Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Negative

  • antibody negative
  • culture negative
  • dominant negative
  • false negative
  • gram negative
  • h. pylori negative
  • hbsag negative
  • hcv negative
  • hiv negative
  • immunohistochemically negative
  • node negative
  • patient negative
  • potential negative
  • pylori negative
  • true negative

  • Terms modified by Negative

  • negative abnormal return
  • negative affect
  • negative affectivity
  • negative allometry
  • negative anomaly
  • negative appraisal
  • negative aspect
  • negative assessment
  • negative association
  • negative attitude
  • negative attribute
  • negative attribution
  • negative autocorrelation
  • negative bacteria
  • negative behavior
  • negative behaviour
  • negative belief
  • negative bias
  • negative binomial distribution
  • negative binomial model
  • negative binomial models
  • negative binomial regression
  • negative binomial regression model
  • negative binomial regression models
  • negative biopsy
  • negative case
  • negative cell
  • negative change
  • negative charge
  • negative charge density
  • negative child
  • negative cis
  • negative co-occurrence
  • negative coefficient
  • negative cognition
  • negative comment
  • negative communication
  • negative component
  • negative consequence
  • negative contribution
  • negative control
  • negative control group
  • negative cooperativity
  • negative correlation
  • negative culture
  • negative deviation
  • negative diagnosis
  • negative dialectic
  • negative differential resistance
  • negative dimension
  • negative direction
  • negative disease
  • negative earning surprise
  • negative effect
  • negative effects
  • negative electrode
  • negative electrospray ionization
  • negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
  • negative emotion
  • negative emotional reaction
  • negative emotional states
  • negative emotionality
  • negative end
  • negative energy balance
  • negative eu anomaly
  • negative evaluation
  • negative event
  • negative example
  • negative expectancy
  • negative experience
  • negative exponential
  • negative expression
  • negative externality
  • negative factor
  • negative family history
  • negative feedback
  • negative feedback loop
  • negative feedback mechanism
  • negative feedback regulation
  • negative feeling
  • negative finding
  • negative form
  • negative fraction
  • negative frequency-dependent selection
  • negative function
  • negative genetic correlation
  • negative group
  • negative groups
  • negative growth
  • negative hcv-rna
  • negative health
  • negative health consequence
  • negative health effects
  • negative health outcome
  • negative history
  • negative i
  • negative image
  • negative impact
  • negative implication
  • negative individual
  • negative influence
  • negative information
  • negative inotropic effect
  • negative interaction
  • negative ion
  • negative ion mass spectrometry
  • negative ion mode
  • negative ionization mode
  • negative life event
  • negative life experience
  • negative likelihood ratio
  • negative linear correlation
  • negative link
  • negative lymph node
  • negative margin
  • negative market reaction
  • negative mode
  • negative modulator
  • negative mood
  • negative mutant
  • negative neck
  • negative node
  • negative ones
  • negative opinion
  • negative outcome
  • negative patient
  • negative pcr
  • negative peak
  • negative perception
  • negative phase
  • negative phenotype
  • negative poisson ratio
  • negative polarity
  • negative potential
  • negative predictive
  • negative predictive value
  • negative predictor
  • negative pressure
  • negative pressure therapy
  • negative pressure wound therapy
  • negative prognostic factor
  • negative prognostic indicator
  • negative ras
  • negative rate
  • negative reaction
  • negative refraction
  • negative regulation
  • negative regulator
  • negative regulatory role
  • negative reinforcement
  • negative relation
  • negative relationship
  • negative relationships
  • negative response
  • negative result
  • negative role
  • negative sample
  • negative score
  • negative selection
  • negative self-evaluation
  • negative serology
  • negative shift
  • negative shock
  • negative sign
  • negative signal
  • negative skewness
  • negative skin test
  • negative sln
  • negative slope
  • negative social
  • negative social consequence
  • negative specimen
  • negative spillover
  • negative stain
  • negative staining
  • negative staphylococcus
  • negative stereotype
  • negative stimulus
  • negative strain
  • negative study
  • negative subject
  • negative surface charge
  • negative surgical margin
  • negative symptom
  • negative symptom scale
  • negative syndrome scale
  • negative t wave
  • negative temperature coefficient
  • negative temperature dependence
  • negative test
  • negative test result
  • negative thermal expansion
  • negative thought
  • negative trend
  • negative trials
  • negative tumor
  • negative valence
  • negative value
  • negative variation
  • negative view
  • negative views
  • negative voltage
  • negative way
  • negative woman
  • negative word

  • Selected Abstracts

    Post-conflict Statebuilding and State Legitimacy: From Negative to Positive Peace?

    David Roberts
    ABSTRACT This article is concerned with the potential that statebuilding interventions have to institutionalize social justice, in addition to their more immediate ,negative' peace mandates, and the impact this might have, both on local state legitimacy and the character of the ,peace' that might follow. Much recent scholarship has stressed the legitimacy of a state's behaviour in relation to conformity to global governance norms or democratic ,best practice'. Less evident is a discussion of the extent to which post-conflict polities are able to engender the societal legitimacy central to political stability. As long as this level of legitimacy is absent (and it is hard to generate), civil society is likely to remain distant from the state, and peace and stability may remain elusive. A solution to this may be to apply existing international legislation centred in the UN and the ILO to compel international organizations and national states to deliver basic needs security through their institutions. This has the effect of stimulating local-level state legitimacy while simultaneously formalizing social justice and positive peacebuilding. [source]

    Negative per capita effects of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity of wetland communities

    Shon S. Schooler
    ABSTRACT Invasive plants can simplify plant community structure, alter ecosystem processes and undermine the ecosystem services that we derive from biotic diversity. Two invasive plants, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), are becoming the dominant species in many wetlands across temperate North America. We used a horizontal, observational study to estimate per capita effects (PCEs) of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity in 24 wetland communities in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Four measures of diversity were used: the number of species (S), evenness of relative abundance (J), the Shannon,Wiener index (H,) and Simpson's index (D). We show that (1) the PCEs on biotic diversity were similar for both invasive species among the four measures of diversity we examined; (2) the relationship between plant diversity and invasive plant abundance ranges from linear (constant slope) to negative exponential (variable slope), the latter signifying that the PCEs are density-dependent; (3) the PCEs were density-dependent for measures of diversity sensitive to the number of species (S, H,, D) but not for the measure that relied solely upon relative abundance (J); and (4) invader abundance was not correlated with other potential influences on biodiversity (hydrology, soils, topography). These results indicate that both species are capable of reducing plant community diversity, and management strategies need to consider the simultaneous control of multiple species if the goal is to maintain diverse plant communities. [source]

    Body Dimensions of Infants Exposed to Antiepileptic Drugs In Utero: Observations Spanning 25 Years

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2000
    K. Wide
    Summary: Purpose: To investigate the influence of maternal antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on pregnancy duration, birth weight, body length, head circumference, and intrauterine growth in infants exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs in Sweden between 1973,1997, with 963 singleton infants. Methods: Data collected from (a) 1973,1981 (record linkage between a hospital discharge register and a medical birth register); (b) 1984,1995 (prospectively collected information in one defined catchment area with two delivery hospitals); and (c) 1995,1997 (medical birth register data). Observed numbers of infants below a defined size for body measurements compared with expected numbers calculated from all births in Sweden after stratification for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and education or smoking habits in early pregnancy. Standard deviation scores estimated with same stratification procedures. Results: Fraction of monotherapy exposures increased from ,40% to ,90% from 1973 to 1997. Significantly increased numbers of infants with small body measurements found in exposed group. Negative influence on body dimensions decreased over time. More marked effects found in infants exposed to polytherapy. In monotherapy, only infants exposed to carbamazepine consistently showed reduction in body dimensions. Significant effect on gestational age in girls and on number of small for gestational age (<2 SD) in boys. Conclusions: Polytherapy with antiepileptic drugs and negative influence on body dimensions decreased. In monotherapy, only carbamazepine has a negative influence on body dimensions in this study. [source]

    Neurocognition and its influencing factors in the treatment of schizophrenia,effects of aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone

    M. Riedel
    Abstract Background To examine influencing variables of neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia and to predict cognition during antipsychotic treatment. Methods Data were obtained from patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia participating in two double-blind and one open label trial comparing the effects of different atypical antipsychotics on cognition. In total, 129 patients were enrolled in this analysis. Cognitive function was assessed at admission, week 4 and 8. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed weekly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Simpson Angus Sale (SAS). Patients were treated with aripirazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. Regression analysis including mixed effect models was performed. Results A significant improvement in all cognitive domains was observed from baseline to week 8. Regarding the antipsychotic treatment applied quetiapine seemed to achieve the most favourable cognitive improvement. Negative and depressive symptoms, the patient's age and the concomitant and antipsychotic treatment applied were observed to significantly influence and predict neurocognition. Conclusion The results may indicate that schizophrenia is a static disorder with trait and state dependent cognitive components especially in the memory domains. The influence of negative and depressive symptoms should be considered in daily clinical routine. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Energy budget above a temperate mixed forest in northeastern China

    Jiabing Wu
    Abstract Components of the energy budget were measured continuously above a 300-year-old temperate mixed forest at the Changbaishan site, northeastern China, from 1 January to 31 December 2003, as a part of the ChinaFlux programme. The albedo values above the canopy were lower than most temperate forests, and the values for snow-covered canopy were over 50% higher than for the snow-free canopy. In winter, net radiation Rn was generally less than 5% of the summer value due to high albedo and low incoming solar radiation. The annual mean latent heat LE was 37·5 W m,2, accounting for 52% of Rn. The maximum daily evaporation was about 4·6 mm day,1 in summer. Over the year, the accumulated precipitation was 578 mm; this compares with 493 mm of evapotranspiration, which shows that more than 85% of water was returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. The LE was strongly affected by the transpiration activity and increased quickly as the broadleaved trees began to foliate. The sensible heat H dropped at that time, although Rn increased. Consequently, the seasonal variation in the Bowen ratio , was clearly U-shaped, and the minimum value (0·1) occurred on a sunny day just after rain, when most of the available energy was used for evapotranspiration. Negative , values occurred occasionally in the non-growing season as a result of intensive radiative cooling and the presence of water on the surface. The , was very high (up to 13·0) in snow-covered winter, when evapotranspiration was small due to low surface temperature and available soil water. Vegetation phenology and soil moisture were the key variables controlling the available energy partitioning between H and LE. Energy budget closure averaged better than 86% on a half-hourly basis, with slightly greater closure on a daily basis. The degree of closure showed a dependence on friction velocity u*. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Scanning Probe Parallel Nanolithography with Multiprobe Cantilever Array Fabricated by Bulk Silicon Micromachining

    Hensy Gandjar Non-member
    Abstract This work describes a scanning probe parallel nanolithography (SPNL) technique for high throughput in nanometric patterning on single-crystal silicon (SCS) substrates. Two types of multiprobe cantilever arrays used for SPNL were fabricated by conventional micromachining. All the probes mounted on the free end of each cantilever were made of quasitrihedral pyramidal shape composed of (311) and (411) planes using the originally designed mask. Negative and positive types of nanolithography were performed on the basis of field-enhanced anodization and self-assembled monolayer mask techniques, respectively, and they succeeded in drawing a number of nanometric patterns of silicon dioxide (SiO2) on SCS substrates. After anisotropic wet etching of the SCS substrates using the SiO2 films as the mask material, we were also able to fabricate nanowires and nanogrooves. The effects of the applied voltage and scan time of cantilever arrays on wire and groove dimensions were systematically examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations. An optimum condition for the parallel SPNL is proposed on the basis of this research. © 2008 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Negative (and very low) thermal expansion in ReO3 from 5 to 300,K

    Monica Dapiaggi
    This paper reports the accurate measurement of the ReO3 cell parameter as a function of temperature. The thermal expansion is confirmed to be negative over most of the temperature range from 5 to 300,K. The main problems with the measurements are the very small variations (in the range of 10,5,Å) in the cell parameter at each temperature, requiring tight control of the stability and reliability of instrumental effects. In particular, achieving monochromator stability over time might be challenging with the high energy and high beam current variations of a third-generation synchrotron facility. On the other hand, such effects are usually checked by the addition of silicon as an internal standard, but the accuracy (and precision) of the published thermal expansion (which is not certified) might not be sufficient for its use when dealing with very small cell parameter variations. [source]

    Accentuate the Negative: Social Images in the Prediction and Promotion of Condom Use,

    Hart Blanton
    Based on the negativity bias in person perception, we argue that behavioral decisions related to condom use are influenced by the social images that an individual has of people who do not use condoms, but that they are not influenced by the social images that an individual has of people who do use condoms. Three studies with college student samples indicated that the negative evaluations of people who do not use condoms predicts willingness to have sex without condoms. In contrast, positive evaluations of people who do use condoms showed no unique predictions. A fourth study demonstrated that a health message emphasizing the negative social consequences of having sex without condoms decreased willingness to have unsafe sex in comparison to a control, whereas a message that emphasized the positive social consequences of using condoms had no such effects on willingness. [source]


    A glove box has been constructed as pan of an integrated pilot plant scale pulsed electric field processing and packaging system to facilitate studies of product shelf-life with selected packaging materials. The glove box was sanitized using combination of hydrogen peroxide and germicidal UV light. A HEPA air filter provided positive pressure of bacteria-free air. Nonselective nutrient broth was sterilized and filled into presanitized bottles inside the glove box. Negative and positive controls were included in the experiment. All bottles were incubated at 22C and 37C for two weeks and checked for rnicrobial growth by measuring optical density at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer and by plating on plate count agar and potato dextrose agar for total aerobic and, yeast and mold counts, respectively. No turbidity or microbial growth was observed in the media filled in the sanitized bottles using the sanitized glove box at 22 and 37C. PEF processed orange juice using this system had a shelf-life of more than 16 weeks at 4C. [source]

    Negative and positive ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and positive ion nano-electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry of peptidoglycan fragments isolated from various Bacillus species

    Gerold Bacher
    Abstract A general approach for the detailed characterization of sodium borohydride-reduced peptidoglycan fragments (syn. muropeptides), produced by muramidase digestion of the purified sacculus isolated from Bacillus subtilis (vegetative cell form of the wild type and a dacA mutant) and Bacillus megaterium (endospore form), is outlined based on UV matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and nano-electrospray ionization (nESI) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometry (MS). After enzymatic digestion and reduction of the resulting muropeptides, the complex glycopeptide mixture was separated and fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Prior to mass spectrometric analysis, the muropeptide samples were subjected to a desalting step and an aliquot was taken for amino acid analysis. Initial molecular mass determination of these peptidoglycan fragments (ranging from monomeric to tetrameric muropeptides) was performed by positive and negative ion MALDI-MS using the thin-layer technique with the matrix ,-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. The results demonstrated that for the fast molecular mass determination of large sample numbers in the 0.8,10 pmol range and with a mass accuracy of ±0.07%, negative ion MALDI-MS in the linear TOF mode is the method of choice. After this kind of muropeptide screening often a detailed primary structural analysis is required owing to ambiguous data. Structural data could be obtained from peptidoglycan monomers by post-source decay (PSD) fragment ion analysis, but not from dimers or higher oligomers and not with the necessary sensitivity. Multistage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments performed on an nESI-QIT instrument were found to be the superior method for structural characterization of not only monomeric but also of dimeric and trimeric muropeptides. Up to MS4 experiments were sometimes necessary to obtain unambiguous structural information. Three examples are presented: (a) CID MSn (n = 2,4) of a peptidoglycan monomer (disaccharide-tripeptide) isolated from B. subtilis (wild type, vegetative cell form), (b) CID MSn (n = 2,4) of a peptidoglycan dimer (bis-disaccharide-tetrapentapeptide) obtained from a B. subtilis mutant (vegetative cell form) and (c) CID MS2 of a peptidoglycan trimer (a linear hexasaccharide with two peptide side chains) isolated from the spore cortex of B. megaterium. All MSn experiments were performed on singly charged precursor ions and the MS2 spectra were dominated by fragments derived from interglycosidic bond cleavages. MS3 and MS4 spectra exhibited mainly peptide moiety fragment ions. In case of the bis-disaccharide-tetrapentapeptide, the peptide branching point could be determined based on MS3 and MS4 spectra. The results demonstrate the utility of nESI-QIT-MS towards the facile determination of the glycan sequence, the peptide linkage and the peptide sequence and branching of purified muropeptides (monomeric up to trimeric forms). The wealth of structural information generated by nESI-QIT-MSn is unsurpassed by any other individual technique. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Imaging FRET standards by steady-state fluorescence and lifetime methods

    Beatriz Domingo
    Abstract Imaging fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between molecules labeled with fluorescent proteins is emerging as a powerful tool to study changes in ions, ligands, and molecular interactions in their physiological cellular environment. Different methods use either steady-state fluorescence properties or lifetime to quantify the FRET rate. In addition, some provide the absolute FRET efficiency whereas others are simply a relative index very much influenced by the actual settings and instrumentation used, which makes the interpretation of a given FRET rate very difficult. The use and exchange of FRET standards in laboratories using these techniques would help to overcome this drawback. We report here the construction and systematic evaluation of FRET standard probes of varying FRET efficiencies. The standards for intramolecular FRET were protein fusions of the cyan and yellow variants of A. victoria green fluorescent protein (ECFP and citrine) joined by short linkers or larger protein spacers, or ECFP tagged with a tetracysteine motif and labeled with the biarsenical fluorochrome, FlAsH. Negative and positive controls of intermolecular FRET were also used. We compared these FRET standards with up to four FRET quantification methods: ratioing of acceptor to donor emission, donor intensity recovery upon acceptor photobleach, sensitized emission after spectral unmixing of raw images, and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). The latter was obtained with a frequency-domain setup able to provide high quality lifetime images in less than a second, and is thus very well suited for live cell studies. The FRET rates or indexes of the standards were in good agreement regardless of the method used. For the CFP-tetraCys/FlAsH pair, the rate calculated from CFP quenching was faster than that obtained by FLIM. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gene Transfer of TRPC6DN (Dominant Negative) Restores Erectile Function in Diabetic Rats

    Jae Hun Jung MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play an important role in modulating intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) levels. Aim., We examined the hypothesis that overexpression of TRPC6DN (dominant negative) may contribute to decreased [Ca2+]i levels in corporal smooth muscle (CSM). We also investigated whether gene transfer of TRPC6DN could restore erectile function in diabetic rats. Methods., For the in vitro study, the KCa, KATP, and TRPC6DN channel genes were transferred using cDNA, into cultured human CSM cells and human embryonic kidney cells. For the in vivo study, young adult rats were divided into three groups: normal controls; diabetic controls transfected with vector only; and a diabetic group transfected with pcDNA of the TRPC6DN gene. Main Outcome Measures., After gene transfer, the effects of reducing [Ca2+]i levels were assessed by Fura-2-based imaging analysis. The intracavernosal pressure (ICP) response to cavernosal nerve stimulation was assessed after intracorporal injection of TRPC6DN pcDNA. The transgene expression of the TRPC6DN was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rats transfected with TRPC6DN pcDNA. Results., Gene transfer of ion channels effectively reduced [Ca2+]i. Among these channels, transfer of the TRPC6DN gene resulted in the greatest reduction of [Ca2+]i in human CSM. The mean (±standard error of the mean) ratio of ICP to mean arterial pressure (BP) in the gene-transfer rats was 79.4 ± 2.4% (N = 8). This was significantly higher than that in control rats (55.6 ± 3.7% [N = 8]), and similar to that in the young control rats (83 ± 2.2% [N = 12]). The RT-PCR showed expression of TRPC6DN genes in the transfected rats. Conclusion., Gene transfer of TRPC6DN not only reduced [Ca2+]i in human CSM but also restored erectile function in diabetic rats. These results suggest that pcDNA transfer of TRPC6DN may represent a promising new form of therapy for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction in the future. Jung JH, Kim BJ, Chae MR, Kam SC, Jeon J-H, So I, Chung KH, and Lee SW. Gene transfer of TRPC6DN (dominant negative) restores erectile function in diabetic rats. J Sex Med 2010;7:1126,1138. [source]

    Dominant Negative p63 Isoform Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 12 2004
    Joseph C. Sniezek MD
    Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: p63, a member of the p53 family of genes, is vital for normal epithelial development and may play a critical role in epithelial tumor formation. Although p63 has been identified in various head and neck malignancies, a detailed analysis of which of the six isoforms of the p63 gene is present in normal mucosa and head and neck malignancies has not yet been performed. The study analyzed p63 isoform expression on the RNA and protein level in normal, diseased, and malignant mucosa of the head and neck to examine the differential expression of p63 isoforms in head and neck tumors versus adjacent nonmalignant tissue and to identify the predominant p63 isoform expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Study Design: Three experiments were performed. In experiment 1, p63 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis in 36 HNSCC specimens and matched normal tissue control specimens harvested from the same patient. Western blot analysis was also performed on matched specimens to confirm the identity of the p63 isoforms that were found. In experiment 2, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed on matched normal and tumor specimens to analyze and quantitatively compare p63 isoform expression at the RNA level. In experiment 3, p63 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in oral lichen planus, a benign mucosal lesion marked by hyperdifferentiation and apoptosis. Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis of p63 were performed on HNSCC specimens and matched normal tissue control specimens. p63 expression in oral lichen planus specimens was also examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Results: In experiment 1, analysis of 36 HNSCC specimens from various head and neck subsites showed p63 expression in all tumors and matched normal tissue specimens (36 of 36). Western blot analyses indicated that dominant negative (,N) isoform p63, (,Np63,) is the major isoform expressed at the protein level in tumors and adjacent normal tissue. In experiment 2, RT-PCR analyses of 10 matched specimens confirmed that, although all three ,Np63 isoforms (,Np63,, ,Np63,, and ,Np63,) are expressed in normal and malignant mucosa of the head and neck, ,Np63, is the predominant transcript expressed. In experiment 3, immunohistochemical analysis of p63 in the pro-apoptotic condition of lichen planus indicated that p63 is underexpressed as compared with normal mucosal specimens. Conclusion: Although all three ,Np63 isoforms are present in HNSCC, ,Np63, protein is the predominant isoform expressed in these malignancies. ,Np63, is also overexpressed in tumors compared with matched normal tissue specimens and is underexpressed in the pro-apoptotic condition of lichen planus. These findings suggest that ,Np63, plays an anti-differentiation and anti-apoptotic role in the mucosal epithelium of the head and neck, possibly playing a pivotal role in the formation of HNSCC. Currently, ,Np63, is an attractive target for mechanistic study aimed at therapeutic intervention. [source]

    An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Acknowledging False Negative and False Positive Errors on Clients' Cancer Screening Intentions: The Lesser of Two Evils?

    Shoshana Shiloh
    Two studies investigated people's motivations for testing, and the influence of awareness of test inaccuracies, on their intentions to undergo cancer screening tests. Study 1 used a between-subjects design in which participants stated their intentions regarding one of several screening tests with equal accuracy but with either false negative, false positive, or unspecified errors. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which participants indicated their intentions regarding each of those screening tests. In Study 1, intentions for testing were relatively high, affected by instrumental (illness prevention) motivations, and unaffected by type of error acknowledged. Individuals with higher emotional (reassurance seeking) motivations had lower intentions to uptake tests with false positive errors. In Study 2, intentions to uptake all tests were lower compared to Study 1, and were affected by emotional motivations. Participants preferred a test with unspecified errors over tests with specified errors, and, when forced to choose, preferred tests with false negative over false positive errors. Findings are discussed in relation to Error Management Theory and Self-Regulation Theory, emphasising the need to recognise motivations, affect, and framing as important factors in informed screening decisions. [source]

    Comparison of three management strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, after six months delay: A three-year experience in an Iranian university hospital

    Fariba YARANDI
    Background: A Pap test result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) presents a clinical challenge. Only 5,10% of women with ASCUS harbour serious cervical disease. Methods: We screened 3619 women, who attended to Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital at Tehran University of Medical Sciences with Pap smears, of whom 100 returned with ASCUS. After six months, each subject underwent a standard cytology (conventional Pap smear), human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing (identifying high-risk HPV types with polymerase chain reaction) and colposcopy with multiple cervical biopsies. Results: Mean age was 44.09 ± 8.6 years. The estimated prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or higher was 4%. When histologically verified high-grade lesions (, CIN II) were observed, the relative sensitivity of HPV DNA testing was 100% compared with conventional Pap smear, which performed 75% versus 100% relative sensitivity, respectively, using cytological diagnosis high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) as the cut-off. Negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) of Pap test were 98.9% and 100%. The NPV and PPV of HPV DNA testing were 100%. Conclusions: Although less complicated than colposcopy, the repeat Pap smear triage algorithm for ASCUS may underdiagnose some women with high-grade CIN, when compared with colposcopy. Considering the high sensitivity of HPV testing, it may be useful as an alternative to the current policy of six-month repeat cytology for women with ASCUS results. [source]

    Incremental Benefit of 80-Lead Electrocardiogram Body Surface Mapping Over the 12-Lead Electrocardiogram in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Without ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Optimal Cardiovascular Diagnostic Evaluation Enabling Faster Treatment of Myocardial Infarction (OCCULT MI) Trial

    Brian J. O'Neil MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:932,939 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Background:, The initial 12-lead (12L) electrocardiogram (ECG) has low sensitivity to detect myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). Yet, early therapies in these patients have been shown to improve outcomes. Objectives:, The Optimal Cardiovascular Diagnostic Evaluation Enabling Faster Treatment of Myocardial Infarction (OCCULT-MI) trial was a multicenter trial comparing a novel 80-lead mapping system (80L) to standard 12L ECG in patients with chest pain and presumed ACS. This secondary analysis analyzed the incremental value of the 80L over the 12L in the detection of high-risk ECG abnormalities (ST-segment elevation or ST depression) in patients with MI and ACS, after eliminating all patients diagnosed with ST-elevation MI (STEMI) by 12L ECG. Methods:, Chest pain patients presenting to one of 12 academic EDs were diagnosed and treated according to the standard care of that site and its clinicians; the clinicians were blinded to 80L results. MI was defined by discharge diagnosis of non,ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA) with an elevated troponin. ACS was defined as discharge diagnosis of NSTEMI or UA with at least one positive test result (troponin, stress test, angiogram) or revascularization procedure. Results:, Of the 1,830 patients enrolled in the trial, 91 patients with physician-diagnosed STEMI and 225 patients with missing 80L or 12L data were eliminated from the analysis; no discharge diagnosis was available for one additional patient. Of the remaining 1,513 patients, 408 had ACS, 206 had MI, and one had missing status. The sensitivity of the 80L was significantly higher than that of the 12L for detecting MI (19.4% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.0014) and ACS (12.3% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.0025). Specificities remained high for both tests, but were somewhat lower for 80L than for 12L for detecting both MI and ACS. Negative and positive likelihood ratios (LR) were not statistically different between groups. In patients with severe disease (defined by stenosis > 70% at catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or death from any cause), the 80L had significantly higher sensitivity for detecting MI (with equivalent specificity), but not ACS. Conclusions: Among patients without ST elevation on the 12L ECG, the 80L body surface mapping technology detects more patients with MI or ACS than the 12L, while maintaining a high degree of specificity. [source]

    A Decision Rule for Predicting Bacterial Meningitis in Children with Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis When Gram Stain Is Negative or Unavailable

    Bema K. Bonsu MBChB
    Abstract Objectives:, Among children with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, the task of separating aseptic from bacterial meningitis is hampered when the CSF Gram stain result is unavailable, delayed, or negative. In this study, the authors derive and validate a clinical decision rule for use in this setting. Methods:, This was a review of peripheral blood and CSF test results from 78 children (<19 years) presenting to Children's Hospital Columbus from 1998 to 2002. For those with a CSF leukocyte count of >7/,L, a rule was created for separating bacterial from viral meningitis that was based on routine laboratory tests, but excluded Gram stain. The rule was validated in 158 subjects seen at the same site (Columbus, 2002,2004) and in 871 subjects selected from a separate site (Boston, 1993,1999). Results:, One point each (maximum, 6 points) was assigned for leukocytes >597/,L, neutrophils >74%, glucose <38 mg/dL, and protein >97 mg/dL in CSF and for leukocytes >17,000/mL and bands to neutrophils >11% in peripheral blood. Areas under receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AROCs) for the resultant score were 0.98 for the derivation set and 0.90 and 0.97, respectively, for validation sets from Columbus and Boston. Sensitivity and specificity pairs for the Boston data set were 100 and 44%, respectively, at a score of 0 and 97 and 81% at a score of 1. Likelihood ratios (LRs) increased from 0 at a score of 0 to 40 at a score of ,4. Conclusions:, Among children with CSF pleocytosis, a prediction score based on common tests of CSF and peripheral blood and intended for children with unavailable, negative, or delayed CSF Gram stain results has value for diagnosing bacterial meningitis. [source]

    ,Tarrying with the Negative': Bataille and Derrida's Reading of Negation in Hegel's Phenomenology

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2002
    Raphael Foshay
    Central to Bataille's critique of Hegel is his reading in ,Hegel, Death, and Sacrifice' of ,negation' and of ,lordship and bondage' in the Phenomenology of Spirit. Whereas Hegel invokes negation as inclusive of death, Bataille points out (following his teacher Kojeve) that negation in the dynamic of lordship and bondage must of necessity be representational rather than actual. Derrida, in ,From Restricted to General Economy' sees in Bataille's perspective an undercutting of the overall Hegelian project consonant with his own ongoing deconstruction of Hegelian sublation. I argue that not only does Hegel fail to adequately pursue his own best advice to ,tarry with the negative,' but Bataille and Derrida's critique misconstrues the relation between sublation and dialectic in Hegel's work. I explicate Adorno's ,negative dialectic' by way of alternative both to Hegelian speculative dialectic and to its Bataillean,Derridean deconstruction. [source]


    Moshe Koppel
    Most research on learning to identify sentiment ignores "neutral" examples, learning only from examples of significant (positive or negative) polarity. We show that it is crucial to use neutral examples in learning polarity for a variety of reasons. Learning from negative and positive examples alone will not permit accurate classification of neutral examples. Moreover, the use of neutral training examples in learning facilitates better distinction between positive and negative examples. [source]


    Alistair Kennedy
    We present two methods for determining the sentiment expressed by a movie review. The semantic orientation of a review can be positive, negative, or neutral. We examine the effect of valence shifters on classifying the reviews. We examine three types of valence shifters: negations, intensifiers, and diminishers. Negations are used to reverse the semantic polarity of a particular term, while intensifiers and diminishers are used to increase and decrease, respectively, the degree to which a term is positive or negative. The first method classifies reviews based on the number of positive and negative terms they contain. We use the General Inquirer to identify positive and negative terms, as well as negation terms, intensifiers, and diminishers. We also use positive and negative terms from other sources, including a dictionary of synonym differences and a very large Web corpus. To compute corpus-based semantic orientation values of terms, we use their association scores with a small group of positive and negative terms. We show that extending the term-counting method with contextual valence shifters improves the accuracy of the classification. The second method uses a Machine Learning algorithm, Support Vector Machines. We start with unigram features and then add bigrams that consist of a valence shifter and another word. The accuracy of classification is very high, and the valence shifter bigrams slightly improve it. The features that contribute to the high accuracy are the words in the lists of positive and negative terms. Previous work focused on either the term-counting method or the Machine Learning method. We show that combining the two methods achieves better results than either method alone. [source]

    Reed-Sternberg cells in atypical primary EBV infection

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    M Bitsori
    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the Hodgkin's/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of a significant proportion of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a matter of consideration when a case of presumptive HL has to be differentiated from infectious mononucleosis (IM). A 15-y-old boy was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of extranodal HL, based on the biopsy of a painless ulcer on the right mandibular alveolar crest. Histologic examination of the lesion was consistent with mixed cellularity HL. The patient additionally presented with hepatosplenomegaly and regional lymphadenopathy. Serology for EBV was indicative of acute infection. Histological examination of regional lymphoid tissue was consistent with immunologic activation due to primary EBV infection. The patient was left untreated, under close observation. All clinical findings resolved within 3 mo and EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies converted to negative after 6 mo. A 3-y follow-up period was uneventful. [source]

    Potential role of colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast in the screening and follow-up of vesicoureteral reflux

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 11 2000
    G Ascenti
    Primary vesicoureteral reflux is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infections in children. The first-choice technique for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux is voiding cystourethrography, followed by cystoscintigraphy; cystoscintigraphy, however, has the advantage of only minor irradiation of the patient, but it does not allow the morphological evaluation of bladder and vesicoureteral reflux grading. Colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast is a recently introduced method for imaging vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of colour-Doppler cystosonography with echocontrast in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Twenty children (11M, 9F) aged between 0.4 and 4.9 y underwent colour-Doppler cystosonography using a diluted solution of Levovist® (Schering, Germany), after filling up the bladder with saline. In all patients, vesicoureteral reflux diagnosis and grading had been performed previously by voiding cystourethrography within 5 d from ultrasonography. Our data showed high accuracy in the detection of medium to severe vesicoureteral reflux (grades III-V), confirmed by radiological features in 9/9 patients. Conversely, in the 11 patients with mild vesicoureteral reflux (grades I-II), this technique showed extremely low sensitivity, allowing diagnosis in only four cases. Conclusions: Colour-Doppler cystosonography, because of the absence of ionizing radiations, has great advantages, particularly in patients needing prolonged monitoring. Despite experiences reported in the literature, this technique has a role in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux. Our group chooses colour-Doppler cystosonography for the follow-up of medium-severe grade vesicoureteral reflux already diagnosed by radiology and/or scintigraphy. Cystoscintigraphy is employed only to confirm cases resulting negative at ultrasonography. [source]

    Effect of Point-of-care Influenza Testing on Management of Febrile Children

    Srikant B. Iyer MD
    Abstract Objectives To determine the effect of point-of-care testing (POCT) for influenza on the physician management of febrile children who are at risk for serious bacterial illness (SBI) on the basis of age and temperature and who are presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) during an influenza outbreak. Methods Patients 2,3 months of age with temperature of ,38°C and patients 3,24 months of age with temperature of ,39°C who were presenting to a pediatric ED during an influenza outbreak were enrolled into a prospective, quasi-randomized, controlled trial. Influenza testing was performed on enrolled patients by either the POCT or the standard-testing (ST) methods. The two groups were compared in terms of laboratory testing, chest radiography, antibiotic use, visit-associated costs, pediatric ED lengths of stay, inpatient admission, and return visits to the pediatric ED. Similar analyses also were performed on the resulting subgroups of patients on the basis of method of testing (POCT or ST) and test result (positive or negative). Results Of 767 eligible patients, 700 (91%) completed the study. No significant differences were demonstrated between the POCT and ST groups with respect to laboratory tests ordered, chest radiographs obtained, antibiotic administration, inpatient admission, return visits to the pediatric ED, lengths of stay, or visit-associated costs. In the subgroup analysis, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for blood culture in influenza test,positive to ,negative patients were 0.59 and 0.71 in the POCT and ST groups, respectively (p = 0.088). The adjusted ORs for urine culture in influenza test,positive to ,negative patients were 0.46 and 0.67 in the POCT and ST groups, respectively (p = 0.005). Conclusions When using a strategy of performing influenza testing on all patients at risk for SBI who presented to a pediatric ED during an influenza outbreak, the method of testing (POCT or ST) did not appear to significantly alter physician management, cost, or length of stay in the pediatric ED. However, if the interaction of the method of testing and the test result (positive or negative) were considered, a positive POCT for influenza was associated with a significant reduction in orders for urinalyses and urine cultures. [source]

    Blueberry muffin rash as a presentation of alveolar cell rhabdomyosarcoma in a neonate

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 1 2000
    SV Godambe
    Soft tissue sarcomas of childhood continue to present problems with pathologic diagnosis, staging and treatment. Rhabdomyosarcoma, the most common soft tissue sarcoma, represents 4,8% of all malignant solid tumours in children. We report a case of congenital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma who presented with "blueberry muffin"-like rash. A full-term female infant was noted at birth to have multiple skin lesions resembling blueberry muffin rash and an abdominal mass in the left iliac fossa, which appeared to be fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. There was no enlargement of liver and spleen, but her para-aortic lymph nodes were enlarged. Biopsy from the mass confirmed the diagnosis of alveolar cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Molecular investigation for the t (2:13) translocation was negative. The infant received chemotherapy but died within 1 mo of diagnosis. [source]

    Possible Interaction Between Aspirin and ACE Inhibitors: Update on Unresolved Controversy

    Israel M. Barbash BmedSc
    The widespread use of aspirin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease contributes significantly to the reduction in morbidity and mortality from this common health problem. These agents are widely and concomitantly used, and they share mechanisms that may interact in negative or positive pathways. Data derived from in vitro preparations, animal studies, human studies, and case-control studies are inconsistent. No study has established firm evidence regarding the safety or adverse effect of aspirin on patients who are on ACE inhibitors. The efficacy and safety of aspirin in combination with ACE inhibitors has been questioned and debated. If a negative interaction does exist, it will affect daily practice in treating patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. This article reviews the available data regarding the safety of combined aspirin and ACE-inhibitor treatment among patients with ischemic heart disease, to assess the possible interaction between the two drugs and to discuss thesignificance and implications of the data. [source]

    Population Variability and Extinction Risk

    John A. Vucetich
    We resolve this conflict by attributing negative measured relationships to a statistical artifact that arises because PV tends to be underestimated for populations with short persistence. Such populations do not go extinct quickly as a consequence of low intrinsic variability; instead, the measured variability is low because they go extinct so quickly. Consequently, any underlying positive relationship between PV and ER tends to be obscured. We conducted a series of analyses to evaluate this claim. Simulations showed that negative measured relationships are to be expected, despite an underlying positive relationship. Simulations also identified properties of data, minimizing this bias and thereby permitting meaningful analysis. Experimental data on laboratory populations of a bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) supported the simulation results. Likewise, with an appropriate statistical approach (Cox regression on untransformed data), reanalysis of a controversial data set on British island bird populations revealed a significant positive association between PV and ER (p = 0.03). Finally, a similar analysis of time series for naturally regulated animal populations revealed a positive association between PV and quasiextinction risk (p < 0.01). Without exception, our simulation results, experimental findings, reanalysis of published data, and analysis of quasiextinction risk all contradict previous reports of negative or equivocal relationships. Valid analysis of meaningful data provides strong evidence that increased population variability leads to increased extinction risk. Resumen: Los modelos poblacionales generalmente predicen un mayor riesgo de extinción (ER) al aumentar la variabilidad poblacional ( PV ,), a pesar de ello, algunas pruebas empíricas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. Nosotros hemos resuelto este conflicto mediante la atribución de mediciones de relaciones negativas a un producto estadístico que surge debido a que la PV tiende a ser subestimada para poblaciones de persistencia corta. Estas poblaciones no se extinguen rápidamente como resultado de una variabilidad intrínseca baja; por lo contrario, la variabilidad medida es baja debido a que las poblaciones se extinguen tan rápidamente. Consecuentemente, cualquier relación positiva subyacente entre la PV y el ER tienden a ser opacadas. Llevamos a cabo una serie de análisis para evaluar este argumento. Las simulaciones mostraron que las relaciones negativas medidas son de esperarse, a pesar de una relación positiva subyacente. Las simulaciones también identificaron propiedades de los datos que minimizan este sesgo y por lo tanto permiten un análisis significativo. Los datos experimentales en poblaciones de laboratorio de un coleóptero bruchidae (Callosobruchus maculatus) respaldan los resultados de las simulaciones. De la misma manera, el uso de una técnica estadística adecuada (por ejemplo, la regresión Cox en datos sin transformar), usada en la repetición del análisis de un juego de datos controvertidos de poblaciones de aves de la Isla Británica reveló una asociación positiva significativa entre la PV y el ER (p = 0.03). Finalmente, un análisis similar de series de tiempo para poblaciones de animales reguladas de manera natural revelaron una asociación positiva entre la PV y el riesgo de cuasi-extinción (p < 0.01). Sin excepciones, nuestros resultados de simulaciones, los resultados experimentales, la repetición del análisis de datos publicados, y el análisis de riesgo de cuasi-extinción contradicen informes previos de relaciones negativas o equívocas. Los análisis válidos de datos significativos proveen una evidencia sólida de que los incrementos en la variabilidad poblacional conducen a un incremento en el riego de extinción. [source]

    A spot test for detection of cobalt release , early experience and findings

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2010
    Jacob P. Thyssen
    Background: It is often difficult to establish clinical relevance of metal exposure in cobalt-allergic patients. Dermatologists and patients may incorrectly assume that many metallic items release cobalt at levels that may cause cobalt dermatitis. Cobalt-allergic patients may be unaware that they are exposed to cobalt from handling work items, causing hand dermatitis. Objectives: To present early findings with a newly developed cobalt spot test. Methods and Results: A cobalt spot test based on disodium-1-nitroso-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonate was able to identify cobalt release at 8.3 ppm. The test may also be used as a gel test if combined with an agar preparation. We found no false-positive reactions when testing metals and alloys known not to contain cobalt. However, one cobalt-containing alloy, which elicited cobalt dermatitis in cobalt-allergic patients, was negative upon cobalt gel testing. Conclusions: The cobalt test detects amounts of cobalt release that approximate the elicitation concentration seen in cobalt-allergic patients. It may serve as a useful tool in dermatology offices and workplaces. [source]

    Formaldehyde-releasers: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy.

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2010
    Part 2.
    This is the second part of a review article on formaldehyde-releasers used as durable press chemical finishes (DPCF) in textiles. The early finishes contained large amounts of free formaldehyde, which led to many cases of allergic contact dermatitis to clothes in the 1950s and 1960s. Currently, most finishes are based on modified dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea, which releases less formaldehyde. Nevertheless, recent studies in the United States and Israel have identified patients reacting to DPCF, considered to have allergic contact reactions to clothes, either from formaldehyde released by the DPCF therein or from the DPCF per se (in patients negative to formaldehyde). However, all studies had some weaknesses in design or interpretation and in not a single case has the clinical relevance been proven. The amount of free formaldehyde in most garments will likely be below the threshold for the elicitation of dermatitis for all but the most sensitive patients. The amount of free cyclized urea DPCF in clothes is unlikely to be high enough to cause sensitization. Patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasing DPCF will in most cases represent a reaction to formaldehyde released from the test material. [source]

    Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 1 2009
    Kristiina Aalto-Korte
    Background: Contact allergy to epoxy (meth)acrylates, 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA), 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-acryloxypropoxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-GA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryl-oxyethoxy)phenyl] propane (bis-EMA), 2,2-bis[4-(methacryloxy)phenyl]-propane (bis-MA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is often manifested together with contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin. Objective: To analyse patterns of concomitant allergic reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates in relation to exposure. Methods: We reviewed the 1994,2008 patch test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) for reactions to the five epoxy (meth)acrylates, and examined the patients' medical records for exposure. Results: Twenty-four patients had an allergic reaction to at least one of the studied epoxy (meth)acrylates, but specific exposure was found only in five patients: two bis-GMA allergies from dental products, two bis-GA allergies from UV-curable printing inks, and one bis-GA allergy from an anaerobic glue. Only 25% of the patients were negative to DGEBA epoxy resin. Conclusions: The great majority of allergic patch test reactions to bis-GMA, bis-GA, GMA and bis-EMA were not associated with specific exposure, and cross-allergy to DGEBA epoxy resin remained a probable explanation. However, independent reactions to bis-GA indicated specific exposure. Anaerobic sealants may induce sensitization not only to aliphatic (meth)acrylates but also to aromatic bis-GA. [source]

    Miconidin and miconidin methyl ether from Primula obconica Hance: new allergens in an old sensitizer

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2006
    Evy Paulsen
    Several chemical and clinical observations have suggested the presence of at least one more allergen in addition to primin in Primula obconica. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity of the primin precursor miconidin and the related miconidin methyl ether, both isolated from P. obconica. 12 primin-positive persons were patch tested with miconidin 0.01% petrolatum (pet.), miconidin in 96% ethanol incorporated into 0.01% pet., and miconidin methyl ether 1.0% pet. All persons were positive to miconidin 0.01% pet., with the strength of reactions very similar to those of the individual primin reactions, and remained inexplicably negative while testing with miconidin in 96% ethanol and pet., while miconidin methyl ether elicited 7 positive reactions. Although both miconidin and miconidin methyl ether may be allergenic only due to their conversion to primin in the skin, the presence of these substances nevertheless has to be taken into account when assessing the allergenicity of new P. obconica cultivars. [source]