Natural Resistance (natural + resistance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Allelic association between the NRAMP1 gene and susceptibility to tuberculosis in Guinea,Conakry

Forty four families from Guinea,Conakry were analysed to test for association between NRAMP1 (Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1) polymorphisms and tuberculosis. Each family included at least one affected sib and one parent. Healthy sibs were also analysed and on average the families included four members. A total of 160 individuals were included in the final dataset. The analysis of association was performed using an extended TDT test, TRANSMIT, to allow for missing information in the parental genotypes. Three polymorphisms in the NRAMP1 gene were typed: a microsatellite (CA) repeat, a 4 bp deletion in the 3, untranslated region and a single nucleotide change in intron 4. The single base change in intron 4 was significantly associated (p= 0.036) with tuberculosis. Our results therefore confirm, using a family-based approach on a newly studied population, the previously reported association between this polymorphism and tuberculosis in a population-based study of West Africans. [source]

Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs

M. Jacobsen
Summary Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility/resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markers. By a targeted approach, the candidate region was subjected to screening for polymorphisms, mainly focusing on intronic sequences. A total of 18 genes were partially sequenced, and polymorphisms were identified in GP5, CENTB2, APOD, PCYT1A, OSTalpha, ZDHHC19, TFRC, ACK1, MUC4, MUC20, KIAA0226, LRCH3 and MUC13. Overall, 227 polymorphisms were discovered in the founder generation. The analysis revealed a large haplotype block, spanning at least 1.5 Mb around MUC4, to be associated with F4ab/ac susceptibility. [source]

Efficacy of manual removal and ivermectin gavage for control of Salmincola californiensis (Wilson) infestation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), captive broodstocks

K A Johnson
Captive broodstocks of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were initiated from collections of naturally produced parr from the Lemhi River, a tributary of the Salmon River, ID, USA. These fish were subsequently demonstrated to be infested with the copepod parasite Salmincola californiensis. The initial prevalence of visible adult parasites for 4 years of observations made shortly after collection varied from 19.7 to 71.6%. Both the prevalence and intensity of the infestation increased in the freshwater culture of these fish. Manual removal was initiated as a means of control and practiced at monthly intervals. The number of Salmincola removed decreased in the ensuing 5 months, but the prevalence was not greatly affected. Ivermectin (22,23 dihydroavermectin), was diluted with saline and delivered by gavage at the rate of 0.20 mg kg,1 body weight when the groups were being handled for the manual removal of parasites. Either two or three ivermectin treatments were given to four broodstocks of chinook salmon depending on the severity of the infestation and on the extent of gill pathology. The combination of manual removal and ivermectin gavage eliminated live Salmincola and resolved all associated necrosis of the gill tissues. There was no trend to indicate that individual chinook salmon possessed a natural resistance to reinfestation. [source]

Polymorphism in the Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) NRAMP1 gene: lack of an allelic association to tuberculosis susceptibility

Amos S. Deinard
Although previous tuberculosis (TB) research has suggested that underlying genetic factors influence a host's response and ability to survive Mycobacterium infection, only recently has a gene been identified, the `natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1' (NRAMP1) gene, which provides a degree of natural resistance to infection by some Mycobacterium species. To date, however, the role that NRAMP1 may play in resistance to Mycobacterium infection has only been examined in mouse and man. Here, we present data generated at NRAMP1 among a group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that were euthanized because of an outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during quarantine. Data were also generated on unrelated (and healthy) rhesus macaques in order to better determine the frequency and degree of genetic polymorphism within Macaca at the NRAMP1 locus. These data represent the first study designed to examine the role that NRAMP1 may play in TB susceptibility among rhesus macaques. [source]

Polymorphism and drug-selected mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV-2 from patients living in southeastern France

Philippe Colson
Abstract Few data are available about the susceptibility and the genotypic resistance pattern of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene from 25 HIV-2-infected patients followed-up in Marseilles and the surrounding area was analyzed. The aims of this study were to characterize the polymorphism of HIV-2 RT in the absence of drug, to determine whether it naturally harbors codons associated with drug-resistance in HIV-1, and to identify mutations emerging under NRTI-selective pressure. Fourteen patients had never undergone antiretroviral therapy and 11 received NRTI. Seventy sequences were analyzed. In untreated patients, 12 spots of high natural polymorphism (at positions 10, 11, 20, 43, 104, 121, 135, 162, 176, 180, 200, and 227) were observed; 4 of them were specific of HIV-2 (10, 176, 180, 227). Moreover, results showed four positions that could be associated with natural resistance to NRTI (75I, 118I, 219E, and perhaps 215S), in addition to those described previously for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (181I, 188L, 190A). In HIV-2-infected patients receiving NRTI-containing therapies, specific genotypic patterns were observed with a high frequency of mutation Q151M (in 45% of patients) often associated with 70R, 115F, 214L, and/or 223R, which might compose an HIV-2 multi-NRTI resistance complex. Four newly or rarely described NRTI-selected mutations were observed: I5V, K35R, F214L, and K223R. As in HIV-1, substitution M184V was found in 3TC-treated patients. In conclusion, these findings highlight the need for specific guidelines for determining genotypic resistance and treatment of HIV-2. J. Med. Virol. 75:381,390, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Role of catchment area in the transport of nutrients to lakes in the Wielkopolska National Park in Poland

Halina Szyper
Abstract The external loading of 14 lakes in the Wielkopolska National Park was calculated, including nitrogen and phosphorus loads from point, diffuse and dispersed sources, precipitation and recreation. The basic source of nitrogen and phosphorus for most lakes in the Park is the export of diffuse pollution from the catchment area. Only four lakes are contaminated by sewage, which accounts for 0.1,61.2% of total nutrient loading. Annual unit area loads of phosphorus and nitrogen estimated for each lake were 2,51 times higher than Vollenweider's critical loading levels. Estimated mass loading and annual unit area loads of nutrients for each lake were compared with lake water quality, expressed as the trophic state index. Analysis of the physico-geographical structure of the catchment area and natural resistance of lakes to external input of nutrients allowed us to assess the role of the catchment in the deterioration of water quality and to indicate the protective measures required. [source]

Probiotics: A Critical Review of Their Potential Role as Antihypertensives, Immune Modulators, Hypocholesterolemics, and Perimenopausal Treatments

Min-Tze Liong PhD
The conventional use of probiotics to modulate gastrointestinal health, such as in improving lactose intolerance, increasing natural resistance to infectious diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, suppressing traveler's diarrhea, and reducing bloating, has been well investigated and documented. Most of the mechanisms reported to date are mainly caused by the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. Currently, the potential applications of probiotics are being expanded beyond alleviating gastrointestinal disorders to include benefits involving antihypertension, immu-nomodulation, improving serum lipid profiles, and the alleviation of postmenopausal disorders. Although they seem promising, most of these postulated benefits are based on in vitro evaluations, and the lack of in vivo evidence and/or incompatible outcomes between in vitro experiments and in vivo trials has led to inconclusive claims. This present review highlights some of the previous roles of probiotics on gut health and addresses several potential roles currently being investigated. [source]

Mechanisms of resistance to invasion in a California grassland: the roles of competitor identity, resource availability, and environmental gradients

OIKOS, Issue 1 2007
Meredith A. Thomsen
Resistance to the invasion of exotic plants may sometimes result from the strong effects of a relatively small number of resident species. Understanding the mechanisms by which such species resist invasion could provide important insights for the management of invaded ecosystems. Furthermore, the individualistic responses of community members to resource availability and environmental gradients could drive spatial variation in resistance at the local to landscape scales. We tested the resistance of monoculture plots of three native perennial grasses from the California coastal prairie to the invasion of the European perennial grass Holcus lanatus. We also used a watering treatment that increased early summer water availability and a natural elevational gradient in resource availability and soil texture to evaluate how resident identity interacted with abiotic resistance to affect Holcus establishment. Two native species, Festuca rubra and Calamagrostis nutkaensis, exhibited strong resistance, correlated with their negative effects on light availability. A third native grass, Bromus carinatus var. maritimus, had either no effect or a weakly facultative effect on Holcus performance relative to bare plots. Water addition did not alter the resistance of these species, but the elevation gradient did. Holcus invasion increased with improving abiotic conditions towards the slope bottom in bare and Bromus plots, but invasion decreased towards the bottom in Calamagrostis plots, where better conditions favored competitive residents. These results support the idea that resistance to invasion can sometimes be due to a subset of native species, and that the resistance provided by even a single species is likely to vary across the landscape. Identifying the mechanisms by which species resist invasion could facilitate the selection of management strategies that at best increase, or at worst do not decrease, natural resistance. [source]

Intravenous infection of virulent shigellae causes fulminant hepatitis in mice

Maria Celeste Martino
Summary Shigella spp. are pathogenic bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. The major lesions in colonic mucosa are intense inflammation with apoptosis of macrophages and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The study of shigellosis is hindered by the natural resistance of rodents to oral infection with Shigella. Therefore, animal models exploit other routes of infection. Here, we describe a novel murine model in which animals receive shigellae via the caudal vein. Mice infected with 5 106 (LD50) virulent shigellae died at 48 h post infection, whereas animals receiving non-invasive mutants survived. The liver is the main target of infection, where shigellae induce microgranuloma formation. In mice infected with invasive bacteria, high frequency of apoptotic cells is observed within hepatic microgranulomas along with significant levels of mRNA for pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1,, IL-18, IL-12 and IFN-,. Moreover, in the blood of these animals high levels of IL-6 and transaminases are detected. Our results demonstrate the intravenous model is suitable for pathogenicity studies and useful to explore the immune response after Shigella infection. [source]

Identification of candidate genes for schizophrenia based on natural resistance to infectious diseases

James S Brown Jr
Background:, Identification of candidate genes for schizophrenia may be more successful than genome screens as the latter have not found consistent linkages. Objective:, To assist in the gene search, a model of schizophrenia based on resistance to infectious diseases, rather than susceptibility, is proposed. The theory blends the geography of schizophrenia with the assumption that genes that cause schizophrenia likely evolved and persist from selection pressure. The theory includes the notion that schizophrenia enhances biological survival at the cost of psychological and social functioning. Method:, To demonstrate the utility of using this model, the Medline literature was searched for resistance genes, mostly identified in mice. Results:, Based on homologous locations in the human genome, these resistance genes are shown to be located in human chromosome regions linked significantly, in at least one genome screen, with schizophrenia or some physiologically related function or condition associated with schizophrenia. Conclusions:, The infectious disease resistance theory of schizophrenia is offered as a viable model for understanding the origins of schizophrenia. The theory also allows for the inclusion of persistent infections, seasonal variability and translational pathophysiology to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. [source]

The rhizosphere as a reservoir for opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria

Gabriele Berg
Summary During the last years, the number of human infections caused by opportunistic pathogens has increased dramatically. One natural reservoir of opportunistic pathogens is the rhizosphere, the zone around roots that is influenced by the plant. Due to a high content of nutrients, this habitat is a ,microbial hot-spot', where bacterial abundances including those with strong antagonistic traits are enhanced. Various bacterial genera, including Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Herbaspirillum, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas, contain root-associated strains that can encounter bivalent interactions with both plant and human hosts. Mechanisms responsible for colonization of the rhizosphere and antagonistic activity against plant pathogens are similar to those responsible for colonization of human organs and tissues, and pathogenicity. Multiple resistances against antibiotics are not only found with clinical strains but also with strains isolated from the rhizosphere. High competition, the occurrence of diverse antibiotics in the rhizosphere, and enhanced horizontal gene transfer rates in this microenvironment appear to contribute to the high levels of natural resistances. While opportunistic bacteria from the rhizosphere have some properties in common, each of these emerging pathogens has its own features, which are discussed in detail for Burkholderia, Ochrobactrum and Stenotrophomonas. [source]