Nasal Airway (nasal + airway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Surgical Stent Fabrication for Unilateral Nasal Obstruction of the Anterior Portion of the Nasal Airway

JOURNAL OF PROSTHODONTICS, Issue 3 2009
Fong Wong BSD
Abstract A description is given of the indication and technical steps for fabricating a unilateral nasal stent to maintain patency of the nasal passage after surgical opening of an obstruction in a pediatric case. The methodology uses a two-step impression of the contralateral unobstructed naris and exterior valve region to generate a two-piece injection mold. The mold is used to fabricate a soft silicone-based anatomical stent. It supports an intranasal skin graft that was placed to reduce the risk of granulation. [source]


Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog (Canis familiaris) and Implications Regarding Olfactory Airflow

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
Brent A. Craven
Abstract The canine nasal airway is an impressively complex anatomical structure, having many functional roles. The complicated branching and intricate scrollwork of the nasal conchae provide large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. Of the previous anatomical studies of the canine nasal airway, none have included a detailed rendering of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal regions of the nose. Here, we present a high-resolution view of the nasal airway of a large dog, using magnetic resonance imaging scans. Representative airway sections are shown, and a three-dimensional surface model of the airway is reconstructed from the image data. The resulting anatomic structure and detailed morphometric data of the airway provide insight into the functional nature of canine olfaction. A complex airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls appear structurally distinct. This is quantitatively confirmed by considering the fractal dimension of each airway, which shows that the maxilloturbinate airways are more highly contorted than the ethmoidal airways. Furthermore, surface areas of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal airways are shown to be much different, despite having analogous physiological functions. Functionally, the dorsal meatus of the canine nasal airway is shown to be a bypass for odorant-bearing inspired air around the complicated maxilloturbinate during sniffing for olfaction. Finally, nondimensional analysis is used to show that the airflow within both the maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate regions must be laminar. This work has direct relevance to biomimetic sniffer design, chemical trace detector development, intranasal drug delivery, and inhalation toxicology. Anat Rec, 290:1325,1340, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Hypoxia Depresses Nitric Oxide Output in the Human Nasal Airways

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2000
James S. J. Haight MD
Abstract Objectives The role of oxygen in the nasal air on nasal nitric oxide (NO) output was studied in 13 adult volunteers. Methods Nasal NO was measured while air containing oxygen (0%,100% in nitrogen) was aspirated through the nasal airway before and after the topical application of xylometazoline. Results The mean nasal NO output of the untreated nose was 507.8 161.9 nL/min (mean SD) when 21% oxygen was aspirated through the nasal cavities in series and remained unaltered by 100% O2 (P = .79). Below 10% oxygen the reduction in nasal NO output correlated positively and significantly with the decrease in oxygen concentration (r2 = 0.14). NO output was 245.2 153.4 nL/min at 0% oxygen, a significant decline from 21% oxygen (P < .0001). Nasal vasoconstriction induced by xylometazoline and alterations in the blood oxygen content by a maximal breath-holding or breathing 100% oxygen did not alter nasal NO in hypoxia (P = .41). Conclusions Nasal NO output is markedly depressed in hypoxia and is oxygen dependent at concentrations of less than 10%. Approximately 50% of nasally generated NO is produced from oxygen in nasal air or regulated by it. [source]


Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog (Canis familiaris) and Implications Regarding Olfactory Airflow

THE ANATOMICAL RECORD : ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2007
Brent A. Craven
Abstract The canine nasal airway is an impressively complex anatomical structure, having many functional roles. The complicated branching and intricate scrollwork of the nasal conchae provide large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. Of the previous anatomical studies of the canine nasal airway, none have included a detailed rendering of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal regions of the nose. Here, we present a high-resolution view of the nasal airway of a large dog, using magnetic resonance imaging scans. Representative airway sections are shown, and a three-dimensional surface model of the airway is reconstructed from the image data. The resulting anatomic structure and detailed morphometric data of the airway provide insight into the functional nature of canine olfaction. A complex airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls appear structurally distinct. This is quantitatively confirmed by considering the fractal dimension of each airway, which shows that the maxilloturbinate airways are more highly contorted than the ethmoidal airways. Furthermore, surface areas of the maxilloturbinate and ethmoidal airways are shown to be much different, despite having analogous physiological functions. Functionally, the dorsal meatus of the canine nasal airway is shown to be a bypass for odorant-bearing inspired air around the complicated maxilloturbinate during sniffing for olfaction. Finally, nondimensional analysis is used to show that the airflow within both the maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate regions must be laminar. This work has direct relevance to biomimetic sniffer design, chemical trace detector development, intranasal drug delivery, and inhalation toxicology. Anat Rec, 290:1325,1340, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Pathology of the Olfactory Epithelium: Smoking and Ethanol Exposure,

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2004
J Vent MD
Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of tobacco smoke on the olfactory epithelium. Cigarette smoking has been associated with hyposmia; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. The sense of smell is mediated by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) exposed to the nasal airway, rendering them vulnerable to environmental injury and death. As a consequence, a baseline level of apoptotic OSN death has been demonstrated even in the absence of obvious disease. Dead OSNs are replaced by the mitosis and maturation of progenitors to maintain sufficient numbers of neurons into adult life. Disruption of this balance has been suggested as a common cause for clinical smell loss. This current study will evaluate the effects of tobacco smoke on the olfactory mucosa, with emphasis on changes in the degree of OSN apoptosis. Study Design: A rat model was used to assess the olfactory epithelium after exposure to tobacco smoke. Methods: Rats were exposed to tobacco smoke alone (for 12 weeks), smoke plus dietary ethanol (for the final 5 weeks), or to neither (control). Immunohistochemical analysis of the olfactory epithelium was performed using an antibody to the active form of caspase-3. Positive staining for this form of the caspase-3 enzyme indicates a cell undergoing apoptotic proteolysis. Results: Control rats demonstrated a low baseline level of caspase-3 activity in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, tobacco smoke exposure triggered a dramatic increase in the degree of OSN apoptosis that affected all stages of the neuronal lineage. Conclusions: These results support the following hypothesis: smell loss in smokers is triggered by increased OSN death, which eventually overwhelms the regenerative capacity of the epithelium. [source]


Hypoxia Depresses Nitric Oxide Output in the Human Nasal Airways

THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2000
James S. J. Haight MD
Abstract Objectives The role of oxygen in the nasal air on nasal nitric oxide (NO) output was studied in 13 adult volunteers. Methods Nasal NO was measured while air containing oxygen (0%,100% in nitrogen) was aspirated through the nasal airway before and after the topical application of xylometazoline. Results The mean nasal NO output of the untreated nose was 507.8 161.9 nL/min (mean SD) when 21% oxygen was aspirated through the nasal cavities in series and remained unaltered by 100% O2 (P = .79). Below 10% oxygen the reduction in nasal NO output correlated positively and significantly with the decrease in oxygen concentration (r2 = 0.14). NO output was 245.2 153.4 nL/min at 0% oxygen, a significant decline from 21% oxygen (P < .0001). Nasal vasoconstriction induced by xylometazoline and alterations in the blood oxygen content by a maximal breath-holding or breathing 100% oxygen did not alter nasal NO in hypoxia (P = .41). Conclusions Nasal NO output is markedly depressed in hypoxia and is oxygen dependent at concentrations of less than 10%. Approximately 50% of nasally generated NO is produced from oxygen in nasal air or regulated by it. [source]


Re: Correlation between subjective and objective evaluation of the nasal airway

CLINICAL OTOLARYNGOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
R. Eccles
No abstract is available for this article. [source]