Negative Direction (negative + direction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Characteristics of Subtractive Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Lead, Cadmium and Thallium at Silver-Gold Alloy Electrodes

Y. Bonfil
Abstract Silver-gold alloy electrodes have been studied for the purpose of the quantitative determination of heavy metals by subtractive anodic stripping voltammetry, (SASV). The results have been compared with those obtained with the silver and gold electrodes. The 50/50 a/o Ag/Au alloy electrode is the most suitable for quantifying thallium in the presence of lead and cadmium. The separation of its peak from those of lead and cadmium is 200,mV, which is about twice the separation obtained on the pure metal electrodes and is also better than on mercury. The silver electrode is suitable for the simultaneous determination of thallium, lead and cadmium. The peaks of lead and cadmium overlap on the 50/50 alloy. Pure silver or pure gold can be used for simultaneous quantification of these two metals. The use of gold for quantifying lead and cadmium is more limited because the peak potential of cadmium is shifted in the negative direction as its concentration increases and at [Cd2+]>200,nM, the two peaks merge. SASV enables correction for background currents and is of utmost importance for obtaining well-defined peaks. The peaks of lead, cadmium and thallium appear over a relatively narrow potential range (ca. 200,mV) on all the electrodes presented in this work. For this reason, the quantifying of a peak is based on the derivative at the inflection point of only one of its branches (ascending or descending). All SASV measurements were carried out without removal of oxygen. [source]

Electrical penetration graphs of the nymphal stage of Bemisia argentifolii

Y.X. Jiang
Abstract Electrical penetration graph (EPG, DC system) waveforms were recorded from first, second, and third instar Bemisia argentifolii nymphs. Waveforms recorded were similar among the three instars. Four waveforms were recorded and were named C, J, L, and H. Waveform J is new, whereas waveforms C, L, and H of B. argentifolii nymphs were similar to those published previously from greenhouse whitefly nymphs. As in the previous study on greenhouse whitefly nymphs, there was variation in each of waveforms C, L, and H. Waveform C was recorded at an extracellular voltage level, and represents a pathway phase where the stylets penetrate the plant tissue in an intercellular pathway. At the end of waveform C, the voltage dropped to an intracellular level, indicating penetration of a living cell, and the stylet tips then remained in that cell for the rest of the EPG recording, which was sometimes as long as 16 h. Three waveforms (J, L, and H) were recorded during this intracellular phase, beginning with J, a brief (average = 31 s), low amplitude, irregular waveform. J appeared only at the beginning of the intracellular phase, and was followed by either L (five out of eight times) or H (three out of eight times). Waveforms L and H then alternated with one another for the remainder of the intracellular phase. The most conspicuous difference between L and H was the frequency of their voltage fluctuations; L had a lower frequency and H a higher frequency. Usually the shape of waveform L was dominated by voltage peaks in a positive direction, while waveform H was characterized by strong voltage peaks in a negative direction; although some variants of both L and H had distinct voltage peaks in both directions. The electrical origin of both the positive and negative voltage peaks was electromotive force (emf) fluctuation rather than resistance fluctuation. During waveform H, copious amounts of honeydew were produced, indicating that the penetrated cell was a sieve element. We conclude, therefore, that H represents phloem sap ingestion; and because J and L are produced in the same cell as H, then phloem phase is represented by waveforms J, L, and H. The biological correlations for J and L are not yet known. [source]

A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Study to Evaluate the Effect on Cognitive Function of Topiramate Compared with Valproate as Add-On Therapy to Carbamazepine in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2000
A. P. Aldenkamp
Summary: Purpose: This study compares the cognitive effects of topiramate (TPM) with those of valproate (VPA) using efficacious doses of each drug when used as adjunctive therapy to carbamazepine (CBZ). A key question of the study is to what extent a more gradual introduction of TPM improves tolerabil-ity and prevents cognitive impairment. Methods: The study is a multicenter, randomized, observer-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial with VPA or TPM given as first-line add-on therapy to steady-state treatment with CBZ. TPM is introduced at 25 mg and increased with weekly 25-mg/d increments to a minimum dosage of 200 mg/d. The target dosage ranges from 200 to 400 mg/d for TPM and is 1800 mg/d for VPA. The study evaluates cognitive function changes from baseline to end point (after 20 weeks of treatment) and during titration (after 8 weeks of treatment). The primary outcome measure is the difference between the treatments (TPM versus VPA) in change from baseline to end point and change from baseline to titration, using a 95% confidence interval approach. Results: For the 10 baseline-to-end point comparisons, one test measuring short-term verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) yields a statistically significant difference between the treatments (p = 0.02), showing worsening for TPM and improvement of scores for VPA. The 10 baseline-to-titration comparisons also show one statistically significant difference, again for a test measuring short-term memory (Recognition of Words; p = 0.04), showing a larger change in the negative direction for TPM. None of the mood tests or the test for subjective complaints shows statistically significant differences between the treatments, although more scores are in the negative direction for TPM during titration. Conclusion: Although the pattern of changes in the negative direction seems consistent with clinical information, the differences found between the treatments are small. An important finding of our study is that, when the results are compared with those of other studies, it is clear that gradual introduction of TPM can reduce the extent of cognitive impairment (with a maximum of about 0.6 SD). [source]

The effect of a major event on stereotyping: terrorist attacks in Israel and Israeli adolescents' perceptions of Palestinians, Jordanians and Arabs

Daniel Bar-Tal
This study examines the effect of a major event (terrorist attacks) on the stereotypic perceptions, attitudes and affects of 119 Israeli adolescents (56 males and 63 females of 5th and 8th grades) toward three target groups: (a) Palestinians, who still have conflictive relations with the Israelis (Palestinian extremists carried out the attacks), (b) Jordanians, who have peaceful relations with the Israelis and (c) Arabs, in general, who are considered a subcategory including Arabs of all nations. The questionnaires were administered to the same adolescents three times: during a relatively peaceful spell in Israeli,Palestinian relations; one day following two terrorist attacks, and three months thereafter. In the last administration adolescents' need for closure was also measured. Adolescents' perceptions, attitudes and affect toward the three target group were differentiated,relating to Palestinians most negatively and to Jordanians most positively. Also, following the terrorist attacks, stereotypic perceptions and attitudes changed in a negative direction, in relation to all the three groups; again with expressed differentiation among the three groups. In the third measurement, some measures remained negative, but some changed to be more positive. Only few effects of age were detected and several significant correlation with need for closure were found. These results indicate that stereotypes and attitudes toward outgroups are context-dependent, influenced by events; thus they serve as ,a seismograph' to the quality of intergroup relations at any given time. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Chronic Naltrexone Treatment and Ethanol Responsivity in Outbred Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2010
Katherine G. Hill
Background:, Acute naltrexone treatment in rats produces significant alterations in ethanol palatability (increase in the aversiveness of the solution) and ethanol consumption during tests of restricted access (decrease in consumption). The effects of chronic naltrexone exposure, accomplished by implantation of osmotic mini-pumps, were examined in the present study. Methods:, Rats were surgically implanted with intraoral fistulae for taste reactivity testing. The animals were given 2 bottles (distilled water and 10% ethanol, v/v) for 3, 2-week phases: Pre-Drug, Drug, and Post-Drug. After the Pre-Drug phase, rats were assigned to groups (counterbalanced based on ethanol intake) and implanted with a mini-pump containing saline, 7.5 mg/kg/d naltrexone, or 15 mg/kg/d naltrexone. The pumps were removed 2 weeks later. During each 2-week phase, taste reactivity tests with 10% ethanol were conducted at 1, 7, and 14 days (a total of 9 reactivity tests). Results:, The 7.5 mg/kg/d dose produced only minor effects on 10% ethanol reactivity and consumption during the Drug phase. The 15 mg/kg/d naltrexone dose generally shifted taste reactivity responding to 10% ethanol in a negative direction and produced a transient decrease in ethanol consumption. The 15 mg/kg/d group significantly increased ethanol consumption beyond the level of consumption by the Saline group when the pumps were removed, although the increase was delayed 48 hours. By the end of the Post-Drug period, this naltrexone group returned to control levels of ethanol consumption. Conclusions:, Chronic naltrexone treatment at 15 mg/kg/d significantly decreased the palatability of a 10% ethanol solution, an effect seen even after drug withdrawal. Naltrexone had a minor effect on ethanol consumption during treatment but did decrease overall levels of fluid consumption. The significant increase in ethanol consumption postdrug by the high-dose naltrexone group, presumably due to receptor up-regulation during treatment, is important and understanding this effect and developing means of overcoming it within a clinical practice would be useful goals. [source]

Testability and repair of hereditary hypergraph properties

Tim Austin
Abstract Recent works of Alon,Shapira (A characterization of the (natural) graph properties testable with one-sided error. Available at:,nogaa/PDFS/heredit2.pdf) and Rdl,Schacht (Generalizations of the removal lemma, Available at:,schacht/pub/preprints/gen_removal.pdf) have demonstrated that every hereditary property of undirected graphs or hypergraphs is testable with one-sided error; informally, this means that if a graph or hypergraph satisfies that property "locally" with sufficiently high probability, then it can be perturbed (or "repaired") into a graph or hypergraph which satisfies that property "globally." In this paper we make some refinements to these results, some of which may be surprising. In the positive direction, we strengthen the results to cover hereditary properties of multiple directed polychromatic graphs and hypergraphs. In the case of undirected graphs, we extend the result to continuous graphs on probability spaces and show that the repair algorithm is "local" in the sense that it only depends on a bounded amount of data; in particular, the graph can be repaired in a time linear in the number of edges. We also show that local repairability also holds for monotone or partite hypergraph properties (this latter result is also implicitly in (Ishigamis work Removal lemma for infinitely-many forbidden hypergraphs and property testing. Available at: math.CO/0612669)). In the negative direction, we show that local repairability breaks down for directed graphs or for undirected 3-uniform hypergraphs. The reason for this contrast in behavior stems from (the limitations of) Ramsey theory. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Random Struct. Alg., 2010 [source]

Oriented Electric Fields Accelerate Diels,Alder Reactions and Control the endo/exo Selectivity

CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 1 2010
Rinat Meir
Abstract Herein we demonstrate that an external electric field (EEF) acts as an accessory catalyst/inhibitor for Diels,Alder (DA) reactions. When the EEF is oriented along the "reaction axis" (the coordinate of approach of the reactants in the reaction path), the barrier of the DA reactions is lowered by a significant amount, equivalent to rate enhancements by 4,6 orders of magnitude. Simply flipping the EEF direction has the opposite effect, and the EEF acts as an inhibitor. Additionally, an EEF oriented perpendicular to the "reaction axis" in the direction of the individual molecule dipoles can change the endo/exo selectivity, favouring one or the other depending on the positive/negative directions of the EEF vis--vis the individual molecular dipole. At some critical value of the EEF along the "reaction axis", there is a crossover to a stepwise mechanism that involves a zwitterionic intermediate. The valence bond diagram model is used to comprehend these trends and to derive a selection rule for EEF effects on chemical reactions: an EEF aligned in the direction of the electron flow between the reactants will lower the reaction barrier. It is shown that the exo/endo control by the EEF is not associated with changes in secondary orbital interactions. [source]