Narrower Size Distribution (narrower + size_distribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Formulations generated from ethanol-based proliposomes for delivery via medical nebulizers

Abdelbary M. A. Elhissi
Multilamellar and oligolamellar liposomes were produced from ethanol-based soya phosphatidylcholine proliposome formulations by addition of isotonic sodium chloride or sucrose solutions. The resultant liposomes entrapped up to 62% of available salbutamol sulfate compared with only 1.23% entrapped by conventionally prepared liposomes. Formulations were aerosolized using an air-jet nebulizer (Pari LC Plus) or a vibrating-mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Pro small mesh, Aeroneb Pro large mesh, or Omron NE U22). All vibrating-mesh nebulizers produced aerosol droplets having larger volume median diameter (VMD) and narrower size distribution than the air-jet nebulizer. The choice of liposome dispersion medium had little effect on the performance of the Pari nebulizer. However, for the Aeroneb Pro small mesh and Omron NE U22, the use of sucrose solution tended to increase droplet VMD, and reduce aerosol mass and phospholipid outputs from the nebulizers. For the Aeroneb Pro large mesh, sucrose solution increased the VMD of nebulized droplets, increased phospholipid output and produced no effect on aerosol mass output. The Omron NE U22 nebulizer produced the highest mass output (approx. 100%) regardless of formulation, and the delivery rates were much higher for the NaCl-dispersed liposomes compared with sucrose-dispersed formulation. Nebulization produced considerable loss of entrapped drug from liposomes and this was accompanied by vesicle size reduction. Drug loss tended to be less for the vibrating-mesh nebulizers than the jet nebulizer. The large aperture size mesh (8,m) Aeroneb Pro nebulizer increased the proportion of entrapped drug delivered to the lower stage of a twin impinger. This study has demonstrated that liposomes generated from proliposome formulations can be aerosolized in small droplets using air-jet or vibrating-mesh nebulizers. In contrast to the jet nebulizer, the performance of the vibrating-mesh nebulizers was greatly dependent on formulation. The high phospholipid output produced by the nebulizers employed suggests that both air-jet and vibrating-mesh nebulization may provide the potential of delivering liposome-entrapped or solubilized hydrophobic drugs to the airways. [source]

New Process for the Preparation of Monodispersed, Spherical Silica Particles

Ki Do Kim
A new method is presented for preparing highly monodispersed silica particles using a two-stage semibatch/batch hydrolysis reaction of Si(OC2H5)4. The slower rate of hydrolysis of the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) that occurred during the semibatch process resulted in larger silica particles with a higher yield and narrower size distribution. This was in direct contrast to the batch process. In addition, the ability of four different mixed processes to produce silica particles with good packing density, narrower particle-size distribution, and higher yield were evaluated. These were batch/batch (B-B), batch/semibatch (B-S), semibatch/batch (S-B), and semibatch/semibatch (S-S) processes. The S-S system produced the largest particles with the highest yields. The size of the silica particles obtained by the S-B method decreased with increasing reaction time, while the particles obtained by the B-S process had the best particle-size distribution and packing density. In conclusion, a mixed batch/semibatch system was the best way to produce an extremely narrow particle-size distribution and a good packing density. [source]

Formation and characterization of polyurethane,vermiculite clay nanocomposite foams

T. Umasankar Patro
Nanocomposites of rigid polyurethane foam with unmodified vermiculite clay are synthesized. The clay is dispersed either in polyol or isocyanate before blending. The viscosity of the polyol is found to increase slightly on the addition of clay up to 5 pphp (parts per hundred parts of polyol by weight). The gel time and rise time are significantly reduced by the addition of clay, indicating that the clay acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for the foaming and polymerization reactions. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of the polyurethane composite foams indicate that the clay is partially exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The clay is found to induce gas bubble nucleation resulting in smaller cells with a narrower size distribution in the cured foam. The closed cell content of the clay nanocomposite foams increases slightly with clay concentration. The mechanical properties are found to be the best at 2.3 wt% of clay when the clay is dispersed in the isocyanate; the compressive strength and modulus normalized to a density of 40 kg/m3 are 40% and 34% higher than the foam without clay, respectively. The thermal conductivity is found to be 10% lower than the foam without clay. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2008. 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the synthesis and growth of CdS quantum dots from constituent atoms in SiO2 matrix

U.V. Desnica
Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering was applied to study the synthesis and growth of CdS quantum dots (QDs) from Cd and S atoms implanted in SiO2. For a dose of 1017/cm2, the partial synthesis of CdS QDs occurred already during implantation, with only moderate size increase upon subsequent annealing up to Ta=1073 K. The dynamics of QD synthesis and growth were considerably different for just two times lower dose, where synthesis started only if the implanted samples were annealed at Ta = 773 K or higher, with a strong increase of the size of QDs upon annealing at higher Ta. The results suggest that high-dose implantation followed by low-temperature annealing could lead to better defined sizes and narrower size distributions of QDs. [source]