National Household Survey (national + household_survey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Possible age-associated bias in reporting of clinical features of drug dependence: epidemiological evidence on adolescent-onset marijuana use

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2003
Chuan-Yu Chen
ABSTRACT Aims, To probe recent evidence on apparent excess occurrence of marijuana dependence when marijuana smoking starts in adolescence. Design and participants, A national sample of recent-onset marijuana users was identified within public data files of the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), 1995,98 (1866 adolescents and 762 adults). Measurements, Marijuana dependence was assessed via seven standardized questions about its clinical features, such as being unable to cut down. Multivariate response models (GLM/GEE and MIMIC) were used to evaluate adolescent excess risk and possible item biases. Findings, Among people who had just started to use marijuana, clinical features of marijuana dependence occurred twice as often among adolescents compared to adults, even with statistical adjustment for other covariates (P < 0.01 from GLM/GEE). MIMIC analyses suggest that adolescent-onset users have somewhat higher levels of marijuana dependence, and they also provide evidence of age-associated response bias for some but not all clinical features of marijuana dependence. That is, even with level of marijuana dependence held constant, adolescent recent-onset users were more likely than adults to report being unable to cut down (P = 0.01) and tolerance (P = 0.029). Conclusion, Nosologic, methodological and substantive reasons for observed age-related excess in occurrence of marijuana dependence problems among early onset users deserve more attention in future research. [source]

Evidence for a hallucinogen dependence syndrome developing soon after onset of hallucinogen use during adolescence

A.L. Stone
Abstract This study uses latent class methods and multiple regression to shed light on hypothesized hallucinogen dependence syndromes experienced by young people who have recently initiated hallucinogen use. It explores possible variation in risk. The study sample, identified within public-use data files of the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), consists of 1186 recent-onset hallucinogen users, defined as having initiated hallucinogen use within 24 months of assessment (median elapsed time since onset of use ,12 to 13 months). The recent-onset users in this sample were age 12 to 21 at the time of assessment and were between the ages of 10 and 21 at the time of their first hallucinogen use. The NHSDA included items to assess seven clinical features often associated with hallucinogen dependence, which were used in latent class modelling. Latent class analysis, in conjunction with prior theory, supports a three-class solution, with 2% of recent-onset users in a class that resembles a hallucinogen dependence syndrome, whereas 88% expressed few or no clinical features of dependence. The remaining 10% may reflect users who are at risk for dependence or in an early stage of dependence. Results from latent class regressions indicate that susceptibility to rapid transition from first hallucinogen use to onset of this hallucinogen dependence syndrome might be influenced by hallucinogenic compounds taken (for example, estimated relative risk, RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6, 7.6 for users of MDMA versus users of LSD). Excess risk of rapid transition did not appear to depend upon age, sex, or race/ethnicity. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Under-reporting of alcohol consumption in household surveys: a comparison of quantity,frequency, graduated,frequency and recent recall

ADDICTION, Issue 8 2004
Tim Stockwell
ABSTRACT Aim To compare alternative survey methods for estimating (a) levels of at risk alcohol consumption and (b) total volume of alcohol consumed per capita in comparison with estimates from sales data and to investigate reasons for under-reporting. Setting The homes of respondents who were eligible and willing to participate. Participants A total of 21 674 Australians aged 14 years and older. Design A 2001 national household survey of drug use, experiences and attitudes with weights applied for age, sex, geographic location and day of week of interview. Measures Self-completion questionnaire using quantity,frequency (QF) and graduated,frequency (GF) methods plus two questions about consumption ,yesterday': one in standard drinks, another with empirically based estimates of drink size and strength. Results The highest estimate of age 14 + per capita consumption of 7.00 l of alcohol derived from recall of consumption ,yesterday' or 76.8% of the official estimate. The lowest was QF with 49.8%. When amount consumed ,yesterday' was recalled in standard drinks this estimate was 5.27 l. GF questions yielded higher estimates than did QF questions both for total volume (5.25 versus 4.54 l) and also for the proportion of the population at risk of long-term alcohol-related harm (10.6%versus 8.1%). With the detailed ,yesterday' method 61% of all consumption was on high risk drinking days. Conclusions Questions about typical quantities of alcohol consumed can lead to underestimates, as do questions about drinking ,standard drinks' of alcohol. Recent recall methods encourage fuller reporting of volumes plus more accurate estimates of unrecorded consumption and the proportion of total alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk of harm. However, they do not capture longer-term drinking patterns. It is recommended that both recent recall and measures of longer-term drinking patterns are included in national surveys. [source]

Recalibration methods to enhance information on prevalence rates from large mental health surveys

N. A. Taub
Abstract Comparisons between self-report and clinical psychiatric measures have revealed considerable disagreement. It is unsafe to consider these measures as directly equivalent, so it would be valuable to have a reliable recalibration of one measure in terms of the other. We evaluated multiple imputation incorporating a Bayesian approach, and a fully Bayesian method, to recalibrate diagnoses from a self-report survey interview in terms of those from a clinical interview with data from a two-phase national household survey for a practical application, and artificial data for simulation studies. The most important factors in obtaining a precise and accurate ,clinical' prevalence estimate from self-report data were (a) good agreement between the two diagnostic measures and (b) a sufficiently large set of calibration data with diagnoses based on both kinds of interview from the same group of subjects. From the case study, calibration data on 612 subjects were sufficient to yield estimates of the total prevalence of anxiety, depression or neurosis with a precision in the region of 2%. The limitations of the calibration method demonstrate the need to increase agreement between survey and reference measures by improving lay interviews and their diagnostic algorithms. Copyright 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Lionel Prouteau
ABSTRACT,:,This paper focuses on the voluntary workers who take on responsibilities in French voluntary associations. First, drawing on a national association survey, we contrast the characteristics of leadership volunteers, especially chairpersons, with those of the French population as a whole. We show that leaders are very different from the overall population even if these differences seem to diminish for organizations created more recently. Second, from a national household survey, we compare board members with other members of associations. Among other results, we find that the former are more rooted in their local environment and they participate more frequently in several associations. They are driven by more activist motives than are the other members. They give more time to their associations and they use more skills in their voluntary tasks than do the other volunteers. [source]

The prevalence of methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse in North America: a review of the indicators, 1992,2007

JANE CARLISLE MAXWELL PhD Senior Research Scientist
Abstract Introduction. This paper reviews epidemiological information about methamphetamine production and use in North America. Methods. Information is drawn from a range of sources, including, but not limited to, historical accounts, peer-reviewed papers, population surveys and large national databases. Results. Methamphetamine and amphetamine use in North America is characterised by geographic variations, with different types of the drug, different routes of administration and different types of users at various times. Unlike some other drug use patterns in North America, the nature of methamphetamine use in Canada, Mexico and the United States has been linked closely in terms of production and supply of the drug. According to their national household surveys, the annual prevalence for ,speed' use in Canada was 0.8% in 2004, 0.3% for ,anfetaminas' and 0.1% for ,metanfetaminas' in Mexico in 2002, and 1.4% for ,stimulants' in the United States in 2006. Discussion. Although the data sources in the three North American countries are not consistent in methodology, terminology or frequency of reporting, all show similar trends. The type of stimulant most used has shifted from non-medical use of pharmaceutical amphetamine to use of powder methamphetamine and then to use of ,ice'. The indicators show the problem is greatest in the western parts of the countries and is moving eastward, but the decreased availability of pseudoephedrine may have a significant impact on the nature of the epidemic in the future. Nevertheless, use of methamphetamine poses a number of risks for users and specialised treatment resources for these various populations are needed. [source]