National Innovation System (national + innovation_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

State of the Arts and Innovation: Before and After the Review of the National Innovation System

Luke Jaaniste
This article examines the relationship between the arts and national innovation policy in Australia, pivoting around the,Venturous Australia,report released in September 2008 as part of the Review of the National Innovation System (RNIS). This came at a time of optimism that the arts sector would be included in Australia's federal innovation policy. However, despite the report's broad vision for innovation and specific commentary on the arts, the more ambitious hopes of arts sector advocates remained unfulfilled. This article examines the entwining discourses of creativity and innovation which emerged globally and in Australia prior to the RNIS, before analysing,Venturous Australia,in terms of the arts and the ongoing science-and-technology bias to innovation policy. It ends by considering why sector-led policy research and lobbying has to date proved unsuccessful and then suggests what public policy development is now needed. [source]

China's Changing National and Regional Innovation Systems and Regional Distribution of R&D

Fangzhu Zhang
This article examines the transformation of China's national and regional innovation systems. We review an emerging literature on innovation research on China, especially geographical studies of innovation, and argue that China's national innovation system has become more enterprise-centered since the economic reform started in 1979. This article systematically evaluates the strength and weakness of China's national innovation system and argues that the new innovation system has a significant regional dimension demonstrated through attempts to establish regional innovation systems. R&Ds are concentrated in high-tech development zones in China. However, these zones are more manufacturing oriented. In other words, there is more development than research. These regional systems, however, play a role in promoting economic competitiveness in their respective regions. [source]

The national innovation system and foreign R&D: the case of Taiwan

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 5 2007
Shin-Horng Chen
R&D internationalization has increasingly involved countries outside the developed world. In addition, there has been a growing trend for countries in East Asia to seek to attract the R&D facilities of multinationals (MNCs). For such countries, they are faced with a fundamental question as to what kinds of impact MNCs' offshore R&D facilities will have on their own countries, especially in terms of technological innovation and industrial development. Set against the above backdrop, this paper sets out to examine a relatively new aspect of R&D internationalization related to global innovation networks and to open up the blackbox of the spillover effect regarding foreign R&D by examining the interplay of foreign R&D and Taiwan's national innovation system. The empirical part of the paper draws mainly upon intensive case studies of four high-profile foreign R&D facilities in the IT industry. The way foreign R&D interplays with Taiwan's NIS is examined in terms of the market & technology linkages. [source]

Nurturing and growing innovative start-ups: the role of policy as integrator

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2007
Bart Clarysse
Nurturing and growing innovative start-ups have become an important point on the political agenda. After the dotcom bubble, however, many financial schemes and incubation initiatives initiated, in the mid-nineties, were cancelled or down scaled. There was a consensus that innovative start-ups need more than just money. Networking and coaching were identified as additional needs. Besides this, there is a change in the intensity and nature of these needs during the different stages of the early life cycle. In this paper we make an in-depth study of three approaches to nurture and grow innovative start-ups. Each of these initiatives embeds in a very different national innovation system: Chalmers Innovation in Sweden and Anvar/Banque de Développement des PMEs in France, and Sitra's PreSeed Service in Finland. Each approach is compared in terms of its financing, networking, and coaching support, along the different stages of the start-up's life cycle. [source]

Doctoral and Postdoctoral Education in Science and Engineering: Europe in the international competition

In this article, we discuss the recent evolutions of science and engineering doctoral and postdoctoral education in Europe. Indeed, Ph.Ds are crucial to the conduct of research and innovation in the national innovation systems, as they provide a large amount of input into creating the competitive advantage, notably through basic research. First, we show that Asia, and notably China, is producing more Ph.Ds than the United States and Europe. In many EU countries, the number of Ph.Ds has levelled off or even declined recently in many natural sciences and engineering fields. Second, we discuss the European situation in the international competition for talents. We study the European brain drain question, mainly at the doctoral and postdoctoral level. We find that there is an asymmetry in the flows of Ph.D students and postdoctorates between Europe and the United States, at the advantage of this latter country. These two points , production of Ph.Ds, international flows of doctorates and postdoctorates , lead us to be concerned about the future growth and innovation in Europe. In conclusion, we outline some European policy responses in the perspective of building the European Research Area and the European Higher Education Area. [source]

Gründungen an der Schnittstelle zwischen Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft , die Rolle der Hochschulen

Frieder Mayer, Krahmer
In national innovation systems, universities are not only essential elements of the research infrastructure, but also main players in the field of education and further education. Their specific role in the interplay between knowledge production and market implementation of knowledge via start,ups derives from this fact. This article takes as its theme the university environment which supports and stimulates the start,up processes. It also shows the progress achieved in the German university landscape in recent years on the path towards a culture of entrepreneurship in teaching and research. This is manifested, for example, in the number of start,up chairs, the development of networks to exploit the start,up potential of universities together with regional partners, and in the numbers of spin,offs established. [source]