National Context (national + context)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

"No Thanks, We're Full": Individual Characteristics, National Context, and Changing Attitudes Toward Immigration1

Rima Wilkes
In this paper we examine how individual-level characteristics and national context affect attitudes toward immigration. Although many previous studies have compared attitudes toward immigration across countries, little attention has been paid to how attitudes may be affected by changes within a country over time. We take advantage of seventeen national Canadian Gallup surveys to consider how differences in national economic conditions and changing immigration flows affect attitudes and changes in attitudes between 1975 and 2000. While the state of the national economy affects attitudes this is not the case for the rate of immigration. Rather than affecting some groups more than others the state of the economy has a relatively uniform effect across groups. Our results also show that far from being a continuum, being anti-immigration and being pro-immigration are qualitatively different. Interest, ideology, and the national economy affect anti-immigration sentiments, but only ideology affects pro-immigration sentiments. [source]

The Endorsement of Minority Rights: The Role of Group Position, National Context, and Ideological Beliefs

Maykel Verkuyten
The present research was conducted in the Netherlands and used an experimental design to examine the endorsement of minority rights among Turkish and Kurdish participants in two framed, national contexts: the Netherlands and Turkey. In the Dutch context, each group is a minority, whereas in the Turkish context the Kurds are an oppressed national minority and the Turks are the national majority. The results showed that the Turks were less in favor of minority rights in the Turkish context than in the Dutch context, whereas the Kurds were more in favor of minority rights in the Turkish than in the Dutch context. In addition, the endorsement of minority rights was related to beliefs about majority rule, state unity, and ingroup identification, as well as to cultural diversity and perceived pervasive discrimination. The associations with the former three measures differed between the two groups and the two national contexts, whereas the latter two measures had main effects on the endorsement of minority rights. [source]

National and Partisan Contexts of Europeanization: The Case of the French Socialists

Alistair Cole
This article affirms the usefulness of thinking of Europeanization and European policy change in terms of national, party and European contexts and their interrelationships. Through a case study of the French Socialists in office, the article seeks to establish that national, party and European policy contexts matter in different ways and in varying degrees. National context provides a set of institutions, interests and referential paradigms which help to make sense of a complex external environment. Party provides a distinctive partisan lens and an enduring political community. Europeanization poses a series of direct and indirect policy challenges and opportunities for nation-states and party governments. The article considers national and Europeanized pressures to be more significant than partisan processes. [source]

Antecedents of Shareholder Activism in Target Firms: Evidence from a Multi-Country Study

William Q. Judge
ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to better understand the antecedents of shareholder activism targeted at firms located in three common law countries (i.e., USA, UK, and Australia) and three civil law countries (Japan, Germany, and South Korea) during the 2003,07 time period. Research Findings/Insights: Our findings suggest that the antecedents of shareholder activism vary by the motivation of the activist. We demonstrate that activists target firms with two motives (a) to improve the financial performance, and (b) to improve the social performance of the firm. With respect to the target firm level antecedents, we find that firm size is unrelated to financial activism, but positively related to social activism; ownership concentration is negatively related to both financial and social activism; and prior profitability is negatively related to financial activism, but positively related to social activism. Further, these relationships in the case of financial activism are generally stronger in common law legal systems, whereas those in the case of social activism are generally stronger in environments with a greater level of income inequality. Theoretical/Academic Implications: Our findings suggest that future research should differentiate between the motivations of the activism event. Further, we find that while agency logic works well for financial activism, institutional theory provides stronger explanations for social activism. Overall, we demonstrate the complementary nature of these two theories in explaining shareholder activism. Practitioner/Policy Implications: We found that the "exposure" to shareholder activism varies by the motivation of the activist, and the nature of the firm and its national context. An understanding of these issues would help firms develop proper response strategies to activism events. [source]

Making White: Constructing Race in a South African High School

Nadine Dolby
As a social and cultural phenomenon, race is continually remade within changing circumstances and is constructed and located, in part, in institutions' pedagogical practices and discourses. In this article I examine how the administration of a multiracial, working-class high school in Durban, South Africa produces "white" in an era of political and social transition. As the population of Fernwood High School (a pseudonym) shifts from majority white working class to black working class, the school administration strives to reposition the school as "white," despite its predominantly black student population. This whiteness is not only a carryover from the apartheid era, but is actively produced within a new set of circumstances. Using the discourses and practices of sports and standards, the school administration attempts to create a whiteness that separates the school from the newly democratic nation-state of South Africa. Despite students' and some staff's general complacency and outright resistance, rugby and athletics are heralded as critical nodes of the school's "white" identity, connecting the school to other, local white schools, and disconnecting it from black schools. Dress standards function in a similar manner, creating an imagined equivalence between Fernwood and other white schools in Durban (and elite schools around the world), and disassociating Fernwood from black schools in South Africa and the "third world" writ large. This pedagogy of whiteness forms the core of the administration's relationship with Fernwood students, and maps how race is remade within a changing national context. [source]

Entrepreneurship Research in Europe: Taking Stock and Looking Forward

Friederike Welter
With this article, as introduction to a special issue on entrepreneurship research in Europe, we hope to initiate a discussion about the importance of grounding entrepreneurship research in its national context. Different European researchers, all knowledgeable about the entrepreneurship research scene in their respective country, present the state of the research field for France, Germany, the United Kingdom (Blackburn & Smallbone, 2008); and Scandinavia. Two articles from U.S. authors complement this issue, reviewing differences in how entrepreneurship scholars measure the phenomenon and assessing the European approach(es). This special issue sets out to demonstrate the value of variety in the field,variety that very much depends on the different national, methodological, and thematic contexts entrepreneurship research takes place in. [source]

The Cocoon of Power: Democratic Implications of Interinstitutional Agreements

Sonja Puntscher Riekmann
It starts from the premise that democratic rules as developed in the national context may be used as a yardstick for supranational governance as well. Thus, parliamentarisation of the Union is defined as an increase in democracy, although relating problems such as weak European party systems, low turnouts, and remoteness are not to be neglected. The article evaluates several case studies on IIAs in this vein and asks whether they strengthen the European Parliament or not, and why. It arrives at conclusions that allow for differentiation: empowerment of the European Parliament occurs in particular when authorisation to conclude an IIA stems from the Treaty or from the power that the European Parliament has in crucial fields such as the budget and is willing to use for this purpose. Success is, however, not guaranteed in every case, and is sometimes more symbolic than real. However, a democratic critique must also stress negative consequences of IIAs in terms of responsivity, accountability, and transparency. [source]

Harmonising Higher Education and Innovation Policies: Canada from an International Perspective

Marie Lavoie
Abstract This paper focuses on the relevance of harmonising higher education and innovation strategies in the context of fostering economic growth, illustrated by the particular weak point in the case of Canada. The present-day market for highly-skilled labour is global and therefore increasingly porous. A government that wishes to avoid losing its highly-skilled workers to countries that can provide more attractive conditions must aim at investing simultaneously in tertiary education and science and engineering infrastructure. Ideally, supply (higher education) and demand side (innovation) policies would interact in a balanced way. Canada is located at the two extreme ends of investment in higher education and innovation and will be compared to other OECD countries. The paper concludes that seeking policy convergence in innovation and higher education with leading countries is not sufficient to reach growth and can produce disappointing results for talented people whose career expectations may remain unfulfilled. It is therefore crucial for a country to develop higher education and innovation ,in harmony' with the global context and also to achieve harmony between other policies and institutions in its own national context. [source]

HRD in multinationals: the global/local mix

Olga Tregaskis
This article is concerned with how MNCs (multinational corporations) differ from indigenous organisations in relation to their human resource development (HRD) practices, and whether this relationship changes across countries. We question whether local isomorphism is apparent in the HRD practices of MNCs, or whether MNCs share more in common with their counterparts in other countries. A series of hypotheses are put forward and tested, using survey data from 424 multinational and 259 indigenous organisations based in the UK and Ireland. The results suggest a hybrid form of localisation, where MNCs adapt their practices to accommodate national differences, but that these adaptations do not reflect convergence to domestic practice. The results also indicate that MNCs are selective in the HRD practices that are adapted. Evidence from this study indicates that country differences in career traditions and labour market skill needs are key drivers in the localisation of associated HRD practice. In contrast, MNCs, irrespective of national context, adopt comparable systematic training frameworks, ie training-need identification, evaluation and delivery. [source]

Should the State Fund Religious Schools?

abstract In this article, I make a philosophical case for the state to fund religious schools. Ultimately, I shall argue that the state has an obligation to fund and provide oversight of all schools irrespective of their religious or non-religious character. The education of children is in the public interest and therefore the state must assume its responsibility to its future citizens to ensure that they receive a quality education. Still, while both religious schools and the polity have much to be gained from direct funding, I will show that parents and administrators of these schools may have reasons to be diffident toward the state and its hypothetical interference. While the focus of the paper is primarily on the American educational context, the philosophical questions related to state funding and oversight of religious schools transcend any one national context. [source]

The acceptability to stakeholders of mandatory nutritional labelling in France and the UK , findings from the PorGrow project

M. Holdsworth
Abstract Background:, Implementing a European Union (EU)-wide mandatory nutrition labelling scheme has been advocated as part a multi-pronged strategy to tackle obesity. The type of scheme needs to be acceptable to all key stakeholders. This study explored stakeholders' viewpoints of labelling in two contrasting food cultures (France and the UK) to see whether attitudes were influenced by sectoral interests and/or national context. Methods:, Using Multi Criteria Mapping, a decision analysis tool that assesses stakeholder viewpoints, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered during tape-recorded interviews. In France and the UK, 21 comparable stakeholders appraised nutritional labelling with criteria of their own choosing (i.e. feasibility, societal benefits, social acceptability, efficacy in addressing obesity, additional health benefits) and three criteria relating to cost (to industry; public sector; individuals). When scoring, interviewees provided both optimistic (best case) and pessimistic (worst case) judgements. Results:, Overall, mandatory nutritional labelling was appraised least favourably in France. Labelling performed worse under optimistic (best case) scenarios in France, for five out of eight sets of criteria. French stakeholders viewed labelling as expensive, having fewer benefits to society and as being marginally less effective than UK stakeholders did. However, French interviewees thought implementing labelling was feasible and would provide additional health benefits. British and French stakeholders made similar quantitative judgements on how socially acceptable mandatory labelling would be. Conclusions:, There is agreement between some stakeholder groups in the two different countries, especially food chain operators. However, cultural differences emerged that could influence the impact of an EU-wide mandatory labelling scheme in both countries. [source]

An action research project in a night shelter for rough sleepers

J. Payne ba jt hons dip social work postgrad cert action res
From October 1999 to June 2000, an action research project was undertaken in a homeless night shelter called Jimmy's. This project was grounded in user-consultation and sought the involvement of staff and management to institute tangible improvements in service delivery using the Power Audit. A brief overview of Jimmy's is given, then this research is placed in local and national context by describing policy development in homelessness. A brief description is given of the research methodology and a short description of the Power Audit. Following this, the lives and experiences of the guests (Jimmy's residents) are conveyed using ethnography. This tells of the development of relationships with guests, staff and management without which the project could not have succeeded. Finally, an overview is provided of the interview content and the practical changes made. [source]

The social dimension of the Southern Vowel Shift: Gender, age and class

Valerie Fridland
The three most broadly recognized dialect areas of American Regional English are currently being re-defined by, in some cases, sweeping changes that alter the way vowels are being pronounced in the South, North and West. While research into the changes in urban Northern dialects has contributed a fairly broad picture of both the phonetic and social character of the Northern Cities Shift (NCS), the changes affecting the Southern region of the U.S. have received less attention, particularly in terms of social distribution and dissemination. This paper seeks to address the question of how successfully changes in the high and mid front and back vowels in the South are being disseminated throughout a local urban community and how these changes fit in with changes occurring in other American dialects. In addition, the paper weighs the attraction to local or national norms in determining the success and diffusion of each of the shifts relative to the social environment in which they are developing and attempts to relate the local social embedding of the shifts to their meaning in the larger national context. [source]

German welfare organizations and the process of European integration

Chris Lange
The process of European integration affects an increasing number of areas of life. The influence of the European single market on the social sector, including organizations providing human services, can no longer be denied. This article looks at the activities of the European Commission toward these organizations and argues that European regulations are relevant to the German system of social service delivery due to the introduction of market-like features in the national context. Within this context, German welfare organizations have discovered an important field of interest representation and lobbying. [source]

The Institutional Context of Market Ideology: A Comparative Analysis of the Values and Perceptions of Local Government CEOs in 14 OECD Countries

Morten Balle Hansen
During recent decades, various versions of market practices have, in most nation states, diffused into the public sector. We analyse variations in the adoption of market ideologies and examine plausible explanations for these variations. Four managerial ideal types are constructed, based on their attitudes towards two dimensions of market ideology. Managerial attitudes and perceptions are conceived as embedded in a global process of diffusion highly affected by varying institutional preconditions. The impact of five types of institutional contexts is examined: the national context, the organizational context, the context of interaction, the context of socialization and the norms of the manager. [source]

Buddhism, Politics, and Nationalism in the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries

Thomas Borchert
Buddhism is widely understood as a religion with a global scope. Particularly from the end of the twentieth century, the widespread growth of Buddhism internationally, and the extensive ties between Buddhists institutions, leave the impression of unity within contemporary Buddhism. Nevertheless, in this article, I argue that Buddhism cannot be understood outside of a national context. Although international ties between Buddhists are real and important, Sanghas generally remain under the governance by national governments and monks and nuns remain citizens of particular nation-states. As a result, contemporary Buddhism is marked by a tension between the transnational and the national. [source]

Schools as Socialisation Contexts: Understanding the Impact of School Climate Factors on Students' Sense of School Belonging

Zeynep Cemalcilar
Education is a top priority of the European Union (EU). The EU Education Council has declared that to be the world leader in terms of the quality of education and training systems by 2010, fundamental transformations in education should be carried out in each country according to its national context and traditions. As a candidate country, Turkey shares this common objective. Yet, the mean school attainment and net education enrollment rates in Turkey are still behind the EU averages. The education literature indicates students' sense of school belonging as an important predictor of school attainment. This study aims to identify the policy manipulable social aspects of schools that can be instrumental in increasing students' sense of school belonging in a sample of 799 middle school students attending public schools in Istanbul, Turkey. The conceptual model posits that students' satisfaction with both the social relationships in the school and the school environment has consequences for their sense of school belonging. The results of the structural equation model analysis revealed a plausible model. Satisfaction with social relationships emerged as a stronger predictor of sense of school belonging than satisfaction with the school environment. Further comparisons of the same conceptual model for schools with low and high socioeconomic conditions yielded different associations among the study variables. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the education system in Turkey and other less affluent societies with similar social, cultural, and economic conditions. L'éducation est une priorité majeure de l'Union Européenne (UE). Le Conseil de l'Education de l'UE a déclaré que pour devenir le leader mondial de la qualité de l'éducation et de la formation en 2010, il fallait opérer des réformes d'importance dans le système d'éducation de chacun des pays dans le respect de leurs traditions et de leur contexte national. En tant que candidate pour intégrer l'Union, la Turquie partage cet objectif commun. Pourtant, les performances scolaires moyennes et le taux de scolarisation sont en Turquie toujours en-dessous des moyennes européennes. La littérature concernée montre que la conviction de l'élève d'être intégréà l'école est un prédicteur important de ses résultats scolaires. Cette étude cherche à définir les possibilités d'action politique sur les variables sociales scolaires susceptibles d'améliorer le sentiment d'appartenance à l'école, cela sur un échantillon de 799 élèves de collège fréquentant des établissements publics d'Istanbul. Le modèle pose que la satisfaction des élèves relative aux relations sociales à l'école et à l'environnement scolaire est en relation avec leur sentiment d'intégration à l'établissement. Les résultats de l'analyse en modèle d'équation structurale fournissent une structure plausible. La satisfaction liée aux relations sociales ressort comme un prédicteur du sentiment d'appartenance plus puissant que la satisfaction relative à l'environnement scolaire. Des manipulations complémentaires de ce même modèle à partir de conditions socio-économiques élevées ou basses débouchèrent sur de nouvelles associations entre les différentes variables. Ces résultats sont évalués sur la base de leur pertinence pour le système scolaire turque et celui d'autres pays moins prospères présentant des conditions économiques, sociales et culturelles analogues. [source]

Towards the development of a transferable set of value estimates for environmental attributes

Martin Van Bueren
Estimates of environmental values are frequently required as inputs to cost-benefit analyses when evaluating alternative options for managing natural resources. One strategy to avoid the high cost of conducting empirical work when non-market values are involved is to use value estimates from an existing source study and to transfer them to the target context of interest (a practice known as benefit transfer). However, the transfer of values is subject to a host of potential errors and could lead to significant overestimation or underestimation of welfare change. The present paper reports the results of a choice modelling study in which household values for the impacts of land and water degradation in Australia are estimated. A key objective of the present study was to test the validity of transferring estimates derived in a national context to different regional contexts. On the basis of these test results, inferences are made about the impact that differing contexts have on value estimates. The scale of value differences across the different contexts provides a guide for calibrating benefit transfer estimates. [source]

A comparison of international occupational therapy competencies: Implications for Australian standards in the new millennium

Sylvia Rodger
Background/aim:, A timely evaluation of the Australian Competency Standards for Entry-Level Occupational Therapists© (1994) was conducted. This thorough investigation comprised a literature review exploring the concept of competence and the applications of competency standards; systematic benchmarking of the Australian Occupational Therapy Competency Standards (OT AUSTRALIA, 1994) against other national and international competency standards and other affiliated documents, from occupational therapy and other cognate disciplines; and extensive nationwide consultation with the professional community. This paper explores and examines the similarities and disparities between occupational therapy competency standards documents available in English from Australia and other countries. Methods:, An online search for national occupational therapy competency standards located 10 documents, including the Australian competencies. Results:, Four ,frameworks' were created to categorise the documents according to their conceptual underpinnings: Technical-Prescriptive, Enabling, Educational and Meta-Cognitive. Other characteristics that appeared to impact the design, content and implementation of competency standards, including definitions of key concepts, authorship, national and cultural priorities, scope of services, intended use and review mechanisms, were revealed. Conclusion:, The proposed ,frameworks' and identification of influential characteristics provided a ,lens' through which to understand and evaluate competency standards. While consistent application of and attention to some of these characteristics appear to consolidate and affirm the authority of competency standards, it is suggested that the national context should be a critical determinant of the design and content of the final document. The Australian Occupational Therapy Competency Standards (OT AUSTRALIA, 1994) are critiqued accordingly, and preliminary recommendations for revision are proposed. [source]

Taking Stock of Corporate Governance Research While Looking to the Future

Igor Filatotchev
ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Editorial Research Question/Issue: This essay identifies some key issues for the analysis of corporate governance based on the articles within this special review issue coupled with our own perspectives. Our aim in this issue is to distil some research streams in the field and identify opportunities for future research. Research Findings/Results: We summarize the eight papers included in this special issue and briefly highlight their main contributions to the literature which collectively deal with the role and impact of corporate boards, codes of corporate governance, and the globalization of corporate governance systems. In addition to the new insights offered by these reviews, we attempt to offer our own ideas on where future research needs to be targeted. Theoretical Implications: We highlight a number of research themes where future governance research may prove fruitful. This includes taking a more holistic approach to corporate governance issues and developing an inter-disciplinary perspective by building on agency theory while considering the rich new insights offered by complementary theories, such as behavioral theory, institutional theory and the resource-based views of the firm. In particular, future corporate governance research needs to be conducted in multiple countries, particularly in emerging economies, if we want to move closer to the journal's aim of producing a global theory of corporate governance. Practical Implications: Our analysis suggests that analytic and regulatory approaches to corporate governance issues should move from a "one-size-fits-all" template to taking into account organizational, institutional and national contexts. [source]

Deliberative Democracy and International Labor Standards

GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2003
Archon Fung
Political theorists have argued that the methods of deliberative democracy can help to meet challenges such as legitimacy, effective governance, and citizen education in local and national contexts. These basic insights can also be applied to problems of international governance such as the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of labor standards. A participatory and deliberative democratic approach to labor standards would push the labor,standards debate into the global public sphere. It would seek to create broad discussion about labor standards that would include not only firms and regulators, but also consumers, nongovernmental organizations, journalists, and others. This discussion could potentially improve (1) the quality of labor standards by incorporating considerations of economic context and firm capability, (2) their implementation by bringing to bear not only state sanctions but also political and market pressures, and (3) the education and understanding of citizens. Whereas the role of public agencies in state,centered approaches is to formulate and enforce labor standards, central authorities in the decentralized,deliberative approach would foster the transparency of workplace practices to spur an inclusive, broad, public conversation about labor standards. To the extent that a substantive consensus around acceptable behavior emerges from that conversation, public power should also enforce those minimum standards. [source]

Unpacking the effect of IT capability on the performance of export-focused SMEs: a report from China

Man Zhang
Abstract., Export-focused small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China face a number of barriers to success, two primary ones being the liability of foreignness and resource scarcity. In order to transcend these challenges and be able to survive/prosper in the hypercompetitive international market, where players include large resourceful multinational organizations with experience in varied national contexts, these firms need to develop different organizational capabilities. In this paper, we specifically examine the role of a key organizational capability , information technology (IT) capability , and its different dimensions, in determining performance of export-focused SMEs in China. Our study reveals that IT capability has a positive impact on such firms' performance. This finding indicates the need for their owners/managers to invest in IT capability. Further, the study also highlights specific sub-dimensions of IT capability that export-focused Chinese SMEs should (or should not) develop, so as to derive maximum performance-related gains for the minimum amount spent on IT. [source]

The Second Generation in Europe

Maurice Crul
The study of integration processes has now reached a crucial stage in most Western European countries with the emergence of the second generation. The oldest children born to postwar immigrants on European soil have recently entered the job market, and we can now investigate their performance in both education and employment. This opens a unique opportunity to compare the situations of second generation migrants across countries. Ostensibly the children all have the same starting position, being born in the country of settlement. The intriguing question is how differences between immigrant groups, and also differences in national contexts, work to the benefit or detriment of the second generation. We discuss the first issue briefly, confining ourselves here to Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. In addressing the issue of national contexts, we focus primarily on policies and practices rather than on broad-reaching national integration models. We examine in detail the integration process itself in the context of vital institutional arrangements such as the education system and the mechanisms for transition to the labor market. How do such arrangements differ between countries, and how do they affect the outcomes for the second generation? [source]


ABSTRACT:,Since the early 1980s, scholars have debated whether or not the converging forces of globalization have disembedded city-regions from their national contexts. This study explored this question through a comparison of post-1990 growth trends in the Detroit and Greater Toronto Area,Hamilton regions (GTAH), two urban areas within the same natural region and closely linked by industrial production flows, yet politically situated within two separate Federalist states. Guided by Nested City Theory, it reveals how their dissimilar contexts for race, local autonomy, and multilocal planning have helped foster divergent spatial patterns in the two regions. In particular, provincial controls governing municipal fragmentation, Ontario's Planning Act, and subregional/microregional planning have been key embedded structures helping to limit population decline and disinvestment in GTAH core cities. In the process, this article shows how urban trajectories have remained nested within multilevel spatial and institutional configurations. Its findings also call for greater consideration of nested state/provincial factors in cross-national comparisons of cities within Federal states. Finally, its conclusion offers a starting point toward a more nuanced specific version of Nested Theory to be called the Contextualized Model of Urban,Regional Development. [source]

Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation and Task Performance

Soon Ang
abstract We enhance the theoretical precision of cultural intelligence (CQ: capability to function effectively in culturally diverse settings) by developing and testing a model that posits differential relationships between the four CQ dimensions (metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioural) and three intercultural effectiveness outcomes (cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance in culturally diverse settings). Before testing the model, we describe development and cross-validation (N = 1,360) of the multidimensional cultural intelligence scale (CQS) across samples, time and country. We then describe three substantive studies (N = 794) in field and educational development settings across two national contexts, the USA and Singapore. The results demonstrate a consistent pattern of relationships where metacognitive CQ and cognitive CQ predicted cultural judgment and decision making; motivational CQ and behavioural CQ predicted cultural adaptation; and metacognitive CQ and behavioural CQ predicted task performance. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our model and findings. [source]

The Endorsement of Minority Rights: The Role of Group Position, National Context, and Ideological Beliefs

Maykel Verkuyten
The present research was conducted in the Netherlands and used an experimental design to examine the endorsement of minority rights among Turkish and Kurdish participants in two framed, national contexts: the Netherlands and Turkey. In the Dutch context, each group is a minority, whereas in the Turkish context the Kurds are an oppressed national minority and the Turks are the national majority. The results showed that the Turks were less in favor of minority rights in the Turkish context than in the Dutch context, whereas the Kurds were more in favor of minority rights in the Turkish than in the Dutch context. In addition, the endorsement of minority rights was related to beliefs about majority rule, state unity, and ingroup identification, as well as to cultural diversity and perceived pervasive discrimination. The associations with the former three measures differed between the two groups and the two national contexts, whereas the latter two measures had main effects on the endorsement of minority rights. [source]

An analysis on the subjective perception of policy action on peripherality: A comparative assessment in accessible and peripheral areas of six countries of the EU,

Joan Noguera
peripherality; regional development; policy analysis Abstract The paper presents an analysis of the subjective perception of the policy efficiency on peripherality in 12 regions of six countries of the EU. In each country two regions are selected: one peripheral but relatively dynamic and another accessible but relatively lagging. Public action conditions a range of processes and activities that continuously influence the intensity and direction of development. It can be part of the new factors of territorial development (NFTD) building up or hindering peripherality. The paper has the following aims: to identify what generic types of measures are believed to be more efficient for development; to analyse which measures (spatial or aspatial) are considered more important for development; to rank different NFTD according to preferences of interviewed experts; to identify whether there are differences between accessible and peripheral areas in policy preferences and needs; and to define which influences national contexts. A minimum of 5 experts per study area have been interviewed for this analysis. [source]

Football fandom and post-national identity in the New Europe

Anthony King
ABSTRACT Through European club football, we can begin to detect the outlines of a new Europe of competing cities and regions which are being disembedded from their national contexts into new transnational matrices. Focusing on a specific network of Manchester United fans, broadly located in the city of Manchester, this article examines the development of European consciousness among this group of individuals. This consciousness does not consist of a European supranationalism but rather of a new emphasis on the locale of Manchester and an increasing recognition that Manchester United and the city of Manchester must compete autonomously with other major clubs and cities in Europe. [source]

Social enterprise for work integration in 12 european countries: a descriptive analysis,

by Roger Spear
And one sector where they have found a particularly important place is in work integration, addressing some of the more difficult problems of social exclusion in labour markets. The study on which this paper is based was a large scale comparative analysis of developments of these social enterprise in 12 European countries While there are clear differences in national contexts, there are also similarities in the forms and characteristics of these social enterprise across Europe. It is argued that this form of social enterprise has proved effective and is an important innovation to address problems of more marginalised groups and individuals, but there remain issues about how to sustain and promote the good models and good practices developed. [source]

Dynamic Capabilities: Current Debates and Future Directions

Mark Easterby-Smith
The field of dynamic capabilities has developed very rapidly over the last ten years. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the concept, and identify two major current debates around the nature of dynamic capabilities and their consequences. We then review recent progress as background to identifying the contributions of the seven papers in this special issue, and discuss the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative studies for investigating dynamic capabilities. We conclude with recommendations for future research arguing for more longitudinal studies which can examine the processes of dynamic abilities over time, and for studies in diverse industries and national contexts. [source]