids. Results: Percent ratio of the change in systolic diameters during hyperemic phase to the basal diameter was not significantly different between the H. pylori -negative and -positive groups (P > 0.29). Mean levels of hsCRP were also not significantly different (1.48 1.8 g/dL vs 2.35 3.33 g/dL; P > 0.24). Similarly, serum levels of lipids and homocysteine were not significantly different (P > 0.05 for all lipids). Conclusions: Non-invasive techniques used in the present study were not indicative of early findings of atherosclerosis in H. pylori infection during childhood. Further studies are required to evaluate the relationship between early endothelial dysfunction and H. pylori infection in children with cardiovascular risk factors. [source]

Increased incidence of autoantibodies to interleukin-1, in rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease

RESPIROLOGY, Issue 4 2000
Koji Maniwa
Objective: To clarify the clinical significance of autoantibodies (auto-Ab) to interleukin-1, (IL-1,) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with interstitial lung disease (ILD), we examined the IL-1, auto-Ab level in serum of patients with RA with/without ILD. Methodology: We investigated the level of IL-1, auto-Ab in serum of 70 patients with RA with/without ILD and 40 control patients (CP). Levels of IL-1, auto-Ab were measured by radioimmunoassay, and serum was regarded as IL-1, auto-Ab positive at an auto-Ab level of more than 5 ng/mL. Results: Interleukin-1, auto-Ab was detected in the serum of 30 out of 70 RA patients (42.9%), and six out of 40 CP (15%) (P < 0.05). Interleukin-1, auto-Ab were detected in the serum of 18 out of 32 patients with RA with ILD (56.2%) and 12 out of 38 patients with RA without ILD (31.5%). The positive rate of these autoantibodies in RA with ILD was significantly higher than that in RA without ILD (P < 0.05). Although C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin G, rheumatoid factor and rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination levels in serum from patients with RA with ILD were not significantly different between the IL-1, auto-Ab-positive and -negative groups, the lactate dehydrogenase level (LDH) and AaDO2 in the IL-1, auto-Ab-positive group were significantly higher than those in the negative group (LDH: P < 0.001, AaDO2: P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that IL-1, auto-Ab are generated in response to the immuno-inflammatory process of ILD in RA, and these autoantibodies may neutralize and regulate the IL-1, activity. [source]

Outcome Analysis of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck and Hepatitis C Virus,

Jason Hunt MD
Abstract Objective/Hypothesis: Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global problem with over 170 million people infected. Recently, we have noticed that a large number of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have also been diagnosed with HCV. A review of the literature reveals little information concerning this patient population. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of SCCHN patients who have been exposed to HCV with nave SCCHN patients. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: A retrospective chart review from June 1991 through December 2002 was performed to identify patients diagnosed with SCCHN who were screened for HCV. Patients were stratified into two groups (HCV positive and HCV negative). Data were recorded on patients for status of disease at last clinic visit, pretreatment serum albumin and hematocrit levels, and RNA quantities of HCV. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test to compare serum albumin and hematocrit levels. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare outcomes. The log-rank test was used to determine significance. Cox regression was used to examine the association of prognostic predictor variables with overall survival and disease-free survival. Results: There was no difference noted in 5 year survival between hepatitis C positive and hepatitis C negative groups in overall outcomes (66.7% vs. 67.9%, P = 1.000) or 5 year disease-free survival (90.5% vs. 80.8%, P = .514). The two groups, HCV positive versus HCV negative, also had similar serum albumin levels (3.62 g/dL vs. 3.72 g/dL, P = .37) as well as serum hematocrit levels (42.9% vs. 41.0%, P = .12). Serum levels of hepatitis C RNA were obtained in seven patients, with only one being undetectable. The only prognostic predictor variable that was significantly associated with overall survival was age. None of the predictor variables were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Conclusion: Co-infection with HCV, although prevalent in the Veterans Administration Hospital population, did not affect patient outcome as defined by disease-free survival. Patients who were seropositive for HCV had comparable serum albumin levels as well as serum hematocrit when compared with HCV negative patients. [source]

Lack of association between amplification of her-2 and response to preoperative taxanes in patients with breast carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 2 2004
Ana M. Gonzalez-Angulo M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The objective of the current study was to determine whether her-2 amplification was associated with a pathologic response to preoperative chemotherapy with taxanes in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. METHODS The authors evaluated 71 patients treated for AJCC Stage II and III breast carcinoma with preoperative taxanes whose tissue specimens were still available. Fifty-seven patients (80%) had received paclitaxel and 14 (20%) had received docetaxel (4 cycles of either drug). Amplification of the her-2 gene was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS The median patient age was 49 years (range, 21,70 years). Forty-eight patients (68%) had Stage II breast carcinoma and 23 (32%) had Stage III disease. her-2 gene amplification was detected in 19 tumor specimens (28%). Hormone receptors (estrogen and/or progesterone) were detected in 11 her-2,positive tumor specimens (58%) and in 31 her-2,negative tumor specimens (85%). Eight pathologic complete responses (pCR; breast and axillary lymph nodes) occurred, 3 (16%) in patients with her-2,positive tumor specimens and five (10%) in patients with her-2,negative tumor specimens (P = 0.68). Twelve patients achieved pCR in the breast, 5 (26%) in patients with her-2,positive tumors and 7 (15%) in patients with her-2,negative tumors (P = 0.3). At a median follow-up of 61 months, none of the patients with a pCR developed recurrent disease, regardless of their her-2 status. The progression-free and overall survival rates were similar in both HER-2,positive and her-2,negative groups (P = 0.45 and P = 0.14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS her-2 gene amplification was not found to be predictive of a pathologic response to preoperative taxanes in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma. Cancer 2004. 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

Longitudinal validity and responsiveness of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire , Parent Form in children 0,12 years following positive and negative food challenges

A. DunnGalvin
Summary Background There are no published studies of longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments of food-allergic children using a disease-specific measure. Objective This study assessed the longitudinal measurement properties of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire , Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) in a sample of children undergoing food challenge. Methods Parents of children 0,12 years completed the FAQLQ-PF and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) pre-challenge and at 2 and 6 months post food challenge. In order to evaluate longitudinal validity, differences between Group A (positive challenge) and Group B (negative challenge) were expected over time. We computed correlation coefficients between change scores in the FAQLQ-PF and change scores in the FAIM. To determine the minimally important difference (MID), we used distributional criterion and effect size approaches. A logistic regression model profiled those children falling below this point. Results Eighty-two children underwent a challenge (42 positive; 40 negative). Domains and total score improved significantly at pos-challenge time-points for both groups (all P<0.05). Sensitivity was demonstrated by significant differences between positive and negative groups at 6 months [F(2, 59)=6.221, P<0.003] and by differing improvement on relevant subscales (P<0.05). MID was 0.45 on a seven-point response scale. Poorer quality of life at baseline increased the odds by over 2.0 of no improvement in HRQL scores 6-month time-point. General maternal health (OR 1.252), number of foods avoided (OR 1.369) and children >9 years (OR 1.173) were also predictors. The model correctly identified 84% of cases below MID. Conclusion The FAQLQ-PF is sensitive to change, and has excellent longitudinal reliability and validity in a food-allergic patient population. The standard error of measurement value of 0.5 points as a threshold for meaningful change in HRQL questionnaires was confirmed. The FAQLQ-PF may be used to identify problems in children, to assess the effectiveness of clinical trials or interventions, and to guide the development of regulatory policies. Cite this as: A. DunnGalvin, C. Cullinane, D. A. Daly, B. M. J. Flokstra-de Blok, A. E. J. Dubois and J. O'B. Hourihane, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2010 (40) 476,485. [source]