Nasal Cannula (nasal + cannula)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Fatal pneumoperitoneum caused by nasopharyngeal oxygen delivery after transoesophageal echocardiography for cardiac surgery

We report a case of fatal post-operative pneumoperitoneum in a patient who had undergone urgent mitral valve surgery. In the absence of a proven cause of the pneumoperitoneum (refusal by the family of an autopsy), we can only propose a hypothesis for its origin. The most probable one is that forceful or sustained retrograde flexion of the transoesophageal echocardiographic probe created a lower oesophagus or gastric rupture and that oxygen flow administered by the nasal cannula went straight to the abdominal cavity, leading to tension pneumoperitoneum. [source]

High flow nasal cannula therapy as respiratory support in the preterm infant,

Carlo Dani MD
Abstract We reviewed the literature on the effects of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and heated, humidified, high-flow, nasal cannula (HHHFNC) treatment in preterm infants. We found nine studies, but only two were randomized controlled trials. These studies show that: HFNC application is associated to the delivery of continuous distending pressure (CDP) in patients with closed mouth, whose value is proportional to the delivered flow only in smaller infants; the CDP delivered by HFNC is unpredictable and present large inter-patient and intra-patient variability; the use of recently available HHHFNC devices is effective in minimizing nasal mucosa injuries compared to traditional HFNC; the effectiveness of HHHFNC versus NCPAP for the treatment of apnoea of prematurity, respiratory distress syndrome, and the prevention of extubation failure, has been poor investigated and firm conclusions cannot be drawn on this matter. In conclusion, on the basis of published data, the routinary application of HFNC should be limited to patients requiring oxygen-therapy, HHHFNC devices should be preferred to HFNC, but their employment as an alternative to NCPAP should wait for the conclusion of randomized controlled trials. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:629,634. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hyperthermic, Supersaturated Humidification in the Treatment of Xerostomia,

Mark A. Criswell MD
Abstract Objectives To investigate the role of hyperthermic, supersaturated humidification in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia. Study Design A randomized, controlled, crossover pilot study of patients with symptomatic xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Patients compared a standard bedside humidifier with a new device delivering hyperthermic, supersaturated humidification through a nasal cannula. Methods The patients were randomized to a 2-week course of standard, cool air bedside humidification or to hyperthermic, supersaturated humidification through a nasal cannula (Vapotherm Inc., Annapolis, MD). After a 1-week washout period, patients were crossed over to the opposite device for another 2 weeks. The patients underwent physical examination initially and after each trial period using an objective xerostomia scale, and then completed a questionnaire quantifying their symptoms. Patients additionally rated their symptoms at home, twice daily, using a visual analogue scale. Results Using the Oral Assessment Guide, lip scores went from 1.67 initially to 1.67 after control and 1.67 after Vapotherm. Tongue scores were 1.67, 1.5, and 1.83, respectively. Saliva scores were 1.67, 1.5, and 1.5, respectively. Mucous membranes scores were 1.5, 1.67, and 1.5, respectively. The physical examination scores at these four sites were not significantly different between control and Vapotherm (P = .78, .78, .72, and .37, respectively). The patient symptom questionnaire and visual analogue scores also revealed no significant difference between the two devices. Conclusion The Vapotherm MT-3000 device appears to provide minimal or no additional relief from radiation xerostomia over standard bedside humidifiers. Further investigation may be warranted with newer models of the device and with disorders of mucociliary clearance. [source]

Effect of nasal cannula oxygen administration on oxygen concentration at facial and adjacent landmarks

ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2009
M. Orhan-Sungur
Summary An oxygen-enriched atmosphere enhances the potential for operating-room fires. We thus determined oxygen concentrations at various facial landmarks during oxygen administration via nasal cannulae. Thirteen supine volunteers were draped similarly to patients undergoing a cervical-node biopsy. Oxygen was delivered in random order through nasal cannulae at rates of 2, 4, and 6 l.min,1. Oxygen concentration was measured at pre-determined facial landmarks and also distal to the drape at non-facial sites. At a flow of 2 l.min,1, oxygen concentrations exceeded 23% only within a few centimetres of the nasal cannula. Concentration increased as a function of flow, but rarely exceeded 26%. At all flow rates, concentrations distal to the drape were < 24%. To reduce combustion risk, ignition sources should be kept at least 10 cm from the oxygen outlet when using nasal cannula at a flow rate , 4 l.min,1. [source]

An Improvised Oxygen Supply System for Pandemic and Disaster Use

Charles M. Little DO
Abstract Background:, Current disaster planning for pandemic influenza anticipates overwhelming numbers of patients in need of hospitalization. The anticipated use of extra, or "surge," beds is common in both hospital and community disaster response planning. In a pandemic of respiratory illness, supplemental oxygen will be a life-saving intervention. There are currently few options to provide these proposed surge beds with the necessary oxygen. Objectives:, A method of providing an improvised oxygen delivery system for use in a disaster was developed and tested. This system was designed to use readily available commercial materials to assemble an oxygen delivery system. Methods:, The study consisted of a laboratory design, assembly, and testing of an improvised oxygen system. Results:, A liquid oxygen (LOX) Dewar container was used to supply oxygen systems built from inexpensive commercially available plastic tubing and fittings. The system will drive ventilators without significant pressure drop or ventilator malfunction. The final developed system will supply 30 patients with up to 6 L/min (l pm) oxygen each by nasal cannula from a single oxygen Dewar. Conclusions:, An improvised system to deliver oxygen for patient beds or ventilator use can be easily assembled in the event of a disaster. This could be life-saving in the event of a pandemic of respiratory illness. [source]