National Debate (national + debate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


The application in July 2005 by Wal-Mart to obtain a specialized bank charter from the state of Utah and to obtain federal deposit insurance reopened a national debate concerning the separation of banking and commerce. Though Wal-Mart withdrew its application in March 2007, the issue and the debate continue. This article offers a principles-based approach to this issue that begins with the recognition that banks are special and that safety and soundness regulation of banks is therefore warranted. Building on that recognition, the article lays out the principle that the "examinability and supervisability" of an activity should determine if that activity should be undertaken by a bank. Even if an otherwise legitimate activity is not suitable for a bank, it should be allowed for a bank's owners (whether the owners are individuals or a holding company), so long as the financial transactions between the bank and its owners are closely monitored by bank regulators. The implications of this set of ideas for the Wal-Mart case and for banking and commerce generally are then discussed. (JEL G21, G28) [source]

State Building and Transitional Politics in Iraq: The Perils of a Top-down Transition

Katia Papagianni
This article examines Iraq's transitional politics from June 2003 to the Constitutional Referendum of October 2005. It argues that the top-down political transition led by the United States and a narrow group of Iraqi elites was inappropriate for the task of reforming the Iraqi state and building democratic institutions. The article argues that, in countries going through regime change while also radically reforming the state, inclusive transitional institutions and consultative processes contribute to agreements being reached about the future of the state. Such transitions allow actors to guarantee the continued participation of opponents in the political process and to gradually develop agreements on constitutional questions. This did not occur in Iraq. An inclusive political process and a national debate on the country's future did not occur. Rather, a narrow group of political elites led the transitional process in the absence of wide consultations. The article argues that the management of Iraq's transition had an independent impact on the outcome of the transition, namely the failure to reach agreement on the sharing of political and economic power within one state by October 2005. [source]

An evaluation of permeable reactive barrier projects in California

REMEDIATION, Issue 1 2009
John P. Muegge
Permeable reactive barriers made of zero-valent iron (ZVI PRBs) have become a prominent remediation technology in addressing groundwater contamination by chlorinated solvents. Many ZVI PRBs have been installed across the United States, some as research projects, some at the pilot scale, and many at full scale. As a passive and in situ remediation technology, ZVI PRBs have many attractive features and advantages over other approaches to groundwater remediation. Ten ZVI PRBs installed in California were evaluated for their performance. Of those ten, three are discussed in greater detail to illustrate the complexities that arise when quantifying the performance of ZVI PRBs, and to provide comment on the national debate concerning the downgradient effects of source-zone removal or treatment on plumes of contaminated groundwater. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A National Call to Action: CDC's 2001 Urban and Rural Health Chartbook

Alan Morgan M.P.A.
Summary It remains to be seen i f Congress will recognize the CDC report as a national call to action, or whether future CDC reports will simply record the ongoing health disparities of rural America. Regardless of the Congressional outcome in 2002, the CDC report clearly succeeds in moving the national debate on rural concerns beyond the political rhetoric and into a datadriven debate. [source]

Urban Ethnography's "Saloon Problem" and Its Challenge to Public Sociology

CITY & COMMUNITY, Issue 2 2007
Greggor Mattson
This essay assesses the legacy of urban ethnography's (UE) early engagement with the "saloon problem." Early sociologists (1880,1915) intervened in the national debate on alcohol on the basis of their long-term, in-depth understanding of the urban poor. Ethnographers highlighted the role of the saloon as a haven for maintaining social ties while socializing immigrants to American norms. Instead of prohibition or temperance, sociologists advocated replacing the saloon's positive functions with more democratic institutions, especially an egalitarian domestic sphere. This position was shared by both academic and settlement house sociologists whose saloon investigations offer a coherent sociological research paradigm that antedates the Chicago School. The activism of early sociologists exemplifies the characteristics of Michael Burawoy's recent call for public sociology. Yet the early sociologists failed to redeem the saloon amongst Progressives, who increasingly rallied around the National Anti-Saloon League and constitutional Prohibition. By only investigating alcohol in its public manifestations, sociologists failed to challenge the way the social problem was framed and may even have contributed to the stigmatization of the saloon. This voyeuristic opportunism has plagued the American tradition of urban ethnography, the ineffective legacy of which poses a challenge to a contemporary revival of public sociology. [source]

Political Parties and Governors as Determinants of Legislative Behavior in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, 1988,2006

Josť Antonio Cheibub
ABSTRACT This article examines the relative importance of regional and national forces in shaping the behavior of Brazilian legislators at the national level. A widely held view is that national legislators respond to state pressures in making decisions, rather than pressures from the national government. Governors not only can influence national debates but also can determine outcomes by exerting control over their states' legislative delegations. This article examines a dataset of all roll-call votes in the Chamber of Deputies between 1989 and 2006 to isolate and evaluate the impact of local pressures on legislative voting. Spanning the terms of five presidents and five different congresses, the data show that the local influence is weaker than the national on the voting decisions of individual legislators and the voting cohesion of state delegations. Alternative institutional resources allow the central government to counteract the centrifugal pressures of federalism and other institutional influences. [source]