Negative Affect (negative + affect)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Negative Affect

  • greater negative affect

  • Selected Abstracts

    Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2007
    Suzanne M. Robertson
    Abstract: Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N= 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e., low on both positive and negative affect); (c) Intense (i.e., high on both positive and negative affect); and (d) Distressed (i.e., high negative affect, low positive affect). A multivariate model that included demographic characteristics and indicators of stressful and positive experiences of caregiving yielded 2 significant discriminant functions that served to classify caregivers correctly into their known affect groups. Implications for improving intervention efforts targeting family caregivers are discussed. [source]

    Individual differences in preschool children: temperament or personality?

    Cathy L. Grist
    Abstract Individual differences among adults have generally been conceptualized in terms of personality theory and traits. In contrast, individual differences among very young children (birth to kindergarten) have generally been conceptualized in terms of temperament theory and traits. The present study compares and contrasts measures of temperament and personality in a sample of preschool children. Temperament traits were assessed with a well-established measure (the Rothbart CBQ), and a new preschool rating instrument was used to assess personality traits from the five-factor framework (M5-PS). Indeed, a key purpose of this study was to further the development of the M5-PS. Data were gathered on 122 preschool children who were rated by their teachers. Significant correlations were found between the temperament trait Surgency and the personality trait Extraversion, between the temperament trait Negative Affect and the personality trait Neuroticism, and between the temperament trait Effortful Control and the personality trait Conscientiousness. The overall pattern of correlational data suggests that individual differences in preschool children can be adequately described using the five-factor theory, and that this framework may effectively subsume traditional theories of temperament. Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the M5-PS is offered. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Disclosure to therapists: What is and is not discussed in psychotherapy

    Barry A. Farber
    This study used the 80-item Disclosure to Therapist Inventory,R to investigate the nature of patient disclosure within therapy. Participants (45 men, 102 women) were all currently in therapy. A Principal Components Analyses with varimax rotation yielded nine meaningful factors; mean disclosure scores were lowest for the factors of Sexuality and Procreation and highest for the factors of Negative Affect and Intimacy. Specific items most extensively discussed included characteristics of parents that are disliked, and aspects of one's personality that are disliked or worrisome. No significant differences were found in overall degree of disclosure as a function of patient gender or shame-proneness; disclosure was, however, found to be positively correlated with strength of the therapeutic alliance. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 359,370, 2002. [source]

    Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism Genotype Is Associated With Behavioral Disinhibition and Negative Affect in Children of Alcoholics

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2001
    Geoffrey R. Twitchell
    Background : Serotonergic (5-HT) dysfunction has been implicated in the etiology of both behavioral disinhibition (BD) and negative affect (NA). This work extends our previous finding of relationships between whole blood 5-HT and both BD and NA in pubescent, but not prepubescent, children of alcoholics and continues examination of a hypothesized role of 5-HT dysfunction in alcoholism risk. The long and short (L and S) variants of the 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are responsible for differing transcriptional efficiencies in 5-HT uptake. Although associations have been found between the SS 5-HTTLPR genotype and severe alcoholism and neuroticism, recent reports describe relationships between the LL genotype and both low level of response to alcohol and alcoholism diagnosis and a predominance of the LL genotype in early-onset alcoholics. Methods: This report is from an ongoing prospective study of the development of risk for alcoholism and other problematic outcomes in a sample of families classified by father's alcoholism subtype. This study examines relationships between 5-HTTLPR genotype and both child BD (Child Behavior Checklist Aggressive Behavior) and NA (Child Behavior Checklist Anxious/Depressed) in offspring from 47 families. Results: Results showed significantly higher levels of BD and NA in the 16 children with the LL genotype than the 46 SS or SL children. Conclusions: Behaviors of undercontrol, which occur at increased rates in children of alcoholics, may be genetically influenced through the regulation of the 5-HT transporter. Due to the small sample size and the preliminary nature of our findings, replication is necessary. [source]

    Art and Negative Affect

    Aaron Smuts
    Why do people seemingly want to be scared by movies and feel pity for fictional characters when they avoid situations in real life that arouse these same negative emotions? Although the domain of relevant artworks encompasses far more than just tragedy, the general problem is typically called the paradox of tragedy. The paradox boils down to a simple question: If people avoid pain then why do people want to experience art that is painful? I discuss six popular solutions to the paradox: conversion, control, compensatory, meta-response, catharsis, and rich experience theories. [source]

    An application of escape theory to binge eating

    Sonja Blackburn
    Abstract The application of Escape Theory (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991) to binge eating was studied in a non-clinical sample of 129 women. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed a good fit between the Escape Model and the data. Perfectionism strongly predicted aversive self-awareness which, in turn, predicted negative affect. Negative affect predicted levels of avoidant coping which strongly predicted levels of binge eating. Implications for understanding and treating binge eating are considered. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Validity and utility of the current definition of binge eating

    Barbara E. Wolfe PhD, FAAN
    Abstract Objective Binge eating, a cardinal symptom of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), continues to pose challenges in terms of its definition and thus construct validity and clinical utility. This article reviews the available empirical data that support or refute the current DSM-IV-TR defined characteristics of a binge episode. Method A systematic literature review was conducted using Medline/PubMed electronic database on DSM-IV-TR defined binge characteristics and associated attributes. Results Data support the current DSM guidelines indicating that binge episodes typically occur in less than 2 h. Size of binge episodes has variability across BN and BED diagnostic groups. Loss of control (LOC) continues to be a core feature of binge eating. Negative affect is the most widely reported antecedent. Strikingly, little is known about binge episodes among individuals with anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype. Discussion Available empirical evidence supports the current DSM duration and LOC attributes of a binge episode in BN and BED. However, a more controversial issues is the extent to which size is important in the definition of a binge episode (e.g., subjective vs. objective episodes) across diagnostic categories and the extent to which binge size informs prognosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Further study of binge eating attributes in AN is needed. © 2009 American Psychiatric Association. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Neuroticism, alexithymia, negative affect and positive affect as predictors of medically unexplained symptoms in primary care1

    V. De Gucht
    Background:, Somatization has been defined in a number of ways. Despite their differences, these definitions have one element in common, namely the presence of somatic symptoms that cannot be explained (adequately) by organic findings. Objective: The primary objectives of the dissertation were to gain a better insight into the concept of somatization, and to study (prospectively) the relationship between neuroticism and alexithymia, two personality traits that have been shown to be related to somatization, the affective state dimensions positive and negative affect (or psychological distress) and medically unexplained symptoms. Method: A selective review was conducted regarding conceptual and methodological issues related to somatization. A total number of 318 patients, presenting to their primary care physician with medically unexplained symptoms, participated in the prospective study. Both at baseline and at 6-month follow-up a number of measures were filled out with respect to somatization, neuroticism, alexithymia, negative and positive affect, anxiety and depression. Results: The concept of somatization was clarified, thereby making use of the distinction between presenting and functional somatization. The personality traits neuroticism and alexithymia were found to have an indirect influence on symptom reports. Both the cross-sectional and follow-up data pointed to the importance of positive and negative affect as determinants of (changes in) number of symptoms (over time). Negative affect, together with the alexithymia dimension measuring difficulty identifying feelings, predicted symptom persistence. Conclusions: The theoretical as well as therapeutic implications of the present paper may give an impetus to new research in the domain of somatization. [source]

    Exploring the role of emotion in conflict transformation

    Jessica Katz Jameson
    This study examines the idea that attention to emotion in conflict management leads to conflict transformation. An experimental design compared mediated and negotiated conflict simulations in which participants were primed to discuss emotions as they moved toward agreement. Participants in the mediation group reported increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and improved perception of other following the simulation. The negotiation group reported decreased positive affect, increased negative affect, and no difference in perception of other, yet they reported increased satisfaction. Mediated agreements included reference to the ongoing relationship, whereas negotiated agreements included tit-for-tat arrangements. Implications for organizational conflict management are discussed. [source]

    Improving Jurors' Evaluations of Auditors in Negligence Cases,

    Kathryn Kadous
    Abstract Prior research indicates that individuals acting as jurors experience outcome effects in audit negligence litigation. That is, jurors evaluate auditors more harshly in light of negative outcomes, even when audit quality is constant. I posit that outcome effects in this setting are caused by jurors using their negative affect (i.e., feelings) resulting from learning about negative audit outcomes as information relevant to auditor blameworthiness. I tested this hypothesis in an experiment in which I manipulated audit quality, outcome information, and provision of an attribution instruction. The attribution instruction was designed to discredit negative affect as a cue to auditor blameworthiness. Consistent with expectations, attribution participants' evaluations of auditors exhibited less reliance on outcome information and more reliance on audit quality information than did evaluations made by control participants. In fact, outcome effects were eliminated for attribution participants. Courts may be able to improve the quality of jurors' decisions in such cases by employing an attribution instruction. [source]

    Alcohol use and negative affect in the offence cycle

    Andrew Day
    Introduction It is commonly acknowledged that, for many offenders, alcohol use is strongly associated with criminal behaviour. The belief held by many professionals that the two phenomena are associated, probably in a causal way, has led to the inclusion of alcohol use as a ,criminogenic need' in many settings where rehabilitation programmes are used to reduce recidivism. However, the mechanisms and pathways involved in the alcohol,crime link remain poorly understood. Argument and conclusion This paper reviews the literature relating to alcohol,offending links and draws some inferences about the role of alcohol use as a criminogenic need in offender rehabilitation. It is proposed that the bi-directional relationship between alcohol use and negative affective states is important in understanding the offence cycle, and that deficits in self-regulation not only characterize both alcohol misuse and negative affect but are also implicated in the offending behaviour itself. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    The functional impact of anxiety sensitivity in the chronically physically ill

    Sonya B. Norman Ph.D.
    Abstract The symptoms and physical limitations resulting from chronic physical illness often diminish physical functioning. Comorbidity of chronic physical illness and an anxiety disorder is associated with greater impairment in functioning than chronic illness alone. One potential contributor to anxiety in the chronically ill is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The goal of this study was to explore the role of AS on functioning in the chronically ill. Participants were 267 primary care patients. Logistic regression showed that physical AS (but not social or psychological), controlling for age, gender, and negative affect, was associated with hypertension, heart disease, and high cholesterol (P<.01). Higher AS was associated with poorer vitality, mental functioning, and social functioning (P<.05). AS may be a correlate of poorer adjustment to chronic illness. Depression and Anxiety 21:154,160, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Motives for substance use among young people seeking mental health treatment

    Leanne Hides
    Abstract Aims: To explore substance use motives among young people seeking mental health treatment. Methods: Participants consisted of 103 young people seeking mental health treatment, who had used drugs or alcohol in the past year. The young people completed a 42-item substance use motives measure based on the Drinking Motives Measure for their most frequently used substance in the past year. Results: Exploratory factor analysis of the substance use motives scale indicated the young people reported using substances for positive and negative drug effects, to socialize with their peers, and to cope with a negative affect. They did not report using substances for enhancement or conformity motives. Coping motives predicted the presence of a current substance use disorder. Conclusions: The findings support the need for integrated treatment approaches within mental health settings, particularly targeted at young people with co-occurring mental health and substance use problems. [source]

    Subjective social status affects smoking abstinence during acute withdrawal through affective mediators

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    Lorraine R. Reitzel
    ABSTRACT Objectives Direct and mediated associations between subjective social status (SSS), a subjective measure of socio-economic status, and smoking abstinence were examined during the period of acute withdrawal among a diverse sample of 421 smokers (33% Caucasian, 34% African American, 33% Latino) undergoing a quit attempt. Methods Logistic regressions examined relations between SSS and abstinence, controlling for socio-demographic variables. Depression, stress, positive affect and negative affect on the quit day were examined as potential affective mediators of the SSS-abstinence association, with and without adjusting for pre-quit mediator scores. Results SSS predicted abstinence to 2 weeks post-quit. Abstinence rates were 2.6 (postquit week 1) and 2.4 (postquit week 2) times higher in the highest versus the lowest SSS quartile. Depression and positive affect mediated the SSS,abstinence relationships, but only depression maintained significance when adjusting for the baseline mediator score. Conclusions Among a diverse sample of quitting smokers, low SSS predicted relapse during acute withdrawal after controlling for numerous covariates, an effect accounted for partially by quit day affective symptomatology. Smokers endorsing lower SSS face significant hurdles in achieving cessation, highlighting the need for targeted interventions encompassing attention to quit day mood reactivity. [source]

    Mechanisms of behavior change in alcoholics anonymous: does Alcoholics Anonymous lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    John F. Kelly
    ABSTRACT Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA's effects. Methods Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol-dependent adults (n = 1706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was mediated partially by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA's proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was associated both concurrently and predictively with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was associated additionally with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional wellbeing which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. [source]

    Modeling mood variation associated with smoking: an application of a heterogeneous mixed-effects model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    Donald Hedeker
    ABSTRACT Aims Mixed models are used increasingly for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. The variance parameters of the random effects, which indicate the degree of heterogeneity in the population of subjects, are considered usually to be homogeneous across subjects. Modeling these variances can shed light on interesting hypotheses in substance abuse research. Design We describe how these variances can be modeled in terms of covariates to examine the covariate effects on between-subjects variation, focusing on positive and negative mood and the degree to which these moods change as a function of smoking. Setting The data are drawn from an EMA study of adolescent smoking. Participants Participants were 234 adolescents, either in 9th or 10th grades, who provided EMA mood reports from both random prompts and following smoking events. Measurements We focused on two mood outcomes: measures of the subject's negative and positive affect and several covariates: gender, grade, negative mood regulation and smoking level. Findings and conclusions Following smoking, adolescents experienced higher positive affect and lower negative affect than they did at random, non-smoking times. Our analyses also indicated an increased consistency of subjective mood responses as smoking experience increased and a diminishing of mood change. [source]

    Change processes in residential cognitive therapy for bulimia nervosa

    Asle Hoffart
    Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of process variables derived from the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa (BN) and weekly outcome. The participants were 39 patients with BN or subthreshold bulimia consecutively admitted to an inpatient treatment program for bulimia. Theory-derived process and outcome variables were measured repeatedly during the course of therapy with a gap of a week between each measurement. The data were analysed with time series methods (ARIMA). Weekly variations in the process variables: self-efficacy about resisting binge eating, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect influenced variations in subsequent outcome, whereas weekly outcome did not influence subsequent process. These results are consistent with the cognitive model of BN and suggest that self-efficacy, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    An application of escape theory to binge eating

    Sonja Blackburn
    Abstract The application of Escape Theory (Heatherton & Baumeister, 1991) to binge eating was studied in a non-clinical sample of 129 women. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed a good fit between the Escape Model and the data. Perfectionism strongly predicted aversive self-awareness which, in turn, predicted negative affect. Negative affect predicted levels of avoidant coping which strongly predicted levels of binge eating. Implications for understanding and treating binge eating are considered. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    REVIEW: Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: are they linked?

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Markus Heilig
    ABSTRACT The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A ,self-medication' framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol-dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3,6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: (1) are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence?; (2) is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal?; and (3) to what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? [source]

    Constructive thinking as a mediator of the relationship between extraversion, neuroticism, and subjective well-being

    Peter Rustin Harris
    Mechanisms by which personality affects well-being are not well understood. Following recommendations to examine intermediate process variables that may help explain the personality,subjective well-being (SWB) relationship, the authors tested whether constructive thinking (CT) mediated the relationships between both neuroticism and extraversion and SWB components. Measures of each construct were administered to 147 undergraduate volunteers twice over four weeks. In analyses controlling for time 1 SWB and time 2 mood, time 2 CT fully mediated the relationship between time 1 neuroticism and time 2 negative affect and emerged as a strong predictor of negative affect (inversely), positive affect, and happiness. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The structure of negative emotion scales: generalization over contexts and comprehensiveness

    Dirk J. M. Smits
    In this article, we tested whether a four-dimensional individual-difference structure of negative emotions (Sadness, Fear, Anger, Shame) as described e.g. by Diener, Smith and Fujita can be found in self-report data when the emotions are explicitly linked to three different specific contexts. In addition, we check the comprehensiveness of the structure by adding terms people spontaneously use to directly express negative affect. A situational questionnaire was constructed, based on the emotion terms from Diener et al., and it was administered to 161 participants. The structure we obtained was five dimensional instead of four dimensional: the Shame scale turned out to be two dimensional, with guilt and regret defining one factor, and shame and embarrassment defining another factor. Between these two, there is a moderate positive correlation. The structure is shown to be nearly identical for all three situations. The minor differences we found do contextualize the meaning of the emotional responses. The newly added terms could be captured quite well by the factor Anger. No separate factor was needed, meaning that the obtained five-dimensional structure may be considered comprehensive enough for the field of negative emotions. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Discontented people: reactivity and locus of control as determinants of subjective well-being

    Tatiana Klonowicz
    This study examines the effects of reactivity temperament and locus of control variables on subjective well-being (SWB). SWB is operationalized as positive affect, the absence of somatic concerns, and heightened life satisfaction. The study hypotheses were that (1) reactivity and locus of control influenced SWB and that (2) affect either mediated or moderated the influence of these traits on SWB. As expected, high reactivity and external locus of control were associated with lower SWB, whereas low reactivity and internal locus of control were associated with higher SWB. However, the data indicate that reactivity and locus of control influenced different components of SWB and that locus of control predicted SWB more consistently than reactivity. Somatic health is influenced by reactivity, locus of control and negative affect, but not positive affect. Current life satisfaction is influenced by locus of control,but not reactivity,and by both positive and negative affect. Hope is related to reactivity but not to either locus of control or affect. The data corroborate the expectation that affect serves as a mediator in the trait,SWB relations, whereas the view that affect moderates the effect of stable dispositions on SWB finds scant support. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Emotional arousal and negative affect in marital conflict: the influence of gender, conflict structure, and demand-withdrawal

    Lesley L. Verhofstadt
    This report covers two studies that examined how spouses' emotional arousal and negative affect in response to marital conflict are shaped by gender, conflict structure, and demand-withdraw communication. In Study 1, 86 couples participated in a video analogue presentation procedure, and in Study 2, 32 couples participated in an observational methodology. In both studies, spouses' evaluative reports of their emotional arousal and negative affect were collected within two experimental conditions in which either the husband's or the wife's issue was discussed. In both studies, husbands,but not wives,reported lower levels of post-interaction arousal and negative affect in the wife's issue condition than in the husband's issue condition. In both studies, husbands' as well as wives' level of emotional arousal was positively associated with their level of negative affect. In Study 2, husbands who were less demanding and more withdrawing during marital conflict were less aroused after the discussion. In contrast, wives reported more emotional arousal and negative affect as they were more withdrawing and less demanding, respectively. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The affective consequences of social comparison as related to professional burnout and social comparison orientation

    Bram P. Buunk
    In a study among sociotherapists, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to professional burnout and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Upward comparison generated more positive and less negative affect than did downward comparison. Increasing levels of burnout were accompanied by less positive affect in response to upward comparison. Moreover, the higher the level of burnout, the more negative affect a description of a downward comparison target evoked, but only among individuals high in social comparison orientation. Finally, the higher the level of burnout, the higher the identification with the downward target, and the lower the identification with the upward target. However, this last effect did occur only among those low in social comparison orientation. Those high in social comparison orientation kept identifying with the upward target, even when they were high in burnout. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Two-Factor Model for Predicting When a Couple Will Divorce: Exploratory Analyses Using 14-Year Longitudinal Data,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2002
    John Mordechai Gottman Ph.D.
    This article examines 14-year longitudinal data and attempts to create a post hoc model that uses Time-1 data to "predict" the length of time the marriage will last. The sample consists of the 21 couples (of 79 studied) who divorced over a 14-year period. A two-factor model is proposed. One factor is the amount of unregulated volatile positive and negative affect in the marriage, and this factor predicts a short marriage length for the divorcing couples. A second factor is called "neutral affective style," and this factor predicts a long marriage length for the divorcing couples. This model is compared to a Time-1 model of ailing marriage in which Time-1 marital satisfaction is used to predict the timing of divorce. [source]

    A Child's Experience of Parental Depression: Encouraging Relational Resilience in Families with Affective Illness,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2000
    Lynn Focht-Birkerts LICSW
    In this article, we describe an approach that parents with affective illness can use to foster the emotional resilience of their children. Building on current research that emphasizes the need to formulate concepts of risk and resilience in terms of family or relational processes, we propose that affectively ill parents can promote resilience in their children by helping them express the affect they experience as a result of parental illness-related behavior. Risk and resilience are conceptualized in terms of a family's ability to process emotion or affect: a family's need to constrict affect is a risk factor, while the family's ability to elaborate affect encourages relational resilience. An object relations model is used to discuss the ways in which encouraging this elaboration of affect, especially negative affect, contributes to resilience in children. We describe ways in which a preventive intervention helps to increase parents' emotional responsiveness to their children. Using extensive narrative data from followup interviews with families and children, constriction and expansion of emotion in children concerning affectively ill parents are documented, by multiple interviewers, over a span of more than 5 years. Where danger threatens, there also grows the saving power. ,J.C.F. Hölderlin1Patmos [source]

    Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2007
    Suzanne M. Robertson
    Abstract: Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N= 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e., low on both positive and negative affect); (c) Intense (i.e., high on both positive and negative affect); and (d) Distressed (i.e., high negative affect, low positive affect). A multivariate model that included demographic characteristics and indicators of stressful and positive experiences of caregiving yielded 2 significant discriminant functions that served to classify caregivers correctly into their known affect groups. Implications for improving intervention efforts targeting family caregivers are discussed. [source]

    Neurocognitive variation in smoking behavior and withdrawal: genetic and affective moderators

    D. E. Evans
    A burgeoning literature suggests that attentional factors are associated with smoking behavior (e.g. direct nicotine effects and smoking withdrawal). This study examined differences in attentional processing between nonsmokers, satiated smokers and overnight nicotine-deprived smokers by comparing the amplitude of the P300 (P3) component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) elicited during a go,nogo task. We also examined the moderating effects of a common dopamine receptor genotype and state negative affect (SNA) on this ERP index of attention. Nonsmokers relative to smokers had greater nogo P3 amplitude. Carrying the A1 allele at the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) Taq1A polymorphism site moderated the effects of withdrawal on nogo P3 amplitude, suggesting the A1 allele is a vulnerability marker for withdrawal-related attentional deficits. Increased SNA also predicted attenuated P3 amplitude among deprived smokers. These findings suggest that DRD2 status and SNA moderate the effects of smoking status and withdrawal on neurocognitive variation during attentional processing. This research contributes to a better understanding of the role of individual differences and attentional processing in smoking behavior. [source]

    Community mental healthcare in England: associations between service organisation and quality of life

    Justine Schneider
    Abstract The present authors set out to explore the relationship between different forms of service organisation and quality of life (QoL) for service users. Four mental health trusts and their corresponding social services departments were recruited to exemplify: (1) high and low levels of integration between health and social services; and (2) high and low levels of targeting at users with severe mental health problems. The authors used the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile, and chose their sample size to be able to detect a difference of 0.5 in subjective satisfaction scales. Analysis of covariance was used to investigate the simultaneous impact of variables representing user characteristics, objective and subjective QoL, and service organisation. Two hundred and sixty users selected at random from the active caseloads of mental health services in the four districts were interviewed at time 1 and 232 people were interviewed 6 months later (time 2). No bias was detected in the non-respondents at time 2. The authors found few differences between districts. As in other similar studies, QoL seemed to be stable for the whole sample over time. In 6 months, general satisfaction with leisure increased and the number of people who had been in hospital fell. Negative affect score was the only variable found to be associated with subjective QoL, and no predictors of objective QoL were identified. There was some evidence of better objective outcomes for people in receipt of integrated mental health services. They socialised more, and seemed to have less difficulty accessing police and legal services. The results also suggest that interventions targeted at negative affect could have benefits for subjective QoL. [source]

    Modafinil and nicotine interactions in abstinent smokers

    Mehmet Sofuoglu
    Abstract In this study, we examined the effects of a wakefulness-promoting medication, modafinil, alone and with the nicotine lozenge, on subjective, physiological and cognitive measures as well as on nicotine withdrawal in overnight abstinent cigarette smokers. Nineteen smokers, 13 male and 6 female, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In each of three experimental sessions, subjects were treated orally with a single 200,mg or 400,mg dose of modafinil or placebo. Two hours and 10 min following the medication treatment, subjects received a single 2,mg nicotine lozenge. Both doses of modafinil alone increased the rating of elated-depressed on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale in the direction of depressed and increased ratings of negative affect on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In contrast, the 200,mg modafinil dose combined with a 2,mg nicotine lozenge, increased the rating of energetic-tired in the direction of energetic on the POMS subscale. Modafinil attenuated self-reported rating of ,drug strength' in response to the nicotine lozenge. Modafinil, alone or in combination with the nicotine lozenge, did not affect tobacco withdrawal symptoms. There was an increase in baseline heart rate and systolic blood pressure under modafinil treatment. In addition, modafinil speeded reaction times on a modified Stroop task. The clinical utility of modafinil for smoking cessation needs to be determined in future studies. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]