National Evaluation (national + evaluation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAM EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR: RESULTS FROM THE 21ST CENTURY COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTERS PROGRAM NATIONAL EVALUATION

ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2008
SUSANNE JAMES-BURDUMY
This paper presents evidence on after-school programs' effects on behavior from the national evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program. Findings come from both of the study's components: (1) an elementary school component based on random assignment of 2,308 students in 12 school districts and (2) a middle school component based on a matched comparison design including 4,264 students in 32 districts. Key findings include higher levels of negative behavior for elementary students and some evidence of higher levels of negative behaviors for middle school students. (JEL I21) [source]


Assessment and management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes

INTERNAL MEDICINE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
M. C. Thomas
Abstract Background:, Hypertension is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes and an important target for intervention. Despite this, the management of blood pressure (BP) remains suboptimal, particularly in patients at increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of hypertension and its management in consecutive clinic-based samples of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods:, BP levels and antihypertensive management strategies were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes recruited as part of the Developing Education on Microalbuminuria for Awareness of reNal and cardiovascular risk in Diabetes (DEMAND) study in 2003 (n = 1831) and the National Evaluation of the Frequency of Renal impairment cO-existing with Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NEFRON) study in 2005 (n = 3893). Systolic BP levels and the use of antihypertensive therapies were examined in patients with and without chronic kidney disease. Results:, The patient characteristics in both studies were similar in that more than 80% of patients in both studies were hypertensive. Systolic BP targets of ,130 mmHg were achieved in approximately half of all treated patients in both studies. However, the use of antihypertensive therapy either alone or in combination increased from 70.4% in DEMAND to 79.5% in NEFRON 2 years later (P < 0.001). Despite this, antihypertensive therapy continued to be underutilized in high-risk groups, including in those with established chronic kidney disease. Conclusion:, The DEMAND and NEFRON studies both show that BP control is achievable in Australian general practice, with more than half of all patients seeing their general practitioners achieving a target systolic BP ,130 mmHg. However, more needs to be done to further reduce BP levels, particularly in patients at high risk of adverse outcomes. [source]


Is Sure Start an Effective Preventive Intervention?

CHILD AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2006
Michael Rutter
Background:, Sure Start was established with the aim of eliminating child poverty and social exclusion. Method:, The findings from the reports of the National Evaluation of Sure Start Team, published in November 2005, are reviewed and critiqued. Results:, The family and child functioning after 3 years of Sure Start, as compared with Sure Start-to-be areas, showed very few significant differences, with some indication of adverse effects in the most disadvantaged families. Conclusions:, These findings are discussed in relation to their service, research and policy implications,with the conclusion that the research evaluation was well conducted, but the findings are inconclusive. There are lessons on how to improve Sure Start and what should have been done differently. [source]


Effects of fully established Sure Start Local Programmes on 3-year-old children and their families living in England: a quasi-experimental observational study

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2009
Richard Reading
Effects of fully established Sure Start Local Programmes on 3-year-old children and their families living in England: a quasi-experimental observational study . MelhuishE., BelskyJ., LeylandA. H., BarnesJ. & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team ( 2008 ) The Lancet , 372 , 1641 , 1647 . DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61687-6 . Background Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) are area-based interventions to improve services for young children and their families in deprived communities, promote health and development, and reduce inequalities. We therefore investigated whether SSLPs affect the well-being of 3-year-old children and their families. Methods In a quasi-experimental observational study, we compared 5883 3-year-old children and their families from 93 disadvantaged SSLP areas with 1879 3-year-old children and their families from 72 similarly deprived areas in England who took part in the Millennium Cohort Study. We studied 14 outcomes , children's immunizations, accidents, language development, positive and negative social behaviours and independence; parenting risk; home-learning environment; father's involvement; maternal smoking, body-mass index and life satisfaction; family's service use; and mother's rating of area. Findings After we controlled for background factors, we noted beneficial effects associated with the programmes for five of 14 outcomes. Children in the SSLP areas showed better social development than those in the non-SSLP areas, with more positive social behaviour (mean difference 0.45, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.80, P = 0.01) and greater independence (0.32, 0.18 to 0.47, P < 0.0001). Families in SSLP areas showed less negative parenting (,0.90, ,1.11 to ,0.69, P < 0.0001) and provided a better home-learning environment (1.30, 0.75 to 1.86, P < 0.0001). These families used more services for supporting child and family development than those not living in SSLP areas (0.98, 0.86 to 1.09, P < 0.0001). Effects of SSLPs seemed to apply to all subpopulations and SSLP areas. Interpretation Children and their families benefited from living in SSLP areas. The contrast between these and previous findings on the effect of SSLPs might indicate increased exposure to programmes that have become more effective. Early interventions can improve the life chances of young children living in deprived areas. [source]


AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAM EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR: RESULTS FROM THE 21ST CENTURY COMMUNITY LEARNING CENTERS PROGRAM NATIONAL EVALUATION

ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2008
SUSANNE JAMES-BURDUMY
This paper presents evidence on after-school programs' effects on behavior from the national evaluation of the U.S. Department of Education's 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school program. Findings come from both of the study's components: (1) an elementary school component based on random assignment of 2,308 students in 12 school districts and (2) a middle school component based on a matched comparison design including 4,264 students in 32 districts. Key findings include higher levels of negative behavior for elementary students and some evidence of higher levels of negative behaviors for middle school students. (JEL I21) [source]


Disabled children (0,3 years) and integrated services , the impact of Early Support

HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 3 2008
Alys Young PhD MSc BA(Hons) CQSW
Abstract Early Support (ES) is the flagship government programme aimed at improving multi-agency working with, and supporting enhanced outcomes for, children with a disability 0,3 years and their families. This paper draws on results from the recently completed Department for Education and Skills commissioned national evaluation of ES involving 46 pathfinder projects throughout England. Data were collected by survey at two points in time (9 months apart), by focus groups with service providers and parents, and through secondary data analyses, including exploratory economic evaluation. This paper outlines some of the key findings pertaining to the relationship between integrated children's services and the impact of ES. As such, we address three concerns: what the evidence from ES can tell us about the relationships between universal and targeted provision within integrated children's service structures, the relationship between specific short-term initiatives and their longer-term sustainability within integrated children's services structures and the potential costs and benefits of ES looking forward to its implementation on a national basis within an integrated children's services environment. Although focused primarily on children with a disability in the early years, implications will be drawn for the implementation of Lead Professional Guidance and the Common Assessment Framework more generically. [source]


The Importance of Context in Fostering Responsive Community Systems: Supports for Families in Systems of Care

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2010
James R. Cook
The importance of helping families of children with severe emotional disturbances (SED) connect with informal or natural supports,that is, individuals who are part of their ongoing communities and daily lives,has been widely recognized. Utilization of informal supports has thus become a core element within systems of care (SOCs) designed to improve services for children with SED and their families. However, research demonstrates that implementation of wraparound, the key practice approach within SOCs, often does not include involvement of informal supports. Using a measure of social connectedness (SC), developed to augment the instruments used for the SOC national evaluation, this study assessed parents' and caregivers' views of their connections to and support from their community within a SOC. Overall, parents and caregivers reported low levels of support across multiple sources as well as a desire for more support. Greater levels of perceived support related positively to caregiver strain, types of and satisfaction with services received, and views of their communities as supportive and safe. Greater attention to families' contexts and the identification of effective ways to connect families to their communities are recommended. [source]


Jump-Starting Collaboration: The ABCD Initiative and the Provision of Child Development Services through Medicaid and Collaborators

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
Carolyn Berry
Many policy problems require governmental leaders to forge vast networks beyond their own hierarchical institutions. This essay explores the challenges of implementation in a networked institutional setting and incentives to induce coordination between agencies and promote quality implementation. It describes the national evaluation of the Assuring Better Child Health and Development program, a state-based program intended to increase and enhance the delivery of child development services for low-income children through the health care sector, using Medicaid as its primary vehicle. Using qualitative evaluation methods, the authors found that all states implemented programs that addressed their stated goals and made changes in Medicaid policies, regulations, or reimbursement mechanisms. The program catalyzed interagency cooperation and coordination. The authors conclude that even a modest level of external support and technical assistance can stimulate significant programmatic change and interorganizational linkages within public agencies to enhance provision of child development services. [source]


Integrating children's services to promote children's welfare: early findings from the implementation of children's trusts in England

CHILD ABUSE REVIEW, Issue 6 2006
Margaret O'Brien
Abstract As part of the reform of English children's services, children's trust pathfinders were launched in 2003 by the British government to promote greater inter-agency co-operation between children's services and professionals. This paper reports on early findings from a multi-method, longitudinal national evaluation of the implementation and impact of all 35 children's trust pathfinders. Using data from a 2004 survey of 35 children's trusts managers and in-depth interviews with 107 professionals conducted in 2005, results show strong endorsement of an integrated children's service vision. However, arrangements for co-operation on governance and strategic developments were more advanced than for procedural or frontline professional practice. In this transitional period, professionals were negotiating a balance between targeted and universal service provision and, concurrently, establishing the scope of formal strategic partnership bodies (including local safeguarding children boards) with potentially overlapping remits. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Living Arrangements and Children's Development in Low-Income White, Black, and Latino Families

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2007
E. Michael Foster
This article uses longitudinal data from approximately 2,000 low-income families participating in the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Child Development Program to examine the associations between preschool children's living arrangements and their cognitive achievement and emotional adjustment. The analysis distinguishes families in which children live only with their mothers from children who live in biological father, blended, and multigenerational households. Linkages are examined separately for White, Black, and Latino children. Fixed effects regression techniques reveal few significant associations between living arrangements and child development. These findings suggest that substantial diversity exists in the developmental contexts among children living in the same family structure. Policies seeking to change the living arrangements of low-income children may do little to improve child well-being. [source]


A national evaluation of school breakfast clubs: evidence from a cluster randomized controlled trial and an observational analysis

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2004
I. Shemilt
Abstract Study objective To measure the health, educational and social impacts of breakfast club provision in schools serving deprived areas across England. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial and an observational analysis. Setting England, the UK. Intervention: funding to establish a school-based breakfast club vs. control (no funding). Main results Intention to treat analysis showed improved concentration (Trail Making Test Part A) amongst the intervention group at 3 months. Fewer pupils within the intervention group reported having skipped classes within the last month and fewer pupils within the intervention group reported having skipped 1 or more days of school within the last month at 1 year. Observational analysis at 1 year showed a higher proportion of primary-aged breakfast club attendees reported eating fruit for breakfast in comparison to non-attendees. A higher proportion of breakfast club attendees had borderline or abnormal conduct and total difficulties scores (primary-aged pupils) and prosocial score (secondary-aged pupils). Conclusions Analyses revealed a mixed picture of benefit and apparent disbenefit. This study illustrated the challenges of evaluating a complex intervention in which the evaluators had less control than is usual in randomized trials over recruitment, eligibility checking and implementation. If the impact of new policy initiatives is to be assessed using the most robust forms of evaluation, social policy needs to be organized so that evaluations can be constructed as experiments. This is likely to prove most difficult where the perceived value of implementing an intervention rapidly is high. [source]


A national evaluation of school breakfast clubs: where does economics fit in?

CHILD: CARE, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2004
I. Shemilt
Abstract Study objective To describe the economics of UK school breakfast clubs, to estimate costs resulting from clubs and to investigate relationships between costs and outcomes. Design A postal survey of schools with a 1-year follow-up, a cluster randomized controlled trial, case studies, semi-structured interviews with parents and a secondary econometric analysis. Setting England, the UK. Main results Key economic differences were identified between clubs based in primary schools and those based in secondary schools in terms of both funding levels and cost structures. However, funding levels were not a significant determinant of the observed outcomes in either type of school. Conclusions For formal economic evaluation to succeed during implementation of a new initiative, a clearer understanding of relevant outcomes and the distinction between short- and long-term outcomes and potential individual, institutional and societal benefits are required from an early stage. [source]


School breakfast clubs, children and family support,

CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 2 2003
Ian Shemilt
School breakfast clubs are a form of before school provision serving breakfast to children who arrive early. This paper explores their potential to provide support for families at risk of social exclusion. A national evaluation of a Department of Health pilot initiative suggests that their provision can afford valued support to families coping with varying degrees of difficulty in their material, environmental, relational and social circumstances. Many parents regarded clubs as successful in encouraging children to eat breakfast, reducing pressures in the morning and providing an additional source of affordable, trusted child care to those in work, studying or seeking employment. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]