Nasal Carriers (nasal + carrier)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An epidemiological study on the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in superficial abscesses of patients presenting for surgery in a teaching hospital in Khartoum, Sudan

Seif Eldin Ibrahim Mahdi
Abstract A group of patients (n=86) suffering from superficial abscesses was recruited in the Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Sudan. Detailed clinical and socio-economic data were collected. It appeared that 83% of all patients were younger than 40. Labourers were most prevalent (28%), followed by students (23%) and housewives (16%). The head and neck were most often affected (22%), with hands being second (19%). In 92% of all pus cultures a microbial agents was identified, the large majority being Staphylococcus aureus (69%). Among patients, 47% were nasal carriers of S. aureus, similar to the carriage rate measured among controls, suggesting that nasal carriage is no risk factor for abscess development. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a history of abscess, recent traditional medical treatment, poor hygiene and low socio-economic status were significantly and independently associated with the occurrence of superficial abscesses. [source]

Mupirocin ointment for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections in nasal carriers

Miranda Van Rijen

Mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal administration of an antiemetic drug, metoclopramide: in-vitro/ex-vivo studies

Elisabetta Gavini
Microparticulate delivery systems designed for the nasal administration of an antiemetic drug, metoclopramide hydrochloride, were prepared. Microspheres composed of sodium alginate, chitosan hydrochloride, or both, were obtained using a spray-drying method; some batches of drug-free microparticles were prepared as a comparison. The morphology, in-vitro swelling behaviour, mucoadhesive properties and drug release from microparticles were evaluated. Ex-vivo drug permeation tests were carried out using sheep nasal mucosa; permeation test of the drug solution was peformed as comparison. During ex-vivo permeation tests, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were carried out on the nasal mucosa to study the morphological changes of epithelial cells and tight junctions, while the change in microsphere morphology was examined using photostereo microscopy (PM). Spray-dried microparticles had a mean diameter (dvs) in the range of about 3,10 ,m. They showed good in-vitro mucoadhesive properties. In-vitro release profiles and swelling behaviour depended on their composition: the drug release occurred in 1,3 h. Ex-vivo studies showed that drug permeation through the mucosa from microparticles based on chitosan was higher than from those consisting of alginate alone. This can be related to the penetration enhancing properties of chitosan. Complexation of chitosan with alginate led to a control of the drug release. Microscopy observation of microspheres during the permeation tests revealed that microparticles swelled and gelled, maintaining their shape. TEM analyses of the mucosa after exposure to the microparticles consisting of alginate/chitosan showed opened tight junctions. This preliminary study shows that alginate/chitosan spray-dried microspheres have promising properties for use as mucoadhesive nasal carriers of an antiemetic drug. [source]

Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood and anterior nares induce similar innate immune responses in endothelial cells

APMIS, Issue 11 2009
To evaluate the possibility to distinguish virulent from non-virulent isolates, gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by invasive and colonizing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was compared. Gene expression in HUVEC was analyzed by microarray analysis after 4 h of infection with Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from healthy nasal carriers (n = 5) and from blood of septic patients (n = 5), to explore possible differences between the groups of bacteria in interaction with HUVEC. All isolates were spa -typed to disclose strain relatedness. Moreover, the isolates were characterized with DNA microarray to determine the presence of virulence genes and to investigate the potential genes of importance in HUVEC interaction. The expression of 41 genes was up-regulated, and four were down-regulated in HUVEC by all isolates. Most of the up-regulated genes encode cytokines, chemokines, interferon-induced proteins, proteins regulating apoptosis and cell proliferation. There was no difference in the gene expression pattern between HUVEC infected with invasive or colonizing isolates. Furthermore, there was no difference in the presence of bacterial virulence genes between the two groups. In conclusion, our data indicate that S. aureus isolates induce comparable expression patterns in HUVEC, irrespective of invasiveness or presence of virulence genes. [source]