National Identification (national + identification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The symbolic identity implications of inter and intra-group transgressions

Tyler G. Okimoto
The current investigation proposes that symbolic identity concerns underlie retributive desires following a transgression, but that the type of identity concern that primarily drives that retribution varies between intra and intergroup contexts. More specifically, a respondent's social identity may be threatened by calling into question his or her ingroup's status and power in the larger superordinate society, a concern that is particularly relevant in intergroup contexts. Identity may also be threatened by questioning a group's identity-defining values, a concern that is particularly relevant in intragroup contexts. In support of these assertions, the current study shows that desires for retribution following an intergroup terrorist attack were stronger when the attack was framed as attempting to undermine the victimized nation's status/power, but were stronger following an intragroup terrorist attack when framed as attempting to undermine national values. Moreover, these differences only occurred for respondents high in national identification, underscoring that the effects are based on identity processes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Group motives in threatening contexts: When a loyalty conflict paradoxically reduces the influence of an anti-discrimination ingroup norm

Juan M. Falomir-Pichastor
The influence of pro- versus anti-discrimination ingroup norms on Swiss nationals' attitudes towards foreigners was investigated as a function of national identification and perceived material ingroup threat. As predicted, results revealed a significant interaction between identification and threat: High identifiers showed a more negative attitude than low identifiers mainly when perceived threat was high. In other words, high identifiers conformed to the pro-discrimination norm, but showed a counter-conformity effect for the anti-discrimination norm. Additional results revealed that high identifiers actually disagreed with the anti-discrimination norm when perceived threat was high, but that they were more attached to the ingroup. These findings suggest that when the ingroup norm is not an appropriate response to an ingroup threat (i.e. anti-discrimination norm), high identifiers find themselves in a loyalty conflict: they are unable to simultaneously conform to the group norm and protect the group. This conflict was resolved through a compensatory mechanism: High identifiers distanced themselves from the ingroup norm in order to protect the group (i.e. by increasing negative attitudes towards foreigners) but reinforced other ingroup ties (i.e. by increasing attachment to the ingroup values). Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Boundaries of Britishness in British Indian and Pakistani young adults

Kiren Vadher
Abstract This study explored what it means to be British from the perspective of young British Indian and Pakistani adults. Fifteen respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule in order to explore their self-descriptions and self-categorizations, how different contexts influence their identifications as British and as Indian/Pakistani, their sense of patriotism, and their perceptions of racism, discrimination and multiculturalism. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the interviews. The respondents' identifications and the role of context, threat and racism were studied in detail, and a model of how these individuals defined the boundaries of Britishness, and how they positioned themselves in relationship to these boundaries, was derived from the data. Six boundaries of Britishness were identified, these being the racial, civic/state, instrumental, historical, lifestyle and multicultural boundaries. Participants used these boundaries flexibly, drawing on different boundaries depending on the particular context in which Britishness was discussed. The implications of these multiple boundaries for the conceptualization of national identification are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Does European citizenship breed xenophobia?

European identification as a predictor of intolerance towards immigrants
Abstract The European Union is generally perceived as endorsing universalistic and multi-cultural values. However, social identity and self-categorization theories predict that, when certain conditions are met, a negative relation between ingroup identification and tolerance towards outgroup members should be observed. We argue that the creation of the status of ,Citizen of the Union' in Maastricht may contribute to meeting those conditions and therefore to increase intolerance towards resident foreigners. If that is the case, a paradoxical situation could emerge, in which people's levels of tolerance towards foreigners would contradict group values. We examined the relations between values associated with Europe, European and national identification, and tolerance towards foreigners through a survey study with a,non-representative,sample of undergraduate French-speaking Belgian students. Results show that Europe was generally associated with humanistic values. But they also reveal that strong European identifiers tended to express more xenophobic attitudes than weak European identifiers, whilst national identification was not related with such attitudes. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Emerging Patterns of Social Identification in Postapartheid South Africa

Elirea Bornman
Theorists acknowledge the possibility of multiple group identification where groups are imbedded in hierarchical structures that can change as the environment changes. This article investigates national, subnational, and supranational identification and the possible impact of social and political change on identity structures in South Africa. The results of three surveys conducted in 1994, 1998, and 2001 are discussed. While national and African identities have apparently strengthened among Blacks since 1994, national identification seems to have diminished among Afrikaans-speaking Whites in favor of ethnic identification. Some potential consequences of and directions for future research are discussed. [source]