Natural Mortality (natural + mortality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Natural Mortality

  • natural mortality rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Mortality dynamics and population regulation in Bemisia tabaci

    Steven E. Naranjo
    Abstract Natural mortality is an important determinant of the population dynamics of a species, and an understanding of mortality forces should aid in the development of better management strategies for insect pests. An in situ, observational method was used to construct cohort-based life tables for Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) over 14 generations on cotton in central Arizona, USA, from 1997 to 1999. In descending order, median marginal rates of mortality were highest for predation, dislodgment, unknown causes, egg inviability, and parasitism. The highest mortality occurred during the 4th nymphal stadium, and the median rate of immature survival over 14 generations was 6.6%. Predation during the 4th nymphal stadium was the primary key factor. Irreplaceable mortality was highest for predation and dislodgment, with the absence of these mortality factors leading to the greatest increases in estimated net reproduction. There was little evidence of direct or delayed density-dependence for any mortality factor. Wind, rainfall, and predator densities were associated with dislodgment, and rates of predation were related to densities of Geocoris spp., Orius tristicolor (White), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. Stephens, and Lygus hesperus Knight. Simulations suggest that immigration and emigration play important roles in site-specific dynamics by explaining departures from observed population trajectories based solely on endogenous reproduction and mortality. By a direct measurement of these mortality factors and indirect evidence of adult movement, we conclude that efficient pest management may be best accomplished by fostering greater mortality during the 4th stadium, largely through a conservation of predators and by managing immigrating adult populations at their sources. [source]

    Long-term dynamics of pelagic fish density and vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) stocks in four zones of a lake differing in trawling intensity

    T. J. Marjomäki
    Abstract , An 11-year time series of hydroacoustic fish density estimates and fisheries statistics of vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) from four zones of a lake differing in trawling intensity was analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that intensive trawling has detrimental effects on pelagic fish stocks, especially vendace recruitment. The standardized fish density estimate in trawled zones showed no decrease in comparison to the non-trawled zone. No signs of recruitment failure associable with trawling intensity were found. The growth of vendace at the end of the study period was slower than that at the beginning, indicating a higher density, most clearly so in the zone with highest trawling intensity. No significant correlations were detected between 3-year mean trawling intensity and yield per unit effort of over-1-year-old vendace or fish density in any zone. Thus, no evidence to support the hypothesis was found. This was suggested to be due to density-dependent compensatory processes in recruitment and/or natural mortality effectively counteracting the population change induced by exploitation., [source]

    Classifying tagging experiments for commercial fisheries into three fundamental types based on design, data requirements and estimable population parameters

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 2 2010
    Tom Polacheck
    Abstract Mark,recapture experiments have the potential to provide direct estimates of fundamental parameters required for fishery stock assessment and provision of subsequent management advice in fisheries. The literature on mark,recapture experiments is enormous, with a variety of different experimental designs and estimation models; thus, it can be difficult to grasp the primary features of different approaches, the inter-relationship among them and their potential utility in different situations. Here, we present an overview of the tagging experimental designs that are appropriate for use in commercial fishery situations. We suggest that most mark,recapture experiments in a large-scale fishery context can be classified into one of three basic types , Petersen, tag-attrition or Brownie , based on the fundamental design employed for releases and recaptures. The release and recapture strategy (e.g. the number of release events, whether the size of the sample examined for recaptured tags is known) determines which parameters can be estimated and from where the information for estimating them arises. We conclude that an integrated Brownie and Petersen approach is the most powerful of the different approaches in terms of the range of parameters that can be estimated without underlying assumptions or constraints on parameters. Such an approach can provide direct estimates of fishing mortality, natural mortality and population size, which are the main population dynamics parameters that traditional fishery stock assessments attempt to estimate. [source]

    Are stock assessment methods too complicated?

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 3 2004
    A J R Cotter
    Abstract This critical review argues that several methods for the estimation and prediction of numbers-at-age, fishing mortality coefficients F, and recruitment for a stock of fish are too hard to explain to customers (the fishing industry, managers, etc.) and do not pay enough attention to weaknesses in the supporting data, assumptions and theory. The review is linked to North Sea demersal stocks. First, weaknesses in the various types of data used in North Sea assessments are summarized, i.e. total landings, discards, commercial and research vessel abundance indices, age-length keys and natural mortality (M). A list of features that an ideal assessment should have is put forward as a basis for comparing different methods. The importance of independence and weighting when combining different types of data in an assessment is stressed. Assessment methods considered are Virtual Population Analysis, ad hoc tuning, extended survivors analysis (XSA), year-class curves, catch-at-age modelling, and state-space models fitted by Kalman filter or Bayesian methods. Year-class curves (not to be confused with ,catch-curves') are the favoured method because of their applicability to data sets separately, their visual appeal, simple statistical basis, minimal assumptions, the availability of confidence limits, and the ease with which estimates can be combined from different data sets after separate analyses. They do not estimate absolute stock numbers or F but neither do other methods unless M is accurately known, as is seldom true. [source]

    Analysis of the trophy sport fishery for the speckled peacock bass in the Rio Negro River, Brazil

    M. H. HOLLEY
    Abstract, The middle portion of the Rio Negro River in Brazil near the equator supports a popular recreational sport fishery for speckled peacock bass, Cichla temensis (Humboldt). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fishing mortality on this population. Fish were collected from sport-fishing (n = 72) and commercial (n = 103) catches and otoliths were aged to estimate longevity, growth and natural mortality. Recreational anglers in this region seek to catch, then release, larger speckled peacock bass; and fish larger than 62 cm standard length (SL) (about 4.5 kg) served as a bench mark to assess the potential impact of subsistence and commercial harvest on the abundance of larger fish in the sport fishery. Time of opaque band formation on otoliths generally coincided with the dry season (November to April); these bands appeared to form once per year, but formation was highly variable. Speckled peacock bass grew to 62 cm SL on average in 6.4 years, but some fish obtained this size in 4,5 years. Maximum age was 9 years, but most fish were less than 7 years. Instantaneous annual natural mortality (M) estimated from maximum size, longevity and growth ranged from 0.19 to 0.44. Simulation modelling predicted that exploitation rates of fish >25 cm SL similar to the estimated natural mortality rates would reduce the abundance of fish >62 cm by 67,89% compared with no harvest. Even modest exploitation rates of 5% and 10% would result in approximately 30,50% reduction, respectively, of these larger fish. Abundance of large speckled peacock bass that sustains the sport fishery is susceptible to low rates of exploitation in this remote region of Brazil. [source]

    An empirical test of source,sink dynamics induced by hunting

    Summary 1Under the source,sink model, persistence of populations in habitat sinks, where deaths outnumber births, depends on dispersal from high-quality habitat sources, where births outnumber deaths. The persistence of the regional population depends on the proportion of sink relative to source habitat. 2Hunting that occurs in some parts of the landscape and not in others can create patches where deaths outnumber births. We tested whether hunting of culpeo foxes Pseudalopex culpaeus, which is patchily distributed in relatively homogeneous habitat in Argentine Patagonia, induces source,sink dynamics. 3On Patagonian sheep ranches, culpeos are hunted for fur and to protect sheep, and on cattle ranches hunting is usually banned. We monitored culpeo densities using scent stations and estimated survival, fecundity and dispersal by radio-tracking 44 culpeos and analysing carcasses collected from hunters on two cattle and four sheep ranches between 1989 and 1997. 4Survival of juvenile culpeos was lower on hunted than unhunted ranches, mainly as a result of hunting mortality. Reproduction could not compensate for high mortality on hunted ranches. Interruption of hunting led to an increase in juvenile survival, indicating that hunting and natural mortality were not compensatory. We concluded that sheep ranches were sinks because of the high mortality and that sink populations may be maintained by dispersal from cattle ranches. 5We used a simulation model to assess implications of changes in the proportion of source and sink areas on population dynamics. The percentage of land on cattle ranches in the study area was 37%. Current hunting pressure on culpeos would not be sustainable if that percentage fell below 30%. 6Synthesis and applications. Source,sink dynamics may occur in landscapes where hunting is intense and spatially heterogeneous. Wildlife management traditionally monitors demographic rates to evaluate the sustainability of hunting, but our results suggest that the size and spatial arrangement of areas with and without hunting should be considered as well. In regions where enforcement and monitoring are limited, securing large and regularly distributed source areas for hunted species may be more effective than trying to regulate harvest size. [source]

    Fungi associated with a natural epizootic in Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) populations

    J. A. P. Marcelino
    Abstract Stands of eastern hemlock [(Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] in the northeastern United States are in decline, in part from the attack of elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). From 2001 to the present, a natural epizootic has been observed in populations of F. externa. Initially discovered at the Mianus River Gorge Preserve in Bedford, New York, the epizootic has also been detected in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Understanding and assessing the identity of the pathogenic micro-organisms responsible for this natural mortality is crucial for developing biological controls for this pest. We have isolated and taxonomically and genetically identified entomopathogens, phytopathogens and endophytic fungi associated with F. externa. Isolates of the following were obtained: Colletotrichum sp., Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana, Metarhiziopsis microspora, Myriangium sp., Mycosphaerella sp. anamorph, Nectria sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophora sp. and Fusarium sp. [source]

    Age, growth, mortality and population structure of the oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis, in the Moheskhali Channel (southeastern coast of Bangladesh)

    S. M. Nurul Amin
    Summary The population structure, age, growth, mortality and harvest intensity of the oyster Crassostrea madrasensis were examined in the Moheskhali Channel, Bangladesh between June 2003 and May 2004. The channel is a representative habitat for the area. C. madrasensis monthly length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software for estimating population parameters, including asymptotic length (L), growth co-efficient (K) and recruitment pattern to assess the status of the stock. Asymptotic length (L,) and growth co-efficient (K) were 20.88 cm and 0.35 year,1, respectively. The growth performance index (,,) was calculated with 2.18. The growth pattern showed negative allometric growth (b < 3), with an asymptotic weight (W) of about 1124.6 g. The oyster attained an average length of 6.17 cm at the end of 1 year. Total mortality (Z) by length-converted catch curve was estimated at 1.78 year,1, fishing mortality (F) at 0.77 year,1, and natural mortality (M) at 1.01 year,1. The exploitation level (E) of C. madrasensis was 0.43, while the maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) was 0.45 for the highest yield. The recruitment pattern was continuous, displaying a single major peak event per year. Habitat temperatures were 25.5,31.0°C (mean ± SD, 29 ± 1.62°C); salinity range was from 12.36 to 26.0 ppt (mean ± SD, 19.6 ± 4.7 ppt). The exploitation level (0.43) indicated that the oyster stock was exploited at almost maximum yield in this channel. [source]

    The biology of the bigeye grenadier at South Georgia

    S. A. Morley
    The biology of the bigeye grenadier Macrourus holotrachys caught as by-catch in the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides longline fishery conducted around South Georgia was investigated to improve data available for fisheries management. Age estimates suggest that M. holotrachys is a moderately slow growing species (K = 0·10), reaching ages of >30 years and attaining total lengths (LT) >80 cm (L, = 33). The size at which 50% of females had started to mature (Lint50) for M. holotrachys was 21 cm pre-anal length (LPA) and occurred at c. 9 years old. Estimates of natural mortality and Pauly's growth performance index were found to be low (M = 0·09 and , = 2·82 respectively). Gonad maturity stage was described from macroscopic and histological investigation. Mature ovaries had oocytes at all developmental stages with between 22 and 55% likely to be spawned each year. Absolute fecundity ranged from 22 000 to 260 000 eggs and was positively correlated with both pre-anal length and mass. A highly skewed sex ratio of 32 : 1, females : males, was found for specimens caught by longlines but not for a small sample of shallower trawl-caught specimens. It is suggested that females are far more susceptible to longline capture than males. Macrourus holotrachys is a bentho-pelagic predator and scavenger that feeds on a wide range of fishes and invertebrates. The fish are long lived, slow-growing species typical of deep-water grenadiers; fisheries management strategies should reflect their probable susceptibility to overfishing. [source]

    Kin influence on the decision to start using modern contraception: A longitudinal study from rural Gambia

    Ruth Mace
    In earlier work in rural Gambia, we found that kin influence reproductive success: matrilineal kin, especially mothers, maternal grandmothers and unmarried older sisters all helped to promote the survival and nutrition of young children; in contrast patrilineal kin, especially husband's mother, promoted fertility. These differing influences of maternal and paternal lineage are predicted on the basis of kin selection and sexual conflict theory, because the costs of reproduction fall more heavily on the mother than the father. These studies covered the period 1950,1975, when this population was essentially "natural fertility, natural mortality." It is not possible to tell whether these effects were due to kin influencing active reproductive decision-making, or due to indirect effects such as kin improving nutrition by helping. Since 1976, modern contraception has become available in this community. In an analysis of the behavioral ecology of the decision to start using modern contraception, we found that high parity for your age was a key determinant of the decision, as was village and calendar year. Here, we examine whether the presence or absence of kin and also whether the contraceptive status of kin influenced the decision to start using contraception. We find little evidence that kin directly influence contraceptive uptake, either by their presence/absence or as models for social learning. However, death of a first husband (i.e., widowhood) does accelerate contraceptive uptake. We discuss our results from an evolutionary demography perspective, in particular regarding theories of sexual conflict, biased cultural transmission, and social learning. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Viral Control of Phytoplankton Populations,a Review,

    ABSTRACT. Phytoplankton population dynamics are the result of imbalances between reproduction and losses. Losses include grazing, sinking, and natural mortality. As the importance of microbes in aquatic ecology has been recognized, so has the potential significance of viruses as mortality agents for phytoplankton. The field of algal virus ecology is steadily changing and advancing as new viruses are isolated and new methods are developed for quantifying the impact of viruses on phytoplankton dynamics and diversity. With this development, evidence is accumulating that viruses can control phytoplankton dynamics through reduction of host populations, or by preventing algal host populations from reaching high levels. The identification of highly specific host ranges of viruses is changing our understanding of population dynamics. Viral-mediated mortality may not only affect algal species succession, but may also affect intraspecies succession. Through cellular lysis, viruses indirectly affect the fluxes of energy, nutrients, and organic matter, especially during algal bloom events when biomass is high. Although the importance of viruses is presently recognized, it is apparent that many aspects of viral-mediated mortality of phytoplankton are still poorly understood. It is imperative that future research addresses the mechanisms that regulate virus infectivity, host resistance, genotype richness, abundance, and the fate of viruses over time and space. [source]

    Sea turtle strandings reveal high anthropogenic mortality in Italian waters

    Paolo Casale
    Abstract 1.Spatio-temporal distribution and anthropogenic mortality factors were investigated in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) found stranded or floating in the waters around Italy. A total of 5938 records for the period 1980,2008 were analysed concerning loggerhead turtles measuring from 3.8 to 97,cm curved carapace length (mean: 48.3,cm). 2.Results highlighted the following conservation issues: (i) in the study area, anthropogenic mortality is higher than natural mortality; (ii) interaction with fisheries is by far the most important anthropogenic mortality factor; (iii) longlines are an important mortality factor in the southern areas; (iv) trawlers are the cause of high numbers of dead strandings in the north Adriatic; (v) entanglement in ghost-gear or in other anthropogenic debris affects high numbers of turtles; and (vi) boat strikes are an important source of mortality in most areas but mostly in the warm seasons. 3.Results also indicate that: (vii) the north Adriatic is the area with the highest turtle density; and (viii) the south Adriatic and to a lesser extent the surrounding areas of the north Adriatic and the Ionian, are important developmental areas for loggerhead turtles in the first years of life. 4.Italy is in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and borders major foraging areas for the loggerhead turtles in the region, and these results confirm previous concerns about the level of anthropogenic mortality in Italian waters. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Conserving a subpopulation of the northern Atlantic cod metapopulation with a marine protected area

    Liuming Hu
    Abstract 1.Marine reserves can play an important role in the conservation of subpopulations of marine fish metapopulations. The population spatial structure of northern Atlantic cod of Newfoundland and Labrador has characteristics of a metapopulation. Subpopulations of northern Atlantic cod on the continental shelf were decimated by decades of overfishing, and have not recovered. The remaining northern cod are concentrated in coastal areas. 2.A Marine Protected Area (MPA) was established in Gilbert Bay, Labrador by the Government of Canada in 2005 to protect the bay's resident subpopulation of northern Atlantic cod. Conservation of Gilbert Bay cod will help protect the genetic diversity of the northern cod metapopulation. 3.Unlike some other MPAs, Gilbert Bay is not a harvest refugium or ,no-take' reserve. Aboriginal subsistence fisheries for salmonids with a bycatch of cod are allowed in designated areas of the MPA. A recreational fishery for Atlantic cod by angling open to all people is under consideration. Management of the MPA must ensure that fishing activities do not endanger the local cod population. 4.The population dynamics of Gilbert Bay cod were simulated using an age-structured Leslie matrix model to estimate the total mortality under various recreational fishing scenarios. The level of sustainable harvest by a recreational fishery depends on the natural mortality of the Gilbert Bay cod population, which is unknown. Therefore, there is risk in permitting a recreational fishery in the MPA. 5.There may be benefits to the northern cod metapopulation, if the Gilbert Bay subpopulation is allowed to rebuild to the carrying capacity of the bay. If the abundance of Gilbert Bay cod exceeds the level which the local marine ecosystem can support, some cod may emigrate from the bay and recolonize adjacent coastal areas. The potential for Gilbert Bay cod to recolonize continental shelf areas is less certain. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]