National Goals (national + goal)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Neural tube defect rates before and after food fortification with folic acid,

James L. Mills
Abstract BACKGROUND Since 1998, enriched cereal grains sold in the United States have been fortified with folic acid, to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported that NTD rates have decreased 26% since fortification, but that additional effort is needed to achieve the national goal of a 50% reduction. However, accurate determination of NTD rates requires counting antenatally detected cases; the CDC study noted that the number of prenatally diagnosed cases was likely underestimated. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined studies from the United States and Canada that compared rates of NTDs before and after very similar fortification programs were instituted in each country. U.S. studies had incomplete ascertainment of prenatally diagnosed NTD cases, and as a result, underreported the number of NTDs prevented. Canadian studies, in which ascertainment was more complete, showed decreases in NTD rates up to 54%. CONCLUSIONS There is a strong correlation between the completeness of ascertainment and the percentage decrease in NTD rates. Studies that identify cases best show that folic acid fortification is preventing around 50% of NTDs. The percentage of NTDs that are folate-preventable in the United States is uncertain, but is probably 50,60%. Thus, we may be quite close to achieving the optimum level of protection at current fortification levels. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Education and Social Change: The Case of Israel's State Curriculum

ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to explore, through the case of the official Israeli state curriculum, how the educational system is affected by social changes and how it responds to them, and to suggest curricular directions that go along with the new social reality that has emerged in Israel during the past decade. We offer a conceptual-theoretical analysis based on the examination of 10 subject areas taught at Israeli schools by leading experts who investigated the curriculum documents of the Ministry of Education in their disciplines. We identify three stages of curriculum development in Israel since its establishment: promotion of hegemonic national goals, emphasis on academic structure of knowledge, and in recent decades, multiple conflicting goals. Changes in the Israeli state curricula indeed reflect a response to broader social changes, yet these changes are partial, irresolute, and scattered. There is a need for a transcultural approach, promoting a core curriculum common to all groups in Israel, beyond which each group may express its uniqueness. [source]

Integrated environmental product innovation and impacts on company competitiveness: a case study of the automotive industry in the region of Munich

Ursula Triebswetter
Abstract This paper examines the impact of integrated environmental product innovations on company competitiveness. In a regional case study about automotive, rail and commercial vehicle firms in Southern Germany it is found that integrated environmental product innovation is driven by factors such as regulatory pressure, the search for competitive advantages and technological lead as well as customer pressure. Regulatory pressure includes sector policies, such as emission standards, and wider non-sector energy conservation issues, at both national and international levels. For instance, EU directives on future use of renewable energy as well as national goals for reaching the Kyoto protocol play an important role in driving innovation. The study finds that integrated environmental product innovations driven by regulatory pressure produce similar competitiveness impacts as innovations undertaken voluntarily by companies. Such results yield supporting evidence for the so-called ,Porter hypothesis', which assumes that environmental legislation stimulates innovation and leads to ,win,win' situations , the simultaneous reduction of pollution and increase in productivity. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

The status of training and education in information and computer technology of Australian nurses: a national survey

Robert Eley
Aims and objectives., A study was undertaken of the current knowledge and future training requirements of nurses in information and computer technology to inform policy to meet national goals for health. Background., The role of the modern clinical nurse is intertwined with information and computer technology and adoption of such technology forms an important component of national strategies in health. The majority of nurses are expected to use information and computer technology during their work; however, the full extent of their knowledge and experience is unclear. Design., Self-administered postal survey. Methods., A 78-item questionnaire was distributed to 10,000 Australian Nursing Federation members to identify the nurses' use of information and computer technology. Eighteen items related to nurses' training and education in information and computer technology. Results., Response rate was 44%. Computers were used by 863% of respondents as part of their work-related activities. Between 4,17% of nurses had received training in each of 11 generic computer skills and software applications during their preregistration/pre-enrolment and between 12,30% as continuing professional education. Nurses who had received training believed that it was adequate to meet the needs of their job and was given at an appropriate time. Almost half of the respondents indicated that they required more training to better meet the information and computer technology requirements of their jobs and a quarter believed that their level of computer literacy was restricting their career development. Nurses considered that the vast majority of employers did not encourage information and computer technology training and, for those for whom training was available, workload was the major barrier to uptake. Nurses favoured introduction of a national competency standard in information and computer technology. Conclusions., For the considerable benefits of information and computer technology to be incorporated fully into the health system, employers must pay more attention to the training and education of nurses who are the largest users of that technology. Relevance to clinical practice., Knowledge of the training and education needs of clinical nurses with respect to information and computer technology will provide a platform for the development of appropriate policies by government and by employers. [source]

Institutional collaborations in Ireland: Leveraging an increased international presence

Pamela L. EddyArticle first published online: 17 JUN 2010
Five case examples highlight how Ireland is using collaborations to meet national goals. [source]