Narrower Distribution (narrower + distribution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Do health care professionals underestimate severe pain more often than mild pain?

Statistical pitfalls using a data simulation model
Abstract Rationale, When comparing patients' pain ratings with the health care professional's conception of pain assessed by Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) ratings, statistical problems arise. Method and Result, In this data simulation study we have shown that the tendency for health care professionals to underestimate severe pain compared with mild pain is probably not attributed to difficulties in judging severe pain more often than mild but the result of professionals having a different and often narrower distribution of their ratings compared with patients. [source]

Intimately linked or hardly speaking?

The relationship between genotype, environmental gradients in a Louisiana Iris hybrid population
Abstract Several models of hybrid zone evolution predict the same spatial patterns of genotypic distribution whether or not structuring is due to environment-dependent or -independent selection. In this study, we tested for evidence of environment-dependent selection in an Iris fulva×Iris brevicaulis hybrid population by examining the distribution of genotypes in relation to environmental gradients. We selected 201 Louisiana Iris plants from within a known hybrid population (80 m × 80 m) and placed them in four different genotypic classes (I. fulva, I. fulva -like hybrid, I. brevicaulis -like hybrid and I. brevicaulis) based on seven species-specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and two chloroplast DNA haplotypes. Environmental variables were then measured. These variables included percentage cover by tree canopy, elevation from the high water mark, soil pH and percentage soil organic matter. Each variable was sampled for all 201 plants. Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was used to infer the environmental factors most strongly associated with the different genotypic groups. Slight differences in elevation (,0.5 m to +0.4 m) were important for distinguishing habitat distributions described by CDA, even though there were no statistical differences between mean elevations alone. I. brevicaulis occurred in a broad range of habitats, while I. fulva had a narrower distribution. Of all the possible combinations, I. fulva -like hybrids and I. brevicaulis -like hybrids occurred in the most distinct habitat types relative to one another. Each hybrid class was not significantly different from its closest parent with regard to habitat occupied, but was statistically unique from its more distant parental species. Within the hybrid genotypes, most, but not all, RAPD loci were individually correlated with environmental variables. This study suggests that, at a very fine spatial scale, environment-dependent selection contributed to the genetic structuring of this hybrid zone. [source]

Surface Elastic Properties of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Melanosomes,

Senli Guo
Atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging and nanoindentation measurements in water were used to probe the mechanical properties of retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes isolated from 14-year-old and 76-year-old donors. Topographic imaging reveals surface roughness similar to previous measurements on dry melanosomes. Force-indentation measurements show different types of responses that were catalogued into four different categories. In these measurements no permanent surface damage of melanosomes was observed as revealed by imaging before and after indentation measurements. The indentation measurements that exhibited nearly elastic responses were used to determine the Young's modulus of melanosomes. The average Young's modulus values are similar for 14-year-old and 76-year-old melanosomes with a somewhat narrower distribution for the 14-year-old sample. These elastic modulus values are considerably higher than the modulus of organelles with cytoplasm (<1 MPa) and approaching values of the modulus of protein crystals (,100 MPa) indicating rather high packing density of biologic material in melanosomes. The width of the Young's modulus distributions is considerable spanning from few megapascals to few tens of megapascals indicating large heterogeneity in the structure. A fraction of the force curves cannot be described by the homogeneous elastic sample model; these force curves are consistent with ,10 nm structural heterogeneity in melanosomes. The approach-withdraw hysteresis indicates a significant viscoelasticity, particularly in the samples from the 14-year-old sample. Adhesion of the AFM probe was detected on ,3% and ,20% of the surface of 14-year-old and 76-year-old samples, respectively. In light of previous studies on these same melanosomes using photoelectron emission microscopy, this adhesion is attributed to the presence of lipofuscin on the surface of the melanosomes. This suggestion indicates that part of the difference in photochemical properties between the old and young melanosomes originates from surface lipofuscin. [source]

Toughening effects of poly(butylene terephthalate) with blocked isocyanate-functionalized poly(ethylene octene)

Ligang Yin
Abstract BACKGROUND: Blocked isocyanate-functionalized polyolefins have great potential for use in semicrystalline polymer blends to obtain toughened polymers. In this study, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was blended with allyl N -[2-methyl-4-(2-oxohexahydroazepine-1-carboxamido)phenyl] carbamate-functionalized poly(ethylene octene) (POE- g -AMPC). RESULTS: New peaks at 2272 and 1720 cm,1, corresponding to the stretching vibrations of NCO and the carbonyl of NHCON, respectively, in AMPC, appeared in the infrared spectrum of POE- g -AMPC. Both rheological and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated a new copolymer was formed in the reactive blends. Compared to uncompatibilized PBT/POE blends, smaller dispersed particle sizes with narrower distribution were found in the compatibilized PBT/POE- g -AMPC blends. There was a marked increase in impact strength by about 10-fold over that of PBT/POE blends with the same rubber content and almost 30-fold higher than that of pure PBT when the POE- g -AMPC content was 25 wt%. CONCLUSION: The blocked isocyanate-functionalized POE is an effective toughener for semicrystalline polymers. Super-toughened PBT blends can be obtained when the POE- g -AMPC content is equal to or more than 15 wt%. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Land use change and the dependence of national priority species on protected areas

Abstract The establishment and maintenance of a system of protected areas is central to regional and global strategies for the conservation of biodiversity. The current global trend towards human population growth and widespread environmental degradation means that such areas are becoming increasingly isolated, fragmented habitat islands. In regions in which this process is well advanced, a high proportion of species are thus predicted to have become restricted to protected areas. Here, using uniquely detailed datasets for Britain, a region with close to the global level of percentage coverage by statutory protected areas, we determine the extent of restriction of species of conservation concern to these areas. On the basis of currently known distributions, more than a half of such species are highly dependent on protected areas for their continued persistence, occurring either entirely or largely within their bounds. Such coverage is of particular importance for those species with narrower distributions, and therefore, under the greatest threats, underlining the vital importance of adequately resourcing, maintaining, and developing protected areas to prevent these species from being lost. [source]

Synthesis of cyclodextrin-based polymers and their use as debittering agents

Arianna Binello
Abstract Cyclodextrins (CDs) and their derivatives are used to suppress unpleasant tastes and odors or to achieve a controlled release of certain food constituents. This article describes the synthesis by nonconventional methods of (1) crosslinked, insoluble CD polymers and (2) water-soluble, CD-grafted carboxymethylchitosan and carboxymethylcellulose. The CD polymers were obtained by the reaction of ,-CD with one of the following crosslinking agents: epichlorohydrin, diphenyl carbonate, or hexamethylene diisocyanate. Their preparations were usually carried out under high-intensity ultrasound, which resulted in much shorter reaction times and narrower distributions of particle size (as determined by scanning electron microscopy measurements). A novel, insoluble CD polymer was obtained by reticulation under microwaves of propargyl-,-CD with 1,3-bis(azidomethyl)benzene through Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. Short columns packed with the insoluble polymers were found to efficiently sequester naringin from aqueous solutions; successively, they could be easily regenerated by a counter-current ethanol wash that also achieved an excellent recovery of the flavonoid. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that the crosslinked CD polymers formed inclusion complexes with naringin. The soluble polymers also interacted with bitter flavonoids of citrus fruits (naringin and limonin), as shown by the results of sensorial panel tests, in which they behaved as bitter-masking agents. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]