Negative Expectancies (negative + expectancy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The influence of cultural orientation, alcohol expectancies and self-efficacy on adolescent drinking behavior in Beijing

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
Duane F. Shell
ABSTRACT Objective We hypothesized that the drinking behavior of adolescents in China is influenced by expectancies and self-efficacy and that adolescents' cultural orientation towards western versus traditional Chinese values influences expectancies, self-efficacy and drinking behavior, with western values leading to more dysfunctional patterns of beliefs and drinking, and that these beliefs are influenced by students' gender and school environment. Methods A total of 1020 high school students from Beijing completed the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy, the Chinese Cultural Orientation and the Chinese Self-regulation Self-efficacy questionnaires. Results Results generally confirmed our hypotheses. Higher negative expectancies and higher self-efficacy reduced the likelihood of drinking significantly. Higher positive expectancies increased the likelihood of regular drinking but not occasional drinking. Having western cultural orientation increased the likelihood of drinking. Higher levels of western cultural orientation also increased positive expectancies, lowered negative expectancies and lowered self-efficacy. Having more western (less traditional) views towards traditional Chinese values decreased positive and negative expectancies. Gender influenced beliefs, with males having higher positive and lower negative expectancies, lower self-efficacy and more traditional cultural orientation. Students in key and general schools had less traditional cultural orientation and key school students had higher self-efficacy. Conclusions Results indicate that cultural orientation influences adolescent drinking and this influence is mediated partially through cultural orientation influences on adolescent drinking expectancies and self-efficacy. Having more western and less traditional Chinese cultural orientation leads to more drinking, lower self-efficacy for regulating drinking and more risk-promoting alcohol expectancies. [source]

Holding onto power: effects of powerholders' positional instability and expectancies on interactions with subordinates

John Georgesen
This study explores the effects of power, positional threat, and expectancies on interactions between powerholders and subordinates. Two hundred and forty-two participants were randomly assigned to power role (boss or employee). Bosses were further randomly assigned to levels of positional threat (power role secure or insecure) and expectancy regarding subordinates' problem-solving ability (negative or positive). Evidence for a self-fulfilling prophecy was obtained, such that dyads where bosses held negative expectancies of their subordinates rated the subordinate and experience most negatively and awarded less potential prize money to the subordinates. Expectancy interacted with positional threat in a consistent manner such that the most negative effects were obtained for dyads where bosses were both positionally threatened and held negative expectancies of subordinates. Implications for theories of power are discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Predictors of Alcohol Attitudes and Expectancies in Hispanic National Groups

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
Britain A. Mills
Background:, Multiple theoretical frameworks identify attitudes and expectancies as important predictors of alcohol behavior. Few studies have examined demographic predictors of these evaluative and belief-based cognitive mediators in the general population, and none have examined them in large-scale studies of Hispanics, a group at higher risk for drinking behavior and problems. This study probes the extent to which dimensions of attitudes and expectancies share common demographic predictors in a large sample of Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and South/Central Americans. Methods:, The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS) used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals randomly selected from households in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. This study focused on 2,773 respondents self-identified as current drinkers. Multiple linear regression was used to identify predictors of positive and negative dimensions of attitudes and expectancies, controlling for various background variables. Results:, Religious affiliation selectively predicted alcohol attitudes, with Catholics having more positive and fewer negative attitudes than other religious groups. Hispanic group selectively predicted alcohol expectancies, with Cuban-Americans having less positive and less negative expectancies than other groups. Being U.S.-born or male predicted more positive attitudes and expectancies, but birthplace and gender did not predict negative dimensions of attitudes or expectancies. Higher acculturation and more education were linked to a decreased tendency to agree with any item. Age was positively and negatively associated with negative expectancies and positive attitudes, respectively, and having never been married, higher income, and unemployment were each linked to fewer negative attitudes. Conclusions:, Although there is some overlap, attitudes and expectancies are influenced by different sociodemographic variables. Positive and negative dimensions of those constructs also show distinct patterns of relations. Prevention and treatment programs targeting cognitive mediators of behavior should be mindful of these differential determinants and future modeling endeavors should incorporate them. [source]

Outcome Expectancies and Risk Behaviors in Maltreated Adolescents

Patrick Nickoletti
This study examined positive and negative outcome expectancies for risk behaviors, and their association with engagement in risk behaviors, in a sample of 149 maltreated adolescents. "Outcome Expectancies" are evaluative social cognitions about what will occur as a consequence of one's actions. Risk behaviors and outcome expectancies for substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency were assessed. In all regression models, positive expectancies were significantly related to risk behaviors while negative expectancies, with one exception, were not significantly related. In three of four regression models, significant interactions were found between positive and negative expectancies in predicting risk behaviors. The nature of the interaction differed by type of risk behavior. Beyond demonstrating associations between outcome expectancies and risk behaviors in a maltreated sample, this paper contributes to the study of social information processing by demonstrating significant interactions between positive and negative expectancies. [source]

Examining predictors and consequences of information seeking in close relationships

Walid A. Afifi
The management of information in close relationships plays a critical role in our well-being (e.g., S. Petronio, 2002). Since relational partners often desire to be "in the know" about one another, the relative absence of inquiry into the process of information seeking in close relationships is puzzling. Recently, W. Ickes, J. W. Dugosh, J. A. Simpson, and C. L. Wilson (2003) examined that process and showed important ways in which the motivation to acquire relationship-threatening information may be harmful to relationships. We extend their work and apply the newly developed Theory of Motivated Information Management (W. A. Afifi, & Weiner, 2004) to close relationships. In addition, we test the consequences of information seeking for short-term changes in relationship commitment. Two hundred and twenty-two participants thought of something that their relational partner did or said for which they wanted more information, then completed 2 surveys, 3 weeks apart, measuring cognitive and behavioral factors related to the information-management process. Results reveal several factors that influence the seeking of information in close relationships (e.g., issue importance, anxiety, expected outcomes, and perceived efficacy), show benefits of an indirect search for information in the face of negative expectancies, and suggest several directions for future research. [source]