National Institutions (national + institution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prevalence of BRCA1 genomic rearrangements in a large cohort of Italian breast and breast/ovarian cancer families without detectable BRCA1 and BRCA2 point mutations

Simona Agata
The presence of genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 gene in breast and/or ovarian cancer families has been intensively investigated in patients from various countries over the last years. A number of different rearrangements have been reported by several studies that clearly document the involvement of this mutation type in genetic predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Population-specific studies are now needed to evaluate the prevalence of genomic rearrangements before deciding whether to include ad hoc screening procedures into standard diagnostic mutation detection approaches. Indeed, the vast majority of the studies have been performed on small, highly selected, sample sets because of the limitations imposed by the laborious technical approaches. Moreover, prevalence figures are likely to differ across different countries according to the ethnic origin of each specific population. Here we analyze a large cohort of 653 Italian probands, negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 point mutations, gathered from four National Institutions. We report the identification of BRCA1 genomic rearrangements in 12 independent families. Noteworthy, half of the probands carry mutations that recur in more than one Italian family. Considering the whole spectrum of Italian BRCA1 gene rearrangements identified thus far in consecutive patients, we estimate that alterations of this type account for 19% (95% CI: 0.11 < 0.19 < 0.28) of the BRCA1 mutation positive families. We conclude that the search for major genomic rearrangements is essential for an accurate and comprehensive BRCA1 mutation detection strategy in Italy. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The National Research Council of Canada: Institutional change for an era of innovation policy

G. Bruce Doern
There are two main themes. The first is that the nrc has changed considerably in a way that reflects both the diverse and contested meanings of the innovation policy paradigm that gradually emerged under the Mulroney Conservative era and then under the Chrétien Liberal era. The second theme is that as these newer policy and strategic rubrics were imposed, partially accepted and adapted, the nrc inevitably had both to confront and change, and also defend and support, its own traditions as a complex government science agency that still values research for its own sake and as a public good. The nrc could not help but involve all of its organizational characteristics, namely, as an organization of scientists, as a politically controlled agency, as a national institution, and as a regionally dispersed institution of numerous and varied institutes. Sommaire: Cet article examine la transformation institutionnelle du Conseil de recherche du Canada (CRC) au cours de cette demière décennie, dans le contexte politico-économique des politiques d'innovation. L'article s'articule sur deux thèmes principaux: premièrement, le CRC a beaucoup changé et reflète les perspectives à la fois diverses et contestées du paradigme des politiques d'innovation qui a vu le jour progressivement sous les Conservateurs de Mulroney puis les Libéraux de Chrétien. Deuxièmement, tandis que ces nouvelles politiques et stratégiesétait imposées par-tiellement acceptées et adaptées, elles ont inévitablement forgé le CRC à confronter, modifier ainsi que défendre et appuyer ses propres traditions d'organisme scienti-fique gouvememental complexe, qui accorde toujours une grande valeur à la recherche en tant que telle et en tant que bien public. Le CRC ne pouvait éviter de faire jouer toutes ses caractéristiques organisationnelles, c'est-à-dire en tant qu'organisme de scientifiques, en tant qu'agence contrôlée politiquement, en tant qu'institution nationale, et en tant qu'institution régionalement dispersée comprenant de nom-breux instituts différents. [source]

The Political Construction of Agro-Food Liberalization in East Asia: Lessons from the Restructuring of Japanese Dairy Provisioning

Bill Pritchard
Abstract: This article asserts the significance of national-scale processes in the global restructuring of agro-food systems, especially in East Asia. Using an analysis of the recent restructuring in Japanese dairy provisioning, it documents how this trade remains orchestrated by government-commercial institutions that are organized and regulated to serve domestic agrarian interests. In the context of international disagreement on the future of the liberalization of agricultural trade, the implications of this study are that models of contemporary Asia Pacific agro-food restructuring should emphasize the ongoing importance of national institutions within the organization of trade, rather than assume prematurely the reality of a neoliberal marketplace. [source]

Appointing and Censuring the European Commission: The Adaptation of Parliamentary Institutions to the Community Context

Paul Magnette
The parliamentary model at the heart of European civic cultures has deeply influenced ,Constitutional reforms' in the European Community. But the EC is not a Parliamentary state and the transplant of national institutions in its own political context gives rise to hybrid practices. This paper examines this process of hybridation, and shows that new practices of appointment and censure are emerging in the Community, mixing classic parliamentary institutions with the crucial features of the EC itself. Focusing on recent tensions between the Council, the Commission, and the European Parliament, it shows that they are governed by national divisions, technocratic and legal reasoning rather than by classic majoritarian attitudes. It concludes that, while this new model of accountability might prove efficient in terms of inter-institutional controls, it remains symbolically inefficient, because it does not help citizens understand and accept the Community institutional model. [source]

The Diffusion of Calculative and Collaborative HRM Practices in European Firms

The aim of this paper is to trace and explain variations in calculative and collaborative human resource management (HRM) practices between companies and across national borders. Variations and similarities are explained in terms of the convergence and divergence of HRM practices determined by national institutions, and the increasing influence of multinational companies (MNCs). We explore the diffusion of HRM practices in Europe over time, using data sets from two surveys conducted in several European countries in 1995 and 2000. We use institutional explanations for the development of three selected bundles of HRM practices: individual, calculative performance-oriented practices; collective incentive schemes for the alignment of interests; and collaborative practices that seek to enhance the commitment of employees. We found substantial effects of country-specific institutions and of the country of origin of MNCs, which clearly support the institutional duality thesis. Foreign-owned MNCs, especially those that are US-based, appear to moderate country-specific institutional effects on the diffusion of the three HRM bundles. [source]

Union recognition in Ireland: one step forward or two steps back?

Daryl D'Art
In this paper a variety of union recognition procedures and their effect on union density levels in a number of countries are considered. The crucial importance of the national institutions that govern industrial relations are emphasised. While in Ireland, conditions such as social partnership and the buoyant economy of the 1990s would appear to favour union growth, the reverse has been the case. Recent legislation to establish more formal procedures for union recognition, we argue, is likely to be a dismal failure. Indeed, an unintended consequence of the Industrial Relations (Amendment) Act 2001 may be the exclusion of the union from the workplace and the legitimisation of a firm's non-union status. [source]

Monitoring quality in work: European Employment Strategy indicators and beyond

Abstract. Within the framework of the European Employment Strategy, the European Union has defined a set of indicators to monitor employment quality , the so-called Laeken indicators. This article discusses and implements these indicators. From a theoretical perspective, it shows that the concept of work quality encompasses several dimensions, which are likely to be related to national institutions, particularly industrial relations and welfare systems. It then proceeds with a comparative analysis of quality in work across the 27 Member States, which confirms the existence of several models in Europe and suggests that the Laeken indicators should be supplemented by additional measures. [source]

Monitoring and regulation of marine aquaculture in Denmark

P. B. Pedersen
Summary Marine fish farming in Denmark is completely dominated by the farming of large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of 2,5 kg/piece in net cages or land-based flow-through systems, even though more species are being farmed on a small scale. The Danish production of rainbow trout in sea water reached some 8500 tonnes in 1998, and is unlikely to increase due to new restrictions imposed by the Ministry of Environment and Energy, including a provisional stop for extensions and new establishments. This prohibition was put in force in spite the fact that overall outlets are well below the frame allocated for marine fish farming. Generally, the procedures for obtaining allowances are complicated, involving regional and national institutions as well as public hearings. The procedures are described in this article. [source]

National identity and economic development: reiteration, recapture, reinterpretation and repudiation*

Ross Bond
This article attempts to move beyond assumptions that nationalism is essentially cultural and/or narrowly political, and that it is primarily past-oriented and defensive. We do this by examining evidence relating to the creative (re)construction of the nation from a contemporary economic perspective. Paying particular attention to Scotland and Wales, we show that the mobilisation of national identity within this process of (re)construction is not exclusive to those who seek greater political autonomy. National identity is also mobilised, often in a ,banal' fashion, by non-political national institutions such as economic development agencies. We argue that, within the strategies and discourses of economic development, historic national characteristics are reconciled with contemporary needs and aspirations through four processes: reiteration, recapture, reinterpretation and repudiation. [source]

Waving the Flag: National Symbolism, Social Identity, and Political Engagement*

Robert T. Schatz
This research examined the psychological underpinnings of concern for national symbols and ritualistic-ceremonial activities or "symbolic involvement." We propose and test a distinction between symbolic and "instrumental" involvement or concern for the functionality of national institutions and their capability to provide instrumental benefits to citizens. Items comprising the two constructs were found to be empirically distinct, evidenced by statistically reliable and orthogonal dimensions in exploratory factor analysis. Moreover, evidence based on divergent patterns of relations with various forms of national membership indicates that symbolic and instrumental involvement are rooted in distinct motivational concerns related to identity expression and object appraisal, respectively. These findings suggest that national symbolism evokes a psychological attachment to the nation as an abstracted social entity, but not as a concrete functional system. [source]

Competing interests: Toronto's Chinese immigrant associations and the politics of multiculturalism

J. Salaff
Abstract Social service agencies and advocacy groups have played an integral role in mediating between the Asian ethnic populations. In the Canadian institutional setting, associations become a means of political expression. Canada incorporates new immigrants into its national institutions. However, these neo-liberal institutions and policies have not redressed major problems arising in the settlement process. Under Canada's discourse of enlightened multiculturalism, social service agencies are funded to help to integrate diverse peoples. The policy of multiculturalism meshes well with the liberal ideology underlying loose coupling, encouraging people to retain their cultural identities while settling and participating in national processes. These policies are designed to be sensitive to clients' cultural backgrounds; however, there are unforeseen consequences. In this system, different groups are granted different amounts of social, cultural and economic capital along with differential access to this capital, which affects their position and potential for action in other arenas. In particular, we find that the social service approach treats new Chinese immigrants as similar, thereby fostering competition between subgroups over leadership, funds and representation. Our data come from interviews with key figures in the Chinese-Canadian community and associations, and reviews of press and other media. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The co,evolution of technologies and institutions: a comparison of Taiwanese hard disk drive and liquid crystal display industries

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2002
Chang Hung
In this paper, we examine the different evolutionary processes and outcomes of the hard disk drive and liquid crystal display industries in Taiwan. To this end, we make two general theoretical claims. First, that an appreciation of the globalization of technology is as important as national institutions in understanding industry development in catch,up economies such as Taiwan. Second, in addressing both industrial survival and failure, that national institutions can have either a positive or a negative impact on sectoral activities. Empirically, we show that, in Taiwan, rigid social institutions conflict with the hard disk drive technology. This conflict, in turn, produces obstacles to Taiwanese firms' search for new markets and skills in hard disk drives. On the other hand, Taiwan's institutional structures provide a source of technical efficiency and market opportunity for the emerging liquid crystal display trajectory. This, in turn, drives Taiwanese industry towards adopting new practices in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays. [source]

A Past: A Revolution in Public Ethics

Mac Campbell
This piece is about those elements of British nineteenth-century deep culture which have to do with the production of subordination, compliance, and acquiescence. It is about perceptions of deviance. The purpose of this work is to provide some support for a suggestion about attribution of the replacement of the dominant British public ethic concerning treatment of deviance during the nineteenth century (1780-1914). Until then deviant persons had been, by and large, subject to policies and customs of exclusion and excision. These practices were replaced by new mechanisms of relegation and subordination, arrangements which lent themselves readily to institutionalisation and subsequent centralised control under a rubric of inclusion in humanity. The social, legal, and administrative mechanisms of exclusion increasingly came under attack for their inhumanity, and a climate of favour grew in Britain for a public ethic of inclusion. This principle, once it got hold, asserted into public life the beliefs which ended such practices of exclusion as slavery, public execution, transportation to the colonies, the inhuman treatment of lunatics and the dispatch of "savages". In order to support the suggestion, it will be necessary to establish that evangelicals placed themselves in the public domain as moral experts, that evangelicals expertly labelled deviant persons and groups, that evangelical publicities and structures energised in the main the revolution in the treatment of deviance without threat to power relations, and that the beginnings of national institutions of labelling are to be found in this revolution of ideas. [source]