Negative Emotional States (negative + emotional_states)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Emotional issues after kidney transplantation: a prospective psychotherapeutic study

Lyndsay S Baines
Abstract:,Background:, Negative emotional states are the single most influential factor in determining quality of life after a successful kidney transplant. We designed a prospective study using psychotherapeutic principles to understand and intervene in emotional issues in adult recipients of first cadaver kidney transplants. Methods:, Forty-nine recipients of first cadaver kidney transplants were subjected to 12 sessions (at weekly intervals) of psychotherapy within 3 months of receiving their transplant. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was utilized as a measure of change in emotional state, pretherapy, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. A higher score on BDI was suggestive of psychological dysfunction. In the first instance, data was analysed within a quantitative framework, by virtue of the BDI. In the second instance, data was considered in terms of recurring themes described by patients during psychotherapy and was analysed qualitatively. In the third instance, both qualitative and quantitative data was considered in terms of individual patient's ability to achieve some feeling of having implemented some social, relational and vocational equilibrium into their everyday life. Recipients of live kidneys, paediatric transplants and patients who received more than one transplant were excluded, as emotional issues are different in this cohort of patients. All patients have completed 1 yr of follow up. None of the patients were on antidepressant medication before or after therapy. Results:, This is an ongoing study in which we are comparing individual vs. group therapy vs. controls (who receive no therapy). The total number of patients recruited will be 120 and the final report will be available in 2003,04. The results reported in this paper form the 49 patients in the individual arm of the study. All the patients in our study happened to be white people. There was significant improvement in the BDI scores following therapy. The mean score was 26.3 7.9 before and 20.5 8.8 after therapy (p = 0.001); the lowering of the scores remained sustained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis of age, gender, employment status, duration of dialysis (if in dialysis for more than 3 yrs) and psychotherapy given before transplantation did not affect the results of our study. For the qualitative aspect of the study, we grouped the emotional problems as expressed by the patients into three recurring themes (i) fear of rejection, (ii) feelings of paradoxical loss post-transplant despite having received a successful transplant and (iii) the psychological integration of the newly acquired kidney. Conclusions:, Psychotherapeutic intervention was an effective means of addressing emotional problems in recipients of kidney transplants. The recurring themes as identified above provided a baseline for psychotherapeutic exploration and resolution of these issues. Successful resolution of these issues was associated with lower BDI scores and the redefinition of normality in daily living post-transplant. [source]

The effect of stopping smoking on perceived stress levels

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
Peter Hajek
ABSTRACT Aims Many smokers believe that smoking helps them to cope with stress, and that stopping smoking would deprive them of an effective stress management tool. Changes in stress levels following long-term smoking cessation are not well mapped. This longitudinal project was designed to provide more robust data on post-cessation changes in perceived stress levels by following a cohort of smokers admitted to hospital after myocardial infarction (MI) or for coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery, as such patients typically achieve higher continuous abstinence rates than other comparable samples. Design A total of 469 smokers hospitalized after MI or CAB surgery and wanting to stop smoking were seen in the hospital and completed 1-year follow-ups. Ratings of helpfulness of smoking in managing stress at baseline, smoking status (validated by salivary cotinine concentration) and ratings of perceived stress at baseline and at 1-year follow-up were collected. Findings Of the patients, 41% (n = 194) maintained abstinence for 1 year. Future abstainers and future smokers did not differ in baseline stress levels or in their perception of coping properties of smoking. However, abstainers recorded a significantly larger decrease in perceived stress than continuing smokers, and the result held when possible confounding factors were controlled for (P < 0.001). Conclusions In highly dependent smokers who report that smoking helps them cope with stress, smoking cessation is associated with lowering of stress. Whatever immediate effects smoking may have on perceived stress, overall it may generate or aggravate negative emotional states. The results provide reassurance to smokers worried that stopping smoking may deprive them of a valuable coping resource. [source]

REVIEW: Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: are they linked?

Markus Heilig
ABSTRACT The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A ,self-medication' framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol-dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3,6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: (1) are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence?; (2) is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal?; and (3) to what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? [source]

A comparison study of career satisfaction and emotional states between primary care and speciality residents

Donald E Girard
Objective, To evaluate career satisfaction, emotional states and positive and negative experiences among residents in primary care and speciality programmes in 1 academic medical centre prior to the implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) duty hour requirements. Design, Cross-sectional survey. Measurements, All 581 residents in the academic health centre were asked to participate voluntarily in a confidential survey; 327(56%) completed the survey. Results, Compared to their primary care colleagues, speciality residents had higher levels of satisfaction with career choice, feelings of competence and excitement, lower levels of inferiority and fatigue and different perceptions of positive and negative training experiences. However, 77% of all respondents were consistently or generally pleased with their career choices. The most positive residents' experiences related to interpersonal relationships and their educational value; the most negative experiences related to interpersonal relationships and issues perceived to be outside of residents' control. Age and training level, but not gender also influenced career satisfaction, emotional states and positive and negative opinions about residency. Conclusions, Less satisfaction with career choice and more negative emotional states for primary care residents compared to speciality residents probably relate to the training experience and may influence medical students' selections of careers. The primary care residents, compared to speciality residents, appear to have difficulty in fulfilling their ideals of professionalism in an environment where they have no control. These data provide baseline information with which to compare these same factors after the implementation of the ACGME duty hours' and competency requirements. [source]