Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Nasal

  • nasal administration
  • nasal airflow
  • nasal airway
  • nasal ala
  • nasal allergen challenge
  • nasal allergen provocation
  • nasal allergic symptom
  • nasal allergy
  • nasal biopsy
  • nasal blockage
  • nasal bone
  • nasal bone length
  • nasal bridge
  • nasal cannula
  • nasal carriage
  • nasal carrier
  • nasal cavity
  • nasal challenge
  • nasal complex
  • nasal congestion
  • nasal continuous positive airway pressure
  • nasal corticosteroid
  • nasal cytology
  • nasal decongestion test
  • nasal defect
  • nasal disease
  • nasal endoscopy
  • nasal epithelial cell
  • nasal epithelium
  • nasal fibroblast
  • nasal inflammation
  • nasal intubation
  • nasal irrigation
  • nasal itching
  • nasal lavage
  • nasal lavage fluid
  • nasal mask
  • nasal mucosa
  • nasal mucosal
  • nasal mucosal swelling
  • nasal mucus
  • nasal nitric oxide
  • nasal no
  • nasal no output
  • nasal obstruction
  • nasal packing
  • nasal passage
  • nasal patency
  • nasal polyp
  • nasal polyp tissue
  • nasal polyposi
  • nasal provocation
  • nasal provocation test
  • nasal reconstruction
  • nasal resistance
  • nasal response
  • nasal secretion
  • nasal septum
  • nasal side
  • nasal spray
  • nasal surgery
  • nasal swab
  • nasal symptom
  • nasal symptom score
  • nasal tip
  • nasal tissue
  • nasal type

  • Selected Abstracts

    Micellar and salt effects on the interaction of [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+ with ninhydrin

    Mohd. Akram
    The effect of cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the kinetics of interaction of copper dipeptide complex [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+ with ninhydrin has been studied spectrophotometrically at 70°C and pH 5.0. The reaction follows first- and fractional-order kinetics, respectively, in complex and ninhydrin. The reaction is catalyzed by CTAB micelles, and the maximum rate enhancement is about twofold. The results obtained in the micellar medium are treated quantitatively in terms of the kinetic pseudophase and Piszkiewicz models. The rate constants (kobs or k,), micellar-binding constants (kS for [Cu(II)-Gly-Gly]+, kN for ninhydrin), and index of cooperativity (n) have been evaluated. A mechanism is proposed in accordance with the experimental results. The influence of different inorganic (NaCl, NaBr, Na2SO4) and organic (NaBenz, NaSal) salts on the reaction rate has also been seen, and it is found that tightly bound/incorporated counterions are the most effective. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 39: 556,564, 2007 [source]

    M cells and associated lymphoid tissue of the equine nasopharyngeal tonsil

    P. KUMAR
    Summary The aim of this study was to characterise the morphological and histochemical features of equine nasopharyngeal tonsillar tissue. Nasal and oropharyngeal tonsillar tissue has been described as the gatekeeper to mucosal immunity because of its strategic location at the entrance to the respiratory and alimentary tracts. A combination of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy has revealed the presence of follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying lymphoid tissue of the equine nasopharyngeal tonsil caudal to the pharyngeal opening of the guttural pouch. Membranous microvillus (M) cells were identified in the FAE on the basis of short microvilli, an intimate association with lymphocytes, cytoplasmic vimentin filaments and epitopes on the apical surface reactive with lectin GS I-B4 specific for ,-linked galactose. CD4-positive lymphocytes were scattered throughout the lamina propria mucosae as well as forming dense aggregates in the subepithelial part. The central follicular area was heavily populated with B lymphocytes and the dome and parafollicular areas contained both CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes. CD8-positive lymphocytes were also present in the epithelium and, together with B lymphocytes, in small numbers in the lamina propria mucosae. These observations indicate that the nasopharyngeal tonsil is potentially an important mucosal immune induction site in the horse and an appropriate target forintranasally administered vaccines. [source]

    Equine dental disease Part 4: a long-term study of 400 cases: apical infections of cheek teeth

    P. M. Dixon
    Summary Of 400 horses referred because of equine dental disease, 162 suffered from primary apical infections of their cheek teeth (CT), including 92 with maxillary CT infections and 70 with mandibular CT infections. Maxillary swellings and sinus tracts were more common (82 and 26% incidence, respectively) with infections of the rostral 3 maxillary CT, than with infections of the caudal 3 maxillary CT(39 and 5% incidence, respectively). Nasal discharge was more commonly present with caudal (95%) than rostral (23%) maxillary CT infections. Mandibular CT apical infections commonly had mandibular swellings (91%) and mandibular sinus tracts (59%) and these infections were closely related to eruption of the affected CT. A variety of treatments, including medical treatment, apical curettage, repulsion and oral extraction of affected teeth were utilised in these cases, with oral extraction appearing to be most satisfactory. Infections of caudal maxillary CT with a secondary paranasal sinusitis were most refractory to treatment, with a complete response to the initial treatment achieved in just 33% of these cases. Most other cases responded fully to their initial treatment. The long-term response to treatment was good in most cases. [source]

    Conjunctival effects of a selective nasal pollen provocation

    ALLERGY, Issue 9 2010
    I. Callebaut
    To cite this article: Callebaut I, Spielberg L, Hox V, Bobic S, Jorissen M, Stalmans I, Scadding G, Ceuppens JL, Hellings PW. Conjunctival effects of a selective nasal pollen provocation. Allergy 2010; 65: 1173,1181. Abstract Background:, Several clinical and experimental observations suggest that allergen deposition in the nose may partially be responsible for the induction of conjunctival symptoms in allergic rhinitis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the induction of conjunctival symptoms by selective nasal allergen provocation and to assess the feasibility of the different tools for evaluation of conjunctival allergic inflammation. Methods:, Grass pollen allergic subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms during the pollen season (n = 12) underwent a nasal sham and grass pollen provocation extra-seasonally. Nasal and conjunctival symptoms were scored using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) system at baseline, 15 min, 1 h and 24 h after provocation. In addition to Peak Nasal Inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurements, conjunctival inflammation and vascular congestion were evaluated and histamine and substance P levels in tear fluid were measured. Results:, Selective nasal grass pollen provocation induced ocular pruritus, lacrimation and conjunctival vascular congestion. PNIF values correlated inversely with lacrimation (r = ,0.71, P < 0.001) and ocular pruritus (r = ,0.41, P < 0.05). Four out of 11 patients showed a conjunctival eosinophilic inflammation and levels of histamine (r = 0.73, P < 0.05) and substance P (r = 0.67, P = 0.05) in tear fluid correlated with conjunctival symptoms. Conclusion:, Selective nasal grass pollen provocation induced conjunctival inflammation, ocular pruritus and lacrimation, which correlated with histamine and substance P levels in tear fluid and inversely with the PNIF values. These data show a naso-ocular interaction in allergic rhinitis and offer objective tools for evaluation of conjunctival inflammation in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. [source]

    Functional endoscopic sinus surgery improved asthma symptoms as well as PEFR and olfaction in patients with nasal polyposis

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
    A. Ehnhage
    Background:, Nasal polyposis is a disease known to be associated with asthma. The management is anti-inflammatory, with topical and oral corticosteroids as the first-line treatment. The effect of surgical treatment on lower airway inflammation has not been sufficiently studied. Aim:, The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) as well as fluticasone proprionate nasal drops (FPND) 400 ,g b.i.d. on nasal and lower airway parameters in asthmatics with nasal polyposis. Methods:, This was a prospective 21-week study of 68 patients with asthma and nasal polyposis, on the benefits of FESS on nasal ,(butanol test, subjective olfaction, peak nasal inspiratory flow, congestion, rhinorrhoea, and polyp score)', and on the lower airway parameters (dyspnea, cough, mean daily peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and lung function tests). It also included a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 14 weeks phase on FPND. Results:, Functional endoscopic sinus surgery significantly improved mean asthma symptom scores and daily PEFR and all nasal parameters including subjective and objective olfaction tests. This is the first study that shows the benefits of FESS on butanol tests in patients with nasal polyposis. We found no significant difference between topical treatment with FPND or placebo in the nasal or lower airway variables. Conclusion:, Functional endoscopic sinus surgery improved nasal and asthma symptoms in patients with nasal polyposis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery could be considered early in the natural course of nasal polyposis with concomitant asthma, as well as a second-line treatment in nasal polyposis patients with a reduced sense of smell. The potential benefits of FPND 400 ,g b.i.d. were probably overshadowed by FESS. [source]

    TRPV1-mediated itch in seasonal allergic rhinitis

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2009
    L. Alenmyr
    Background:, Patients with allergic rhinitis may be abnormally sensitive to stimulation of the ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). Aim of the study:, To examine effects of various TRP ion channel activators on sensory symptoms in allergic rhinitis prior to and during seasonal allergen exposure. Methods:, Nasal challenges were carried out with the TRPV1-activators capsaicin, anandamide and olvanil. Moreover, challenges were performed with mustard oil (allylisothiocyanate) and cinnamaldehyde as well as menthol, activators of TRPA1 and TRPM8, respectively. Nasal symptoms were monitored after each challenge and compared with symptoms reported following corresponding sham challenges. Symptoms recorded after challenge prior to pollen season were also compared with challenge-induced symptoms during pollen season. Results:, The TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPM8-activators produced sensory symptoms dominated by pain and smart. During seasonal allergen exposure, but not prior to season, TRPV1-activators also induced itch. Furthermore, the seasonal challenge to the TRPV1-activator olvanil was associated with rhinorrhoea. Conclusion:, Patients with allergic rhinitis feature an increased itch response to TRPV1 stimulation at seasonal allergen exposure. We suggest that this reflects part of the hyperresponsiveness that characterizes on-going allergic rhinitis. Intervention with the TRPV1-signalling pathway may offer potential treatments of this condition. [source]

    Diathermy Smoke Extraction in Nasal and Oropharyngeal Surgery

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2004
    E J. Chisholm
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Aggravation of bronchial eosinophilia in mice by nasal and bronchial exposure to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    P. W. Hellings
    Summary Background The role of bacterial enterotoxins like Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) in allergic asthma remains unknown. We used a mouse model of airway allergy to study the effects of nasal or bronchial contact with SEB on bronchial allergic inflammation. Methods The features of allergic asthma were induced in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice (days 1,13) by repeated exposures to nebulized OVA (days 33,37). Nasal or bronchial application of SEB was performed on three occasions (days 33,35,37), and the effects on bronchial inflammation, IgE titres and expression levels of mRNA for T helper type 2 cytokines and other inflammatory mediators were evaluated. Results Both nasal and bronchial SEB enhanced the allergen-induced bronchial inflammation, as reflected by more eosinophilic inflammation in the airway lumen and in bronchial tissue. Aggravation of experimental asthma correlated with higher expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-4, IFN-,, IL-12 p40, eotaxin-1 and TGF-, in bronchi. In addition, nasal SEB elevated concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-, in serum and bronchial SEB increased titres of OVA-specific and total IgE in serum. Conclusion Our data illustrate the potential of both nasal as well as bronchial SEB to aggravate several features of allergic asthma in a mouse model. [source]

    Mast cell-mediated airway remodelling

    Y. Okayama
    Summary Airway structural changes (remodelling) in asthma include increased smooth muscle mass, mucus gland hypertrophy, deposition of extracellular matrix components, thickening of reticular basement membrane, and angiogenesis. The extent of remodelling correlates with severity of asthma, and since patients with extensive remodelling may be resistant to steroids therapy, prevention of airway remodelling is a promising therapeutic strategy for curing patients with severe asthma. Mast cells play a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory diseases including asthma and rhinitis. Both early-phase mediators such as tryptase and chymase and late-phase mediators such as cytokines released by mast cells are capable of modulating airway smooth muscle cell function and inducing goblet cell hyperplasia. Nasal remodelling in patients with rhinitis seems far less extensive than that which occurs in bronchi of asthmatic patients. Because cytokine production by smooth muscle cells may partly explain the differences in remodelling at these two sites, further investigation of the interaction between human mast cells and airway smooth muscle cells is required to identify new therapeutic strategies for reducing airway remodelling in asthma. [source]

    Re: Nasal suctioning during epistaxis

    O. Judd
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Feasibility of using the TOSCA telescreening procedures for diabetic retinopathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2004
    S. Luzio
    Abstract Aims The TOSCA project was set up to establish a tele-ophthalmology service to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of establishing telemedicine-based digital screening for detecting DR and to evaluate the satisfaction of both patients and healthcare professionals with the screening procedures used within the TOSCA project. Methods The study was a non-randomized, multicentre study carried out in four different countries over a period of 3 months. Patients (n = 390) with diabetes aged > 12 years were included. Two digital retinal images per eye (macular and nasal) were taken and exported to a central server. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess satisfaction. Accredited graders carried out grading remotely and the results were reported back to the referring centre. Previously graded patient data chosen randomly to represent examples of both DR and no DR were also sent anonymously to the grading centre at a frequency of approximately every 10 patients. Results Most (99%) of the images were assessable enabling a retinopathy grade to be assigned to the patient. Patients found the retinal photography procedures acceptable; only 6% in one centre would not recommend the procedure. Healthcare professionals (photographers and graders) were also satisfied with the overall procedures. The average time taken to grade each patient was approximately 5 min. Conclusions This study demonstrated that it is feasible to electronically transmit and grade retinal images remotely using the TOSCA process. Built-in quality assurance procedures proved acceptable. [source]

    Analysis of the sinusitis nasal lavage fluid proteome using capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight- tandem mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 9 2004
    Begona Casado
    Abstract The nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) from four subjects with acute sinusitis were analyzed to investigate the amount of proteins expressed in this pathology at the beginning of the event (day 1) and after 6 days of treatment with antibiotics and a nasal steroid spray. The protein identification was performed with capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray-quadrupole time of flight-(LC-ESI-Q-TOF)-mass spectrometry. The samples collected on the first day contained high-abundant plasma proteins, such as albumin and immunoglobulins, glandular serous cell proteins (lysozyme, lactoferrin, and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor), epithelial keratins, and inflammatory cell proteins (myeloperoxidase, IL-16, and IL-17E). After six days of therapy, the complexity of the proteome was reduced to plasma proteins and lysozyme with no inflammatory markers. The presence of hemoglobin, however, suggested that significant squamous metaplasia with breaches in the epithelial barrier, or nasal steroid-related bleeding, had occurred. The proteomic approach presented here allowed us to identify, in the high complexity of acute sinusitis nasal secretions, the proteins that respond to a pharmacological treatment and that could be suitable as markers of this pathology. [source]

    Febrile Seizures: Treatment and Prognosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2000
    Finn Ursin Knudsen
    Summary: Recent epidemiologic data indicate that the vast majority of children with febrile seizures have a normal long-term outcome. A precise knowledge of the short- and long-term outcome with or without treatment, and short- and long-term side effects is an important prerequisite for assessing the various treatment strategies. We focus on the impact of short-term or prophylactic treatment on the short- and long-term outcome of various types of febrile seizures. There is universal agreement that daily prophylaxis with antiepileptic agents should never be used routinely in simple febrile seizures, but only in highly selected cases, if at all. Intermittent diazepam (DZP) prophylaxis at times of fever may or may not reduce the recurrence rate, but it does not appear to improve the long-term outcome as compared with short-term seizure control. The treatment may be used to reduce the recurrence rate for a small arbitrarily defined group with multiple simple febrile seizures, complex febrile seizures, especially focal, prolonged or both, febrile status, and when parental anxiety is severe. However, there is no evidence that treatment of simple febrile seizures can prevent the rare cases of later epilepsy, and many children with complex febrile seizures have a benign long-term outcome, even without treatment. Many prefer a "wait and see" policy. An attractive alternative is to treat new febrile seizures with rectal DZP in solution at seizure onset, given by the parents at home to prevent febrile status. Newer, less well documented short-term strategies include nasal, oral, or rectal administration of other benzodiazepines. Short-term seizure control of febrile status and careful parental counseling are the two most important targets of treatment. [source]

    Prevalence and serum protein values of strangles (Streptococcus equi) affected mules at Remount Depot, Sargodha (Pakistan)

    M. Ijaz
    Summary The prevalence of Streptococcus equi serovar equi (S.equi) in nasal discharge and pus samples from sub-mandibular lymph nodes in mules at the Remount Depot, Sargodha was examined and total serum proteins, serum albumin, serum globulin and fibrinogen measured. A total of 250 nasal swabs and pus samples were collected from mules and examined microbiologically: 99 (39.6%) were positive for S. equi. A higher occurrence of S. equi was recorded in foals as compared to adults. The concentrations of total serum protein, serum globulin and fibrinogen were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the concentration of serum albumin significantly decreased (P<0.05) in strangles-affected mules. It was concluded that increased total serum proteins, serum globulin and fibrinogen along with decreased serum albumin were important indicators of infection by S. equi in mules. [source]

    A region on equine chromosome 13 is linked to recurrent airway obstruction in horses

    U. JOST
    Summary Reasons for study: Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is probably dependent on a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors and shares many characteristic features with human asthma. Interleukin 4 receptor , chain (IL4RA) is a candidate gene because of its role in the development of human asthma, confirmation of this association is therefore required. Methods: The equine BAC clone containing the IL4RA gene was localised to ECA13q13 by the FISH method. Microsatellite markers in this region were investigated for possible association and linkage with RAO in 2 large Warmblood halfsib families. Based on a history of clinical signs (coughing, nasal discharge, abnormal breathing and poor performance), horses were classified in a horse owner assessed respiratory signs index (HOARSI 1,4: from healthy, mild, moderate to severe signs). Four microsatellite markers (AHT133, LEX041, VHL47, ASB037) were analysed in the offspring of Sire 1 (48 unaffected HOARSI 1 vs. 59 affected HOARSI 2,4) and Sire 2 (35 HOARSI 1 vs. 50 HOARSI 2,4), age ,7 years. Results: For both sires haplotypes could be established in the order AHT133-LEX047-VHL47-ASB37. The distances in this order were estimated to be 2.9, 0.9 and 2.3 centiMorgans, respectively. Haplotype association with mild to severe clinical signs of chronic lower airway disease (HOARSI 2,4) was significant in the offspring of Sire 1 (P = 0.026) but not significant for the offspring of Sire 2 (P = 0.32). Linkage analysis showed the ECA13q13 region containing IL4RA to be linked to equine chronic lower airway disease in one family (P<0.01), but not in the second family. Conclusions: This supports a genetic background for equine RAO and indicates that IL4RA is a candidate gene with possible locus heterogeneity for this disease. Potential relevance: Identification of major genes for RAO may provide a basis for breeding and individual prevention for this important disease. [source]

    Inflammatory airway disease, nasal discharge and respiratory infections in young British racehorses

    J. L. N. WOOD
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Respiratory disease is important in young Thoroughbred racehorses, but the variation in the rates of occurrence between different ages and training groups has not been characterised. Objectives: To determine the rates of respiratory disease, particularly inflammatory airway disease (IAD), as well as evidence of infection, and their variation between age and group. Methods: Horses were examined monthly in 7 British flat training yards over a 3 year period. IAD was defined as increased mucus in the trachea with increased proportions of neutrophils in tracheal wash samples. Frequencies of disease outcomes were estimated from the data. Results: The prevalence of IAD was 13.8% and the incidence was 8.9 cases/100 horses/month. Rates varied with training and age groups, decreasing in older animals. The prevalence of nasal discharge (ND) was 4.1%. Rates of bacterial isolation were more common than viral infections. The incidence and prevalence of several bacterial species decreased with age. Conclusions: IAD and ND were common in young racehorses, varying significantly between training groups and decreasing with age, consistent with infection playing a role in aetiology. Potential relevance: The high prevalence of IAD in 2-year-old horses in Britain suggests that routine endoscopic examination may be helpful in providing early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. The transmission of bacteria and viruses within and between groups of young animals and the role of infection, stable environment and factors inherent to each horse, including their genetic make-up, in the multifactorial aetiology of the disease all merit further study. [source]

    Standing oral extraction of cheek teeth in 100 horses (1998-2003)

    P. M. DIXON
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Extraction of cheek teeth (CT) by the conventional repulsion technique requires general anaesthesia and carries a high rate of post operative complications. Consequently, an alternative method of extraction, i.e. orally in standing horses, was evaluated. Hypothesis: The need for and risks of general anaesthesia could be avoided and post extraction sequelae reduced by performing extractions orally in standing horses. Methods: One hundred mainly younger horses (median age 8, range 2-18 years) with firmly attached CT that required extraction because of apical infections, displacements, diastemata, idiopathic fractures and the presence of supernumerary CT had the affected teeth (n = 111) extracted orally under standing sedation. Follow-up information was obtained for all cases, a median of 16 months later. Results: Oral extraction was successful in 89 horses and unsuccessful in 11 due to damage to the CT clinical crown (n = 9) during extraction, for behavioural reasons (n = 1) and because the apex of a partly extracted CT fell back into the alveolus following sectioning (n = 1). Predispositions to extraction-related CT fractures were present in 5 of the 9 cases, i.e. advanced dental caries (n = 2) and pre-existing ,idiopathic' fractures (n = 3). The iatrogenically fractured CT were later repulsed under standing sedation (n = 3) and under general anaesthesia (n = 6). Eighty-one of the remaining 89 horses had successful oral CT extraction with no or minimal intra- or post operative complications occurring. Post operative complications in the other 8 cases included post extraction alveolar sequestration (n = 3), alveolar sequestration and localised osteomyelitis (n = 1), localised osteomyelitis (n = 1), incorporation of alveolar packing material into alveolar granulation tissue (n = 1), and nasal discharge due to continued intranasal presence of purulent food material (n = 1) and to ongoing sinusitis (n = 1). The above sequelae were treated successfully in all cases, with general anaesthesia required in just one case. Following oral extraction, significantly (P<0.001) fewer post operative problems developed in 54 horses with apically infected CT in comparison with 71 previous cases that had repulsion of apically infected CT at our clinic. Conclusions and potential relevance: Oral extraction of cheek teeth is a successful technique in the majority of younger horses with firmly attached CT and greatly reduces the post operative sequelae, compared with CT repulsion. Additionally, the costs and risks of general anaesthesia are avoided. Further experience and refinement in the described protocol could potentially increase the success of this procedure and also reduce the incidence of post operative sequelae. [source]

    Nasal nitric oxide measurements before and after repeated humming maneuvers

    M. Maniscalco
    Abstract Background, It has been recently shown that humming greatly increases nasal nitric oxide (NO). This is most likely owing to a rapid washout of sinus NO caused by the oscillating sound waves. During repeated humming manoeuvres nasal NO gradually decreases, likely because NO accumulated in the sinuses is washed out. Aim, We studied whether humming before measurements would affect nasally exhaled NO. Materials and methods, NO output was measured by the chemiluminescence technique in orally and nasally exhaled air in 38 subjects: 18 healthy subjects (HS), 15 subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) and five subjects with allergic nasal polyposis (AP). Each subject performed a NO measurement during quiet nasal exhalation either preceded by a period of silence/free speaking or immediately after five consecutive humming manoeuvres (posthumming). Results, Mean nasal NO output (95% CI) after a period of silence/free speaking was 231 nL min,1 (178,284) in HS, 434 nL min,1 (347,522) in AR (P < 0·001) and 262 nL min,1 (163,361) in AP. Post-humming nasal NO output was 16% (5 to 50%) lower in HS and 14% (1 to 49%) lower in AR, while it remained unchanged in AP subjects. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of quiet nasal exhalation was 12% in HS, 13% in AR and 5% in AP. Post humming intraindividual coefficient of variation significantly decreased in both HS and AR, but it did not change in AP. Conclusions, Nasal NO levels measured immediately after repeated humming manoeuvres are consistently lower and more reproducible than nasal NO levels measured after a period of silence or free speaking. Repeated humming effectively empties the sinuses, thereby probably minimizing the normal contribution from the sinuses to nasal NO. This may be useful to better estimate NO output from the nasal cavity mucosa in health and disease. [source]

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the sinonasal tract: Report on the clinicopathologic features of a case and review of the literature,

    Emílio M. Pereira MD
    Abstract Background Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare fibroinflammatory lesion of the sinonasal tract that occurs mainly in young to middle-aged female patients. Only two previous cases affecting male patients have been reported, and its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. The authors report on the third case of the entity in a male patient and review the 12 previously reported cases. Case Report A 52-year-old male patient was initially seen with a 15 years history of allergic rhinitis, progressive nasal obstruction, and left-sided hearing loss. All laboratory tests were unremarkable, except the nasal discharge eosinophil count that showed a conspicuous eosinophilia. The video-assisted-nasofibroscopic examination and CT scans disclosed a thickened deviated nasal septum with a subjacent infiltrative lesion. The histologic analysis of the nasal septum showed a variable mixed inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly composed of eosinophils, plasma cells, and histiocytes with a perivascular distribution; in other areas, an angiocentric fibrosing lesion with a peculiar perivascular onion-skin pattern was observed. The patient had a partial resection of the lesion with symptomatic control. Conclusions The presence of rhinitis and nasal eosinophilia in our case associated with the clinical aspects of the previously reported cases further support an allergic cause for EAF. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 307,311, 2002; DOI 10.1002/hed.10041 [source]

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma: diagnosis and treatment cues

    Ritsuro Suzuki
    Abstract Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) is mostly endemic to East Asia. It predominantly occurs in the nasal or paranasal areas and less frequently in the skin. Most of the tumours show NK-cell, but rarely T-cell, phenotypes. The Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) genome can be usually detected in lymphoma cells. Geographic localization of ENKL matches the endemic distribution of EBV, suggesting that EBV plays an important role in lymphomagenesis. Originally, NK-cell and T-cell types were believed to present the same clinicopathologic characteristics, but recent data suggest more aggressive characteristics for the NK-cell phenotype. Although ENKL is sensitive to radiotherapy, it shows a poorer response to chemotherapeutic agents than other lymphomas due to expression of p-glycoprotein. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches must be considered. Several new clinical trials are now being conducted in East Asia. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ocular, nasal, dermal and respiratory symptoms in relation to heating, ventilation, energy conservation, and reconstruction of older multi-family houses

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 3 2003
    K. Engvall
    First page of article [source]

    Parental lung cancer as predictor of cancer risks in offspring: Clues about multiple routes of harmful influence?

    Kari Hemminki
    Abstract The carcinogenic effects of active smoking have been demonstrated for many sites, but the effects of passive smoking and exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding are less well documented. We examined whether 0,70-year-old offspring of parents with lung cancer are at a risk of cancer that cannot be explained by their smoking or familial risk. It was assumed that known target sites for tobacco carcinogenesis would be affected, if any. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancers recorded from 1958 to 2002 was used to calculate age-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Among offspring of affected mothers, increased risks were observed for upper aerodigestive (SIR 1.45), nasal (2.93), lung (1.71) and bladder (1.52) cancers and for kidney cancer (6.41) in one age group. The risk of bladder cancer was found in younger age groups than that of lung cancer. Cancers at many of these sites, but not the kidney or the bladder, were in excess in offspring of affected fathers. Nasal cancer was even increased when either parent was diagnosed with lung cancer; the highest risk was for nasal adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.73). The data suggest that passive smoking during childhood is associated with an increase risk of nasal cancer. For bladder and kidney cancers, a contribution by tobacco carcinogens is implicated through breastfeeding and in utero exposure. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, presenting after 5 years of remission

    Tomonobu Ito MD
    A 76-year-old woman with multiple edematous erythemas, erosions, and ulcers on the breast and abdomen was admitted to our hospital in June 2005. She had developed granulomatous bleeding lesions in the right nostril 6 years prior to her visit to our dermatology unit. She had been observed at the otorhinolaryngology department of our hospital, and a biopsy was taken from the nasal lesion. Computerized tomography and gallium scintigraphy (67Ga single-photon emission computed tomography) did not reveal any lesions corresponding to the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. The histologic examination of the nasal specimen rendered a diagnosis of natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal. Because imaging analysis indicated a small-sized tumor without metastases, oral prednisolone at 20 mg/day was administered for 1 month. The tumor decreased in size and disappeared after 19 months of low-dose steroid therapy. ,Five years after the initial treatment, the patient developed a fever of 38 °C with infiltrated erythemas and erosions on her breast. Erysipelas was initially suspected, but the antimicrobial agent did not show any effect and the multiple infiltrated erythemas and ulcers spread throughout her chest and abdomen (Fig. 1). The lymph nodes were not palpable. The right nasal cavity showed no granulomatous lesions or other signs of abnormality. The peripheral white blood cell count (3000/µL), red blood cell count (3.54 × 106/µL), and platelet count (112 × 103/µL) were reduced. Atypical lymphocytes were not observed. The serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH; 1770 U/L; normal, 224,454 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 140 U/L; normal, 10,30 U/L), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 57 U/L; normal, 3,29 U/L) levels were elevated. The soluble interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor level was high (25,300 U/mL; normal, 167,497 U/mL). Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) serologic examination showed the immunoglobulin G (IgG) viral capsid antigen (VCA) at 1 : 320 and the EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) at 1 : 40. IgM VCA and EBV early antigen-diffuse restricted antibody (EA) IgA and IgG were not detectable. Histologic findings from the left chest skin showed a distribution of atypical lymphocytes from the upper dermis to the subcutaneous tissue, and many foamy cells which had phagocytosed the hemocytes (Fig. 2a,b). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the atypical lymphocytes were sCD3,, CD4,, CD8,, CD20,, CD56+, granzyme B+, and T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA-1) positive. Furthermore, EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBER), detected by in situ hybridization, exhibited a strong signal. The nasal lesions biopsied 6 years previously showed an identical staining pattern with the skin lesions immunohistochemically. Analysis of the T-cell receptor-, (TCR-,), TCR-,, and TCR-, gene did not reveal any clonal rearrangements, but the EBV gene was detected from the skin specimens by Southern blotting. Our patient's condition was diagnosed as a case of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, but the patient had concomitantly developed hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). She was treated with a combination of steroid pulse therapy and chemotherapy (pirarubicin hydrochloride 30 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2, vincristine 1 mg/m2, prednisolone 30 mg/m2, etoposide 80 mg/m2). After the first session of chemotherapy, the lesions on the chest and abdomen diminished, but, 2 weeks later, the skin lesions recurred, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by HPS supervened. The patient died as a result of multiple organ failure induced by HPS. Figure 1. Multiple infiltrated erythemas, erosions, and ulcers on the breast and abdomen Figure 2. Histologic findings of a skin biopsy specimen from the left chest (hematoxylin and eosin staining). (a) Dense infiltration of atypical lymphocytes from the upper dermis to the subcutaneous tissue (×40). (b) Many foamy cells had phagocytosed the hemocytes (×400) [source]

    Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in the United States

    C.R. Jackson
    Abstract Aims:, The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were screened for the presence of enterococci. Methods and Results:, A total of 420 enterococci were isolated from nasal, teeth, rectal, belly and hindquarters sites of 155 dogs and 121 cats from three clinics in Athens, GA. Eighty per cent (124 out of 155) of the dogs and 60% (72 out of 121) of the cats were positive for enterococci. From the total number of dog samples (n = 275), 32% (n = 87) were from hindquarter, 31% (n = 86) were rectal, and 29% (n = 79) were from the belly area. The majority of isolates originated from rectal samples (53 out of 145; 37%) from cats. The predominant species identified was Enterococcus faecalis (105 out of 155; 68%) from dogs and E. hirae (63 out of 121; 52%) from cats. Significantly more E. faecalis were isolated from rectal samples than any other enterococcal species (P < 0·05) for both dogs and cats suggesting site specific colonization of enterococcal species. The highest levels of resistance were to ciprofloxacin in E. faecium (9 out of 10; 90%), chloramphenicol resistance in E. faecalis (17 out of 20; 85%) and gentamicin resistance in E. faecalis (19 out of 24; 79%) from dog samples and nitrofurantoin resistance in E. faecium (15 out of 19; 79%) from cats. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) (resistance ,2 antimicrobials) was observed to as few as two and as many as eight antimicrobials regardless of class. Conclusion:, This study demonstrated that dogs and cats are commonly colonized with antimicrobial resistant enterococci. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Dogs and cats may act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes that can be transferred from pets to people. [source]

    Effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®) therapy on retrobulbar blood flow parameters in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Ahmet Mete MD
    Abstract Background. To investigate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on retrobulbar circulation in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Method. Thirty patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed prospectively by both color Doppler imaging and fundus fluorescein angiography. Spectral Doppler analysis allowed the measurement of the maximum velocity (Vmax) and minimum velocity (Vmin) of the central retinal vein (CRV), and peak systolic (PSV), end-diastolic (EDV) velocities of blood flows, and pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) values in the central retinal artery (CRA), nasal and temporal posterior ciliary arteries (NPCA, TPCA), and ophthalmic artery (OA). The t test for paired samples was used to compare retrobulbar blood flow values before and after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Result. PSV and EDV of the NPCA and PSV of the TPCA were significantly decreased after intravitreal bevacizumab injection (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the other parameters. Conclusion. Our results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab therapy has a measurable effect on retrobulbar blood flow. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2010 [source]

    Inhalation efficacy of RFI-641 in an African green monkey model of RSV infection

    W.J. Weiss
    Abstract: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections. RFI-641 is a novel RSV fusion inhibitor with potent in vitro activity. In vivo efficacy of RFI was determined in an African green monkey model of RSV infection involving prophylactic and therapeutic administration by inhalation exposure. Inhalation was with an RFI-641 nebulizer reservoir concentration of 15 mg/ml for 15 minutes (short exposure) or 2 hours (long exposure). Efficacy and RFI-641 exposure was determined by collection of throat swabs, nasal washes and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) on selected days. The short-exposure group (15 minutes) exhibited no effect on the nasal, throat or BAL samples. The throat and nasal samples for the long-exposure group failed to show a consistent reduction in viral titers. RFI-641 2 hours exposure-treated monkeys showed a statistically significantly log reduction for BAL samples of 0.73,1.34 PFU/ml (P -value 0.003) over all the sampling days. Analysis indicates that the long-exposure group titer was lower than the control titer on day 7 and when averaged across days. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of RFI-641 to reduce the viral load of RSV after inhalation exposure in the primate model of respiratory infection. [source]

    Naturally occurring fatal herpes simplex virus 1 infection in a family of white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia pithecia)

    M.D. Schrenzel
    Abstract: A family of three white-faced saki monkeys (Pithecia pithecia pithecia) died 48,96 hours after the onset of anorexia, nasal discharge, pyrexia and oral ulceration. One animal also had clonic seizures. Lesions found post-mortem consisted of oral and esophageal ulcers, hepatic and intestinal necrosis, meningoencephalitis and sporadic neuronal necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies and syncytial cells were present in oral lesions and affected areas of liver. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) was identified as the etiology of disease by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, or in situ hybridization in all three animals. Immunohistochemistry for detection of apoptotic DNA and activated caspase-3 showed significant levels of apoptosis in oral and liver lesions and occasional apoptotic neurons in the brain. These findings demonstrate the vulnerability of white-faced saki monkeys to HSV-1 and provide initial insight into the pathogenesis of fatal HSV-1-induced disease, indicating that apoptosis plays a significant role in cell death. [source]

    Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in France in 2004: Social factors are important predictors after adjusting for known risk factors

    Christine Meffre
    Abstract To monitor the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 among French metropolitan residents. A complex sampling design was used to enroll 14,416 adult participants aged 18,80 years. Data collected included demographic and social characteristics and risk factors. Sera were tested for anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, anti-HBc and HBsAg. Data were analyzed with SUDAAN® software to provide weighted estimates for the French metropolitan resident population. The overall anti-HCV prevalence was 0.84% (95% CI: 0.65,1.10). Among anti-HCV positive individuals, 57.4% (95% CI: 43.2,70.5) knew their status. Factors associated independently with positive anti-HCV were drug use (intravenous and nasal), blood transfusion before 1992, a history of tattoos, low socioeconomic status, being born in a country where anti-HCV prevalence >2.5%, and age >29 years. The overall anti-HBc prevalence was 7.3% (95%: 6.5,8.2). Independent risk factors for anti-HBc were intravenous drug use, being a man who has sex with men, low socioeconomic status, a stay in a psychiatric facility or facility for the mentally disabled, <12 years of education, being born in a country where HBsAg prevalence >2%, age >29 and male sex. The HCV RNA and HBsAg prevalence were 0.53% (95% CI: 0.40,0.70) and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.45,0.93), respectively. Among HBsAg positive individuals, 44.8% (95% CI: 22.8,69.1) knew their status. Anti-HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected. Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability. J. Med. Virol. 82:546,555, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Skeletal development of the Mexican spadefoot, Spea multiplicata (Anura: Pelobatidae)

    Barbara Banbury
    Abstract The larval chondrocranium of Spea multiplicata is described, as is the development and adult morphology of the skeleton. There are major modifications to the larval chondrocranium throughout development, including the presence of embryonic trabeculae in young tadpoles and significant reorganization of cartilaginous structures at metamorphosis. The first bone to ossify is the parasphenoid (Stage 35), followed by the presacral neural arches, ilium, and femur (Stage 36). By Stage 39, most of the postcranial elements have begun to ossify. Metamorphic climax is accomplished over three Gosner stages (39,41) and involves major modifications to the chondrocranium, as well as the appearance of three cranial elements (septomaxilla, nasal, and premaxilla). After metamorphosis, the exoccipital, vomer, dentary, angulosplenial, squamosal, pterygoid, sphenethmoid, ischium, and hyoid begin to ossify. The stapes, mentomeckelian, operculum, carpals, and tarsals do not appear until juvenile and adult stages. The development of the hyoid and cartilaginous condensations of the carpals and tarsals are described. In addition, phenotypic plasticity within the genus and the absence of a palatine (= neopalatine) bone are discussed. J. Morphol. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Regional variations in the outer retina of atherinomorpha (Beloniformes, Atheriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes: Teleostei): Photoreceptors, cone patterns, and cone densities

    Frank Reckel
    Abstract The outer retinae of adults of 13 atherinomorph species, representing nine different families, were examined by both light and electron microscopy. The retinae were investigated with respect to photoreceptor types, cone densities, and cone patterns. All data were composed to eye maps. This procedure allows an interspecific comparison of the regional differences within the outer retina among these shallow-water fish. Furthermore, for a more detailed pattern analysis nitro-blue tetrazolium chloride- (NBT)-stainings in the retina of Melanotaenia maccullochi are presented. Apart from rods, eight morphologically different cone types could be identified: short, intermediate, and long single cones, double cones (equal and unequal), triple cones (triangular and linear), and in Ameca splendens one quadruple cone. Dimensions and occurrence of photoreceptors vary among the respective species and within the retinal regions. In the light-adapted state, the cones are arranged in highly ordered mosaics. Five different cone tessellation types were found: row patterns, twisted row patterns, square patterns, pentagonal patterns, and, exclusively in Belone belone, a hexagonal pattern. In Melanotaenia maccullochi the different spectral photoreceptor classes correspond well with the distribution of morphological photoreceptor classes within the mosaic. Double cone density maxima together with a highly ordered cone arrangement usually occur in the nasal and/or ventral to ventrotemporal retina. In most of the species that were examined these high-density regions are presumed to process visual stimuli from the assumed main directions of vision, which mainly depend on feeding behavior and predator pressure. Our findings are discussed with respect to the variable behavioral and visual ecology and phylogeny of the respective species. J. Morphol. 257:270,288, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]