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  • narrower molecular weight distribution
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  • Selected Abstracts


    Optimization of process parameters by Taguchi method in the recovery of lactose from whey using sonocrystallization

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    S. R. Patel
    Abstract Anti-solvent crystallization of lactose in the presence of ultrasound will reduce crystal size and the level of agglomeration as compared to the commercial cooling crystallization. It offers a potential route to enhance the physical properties as well as the rapid recovery of lactose. Since lactose recovery itself can reduce biological oxygen demand of whey by more then 80%, recovery of lactose from dairy waste stream (whey) solves the problems of dairy industries by improving economics of whey utilization and pollution reduction. In the present study, recovery of lactose from partially deproteinated whey using an anti-solvent (acetone) by sonocrystallization was optimized for finding the most influencing operating parameters; such as sonication time, anti-solvent concentration, initial lactose concentration in the whey and initial pH of sample mixture at three levels using L9 -orthogonal method. The responses were analyzed for recovery of lactose from whey. The anti-solvent concentration and the sonication time were found to be most influencing parameters for the recovery of lactose and the recovery of lactose was found to be 89.03% at the identified optimized level. The crystal size distribution of recovered lactose was found to be narrower (2.5 , 6.5 ,m) as compared to the commercial lactose crystals (3.5 , 9.5 ,m). ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Morphological, structural and optical study of quasi-1D SnO2 nanowires and nanobelts

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10-11 2005
    D. Calestani
    Abstract 0.1,0.3 mm thick entanglements of quasi-one-dimensional semiconducting Tin dioxide nanocrystals, in form of nanowires and nanobelts, are successfully grown by low cost Chemical Vapour Deposition directly on large area (100 mm2) Al2O3, SiO2 and Si substrates. Their lateral size ranges from 50 to 700 nm and their length can achieve several hundreds of micrometers. Transmission Electron Microscopy reveals either the nanowires and the nanobelts grow in the tetragonal Rutile structure. Diffraction contrast analyses and selected area diffraction investigations show the nanowires are single crystals without defects while the nanobelts sometimes present twins inside. An almost cylindrical shape and an average diameter of about 30,50 nm for the smallest nanowires is reported. X-ray diffraction investigations exclude the presence of spurious phases. A broad band structured in two emissions peaked at about 450 nm and 560 nm is revealed by large area Cathotoluminescence, while single nanocrystal spectroscopy shows that the reduction of the lateral dimension of the nanobelts from 1000 nm to 50 nm blue-shifts the main emission band at 560 nm of about 40 nm (at room temperature). These preliminary results suggest a possible role of oxygen vacancies and of the surface/volume ratio on the origin and the blue shift of Cathodoluminescence spectra. The near band edge emission, typical of bulk tin dioxide (,320 nm), is not found in nanobelts narrower than 1000 nm. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Effects of herbivore species richness on the niche dynamics and distribution of blue sheep in the Trans-Himalaya

    DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTIONS, Issue 6 2009
    Tsewang Namgail
    Abstract Aim, To understand the community structure of mountain ungulates by exploring their niche dynamics in response to sympatric species richness. Location, Ladakh and Spiti Regions of the Western Indian Trans-Himalaya. Methods, We used the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, a relatively widely distributed mountain ungulate, as a model species to address the issue. We selected three discrete valleys in three protected areas with similar environmental features but varying wild ungulate species richness, and studied blue sheep's diet and habitat utilization in them. Habitat variables such as slope angle, distance to cliff and elevation at blue sheep locations were recorded to determine the habitat width of the species. Faecal pellets were collected and microhistological faecal analysis was carried out to determine the diet width of blue sheep in the three areas with different ungulate species richness. Blue sheep's niche width in terms of habitat and diet was determined using the Shannon's Index. Results, The habitat width of blue sheep had a negative relationship with the number of sympatric species. However, contrary to our expectation, there was a hump-shaped relationship between blue sheep's diet width and the sympatric species richness, with the diet width being narrower in areas of allopatry as well as in areas with high herbivore species richness, and the greatest in areas with moderate species richness. Main conclusions, We suspect that the narrow diet width in allopatry is out of choice, whereas it is out of necessity in areas with high herbivore species richness because of resource partitioning that enables coexistence. We suggest that interactions with sympatric species lead to niche adjustment of mountain ungulates, implying that competition may play a role in structuring Trans-Himalayan mountain ungulate assemblages. Given these results, we underscore the importance of including biotic interactions in species distribution models, which have often been neglected. [source]


    Dynamics of multiple intertidal bars over semi-diurnal and lunar tidal cycles, North Lincolnshire, England

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 10 2008
    Selma van Houwelingen
    Abstract Multiple intertidal bars are common features of wave-dominated sandy beaches, yet their short-term (<1 month) and small-scale (<1 km) morphology and dynamics remain poorly understood. This study describes the morphodynamics of multiple intertidal bars in North Lincolnshire, England, during single and lunar tidal cycles under two contrasting conditions , first when significant wave height was <05 m and second when significant wave height frequently exceeded 1 m. The relative importance of swash, surf and shoaling processes in determining morphological change was examined using detailed field observations and a numerical model. The beach featured four intertidal bars and both cross-shore and longshore bar morphology evolved during the field investigation, particularly under medium to high wave-energy conditions. Numerical modelling suggests shoaling processes are most common on the seaward two bars under calm wave conditions (Hs < 05 m) and that surf zone processes become more common during neap tides and under more energetic (Hs < 05 m) conditions. Surf processes dominate the inner two bars, though swash influence increases in a landward direction. The numerical modelling results combined with low tide survey data and high-resolution morphological measurements strongly suggest changes in the intertidal bar morphology are accomplished by surf zone processes rather than by shoaling wave or swash processes. This is because shoaling waves do not induce significant sediment transport to have any morphological effect, whereas swash action generally does not have enough scope to act as the swash zone is much narrower than the surf zone. It was found, however, that the absolute rate of morphological change under swash action and surfzone processes are of similar magnitudes and that swash action may induce a significant amount of local morphological change when the high tide mark is located on the upper bar, making this process important for bar morphodynamics. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial,

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 9 2005
    Jonathan M. Friedman
    Abstract Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 08 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Geological controls on the formation of alluvial meanders and floodplain wetlands: the example of the Klip River, eastern Free State, South Africa

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 8 2002
    S. Tooth
    Abstract Floodplain wetlands are common features of rivers in southern Africa, but they have been little studied from a geological or geomorphological perspective. Study of the upper Klip River, eastern Free State, South Africa, indicates strong geological controls on the formation of alluvial meanders and associated floodplain wetlands. Along this river, pronounced and abrupt changes in valley width are strongly linked to lithological variations. Where weakly cemented sandstone crops out, the Klip has laterally eroded bedrock and carved valleys up to 1500 m wide. In these valleys, the river meanders (sinuosity up to ,175) on moderate gradients (<0001) within extensive floodplains marked by numerous oxbow lakes, backswamps and abandoned channels, many of which host substantial wetlands. In contrast, where highly resistant dolerite crops out, lateral erosion of bedrock is restricted, with the Klip tending instead to erode vertically along joints or fractures. Here, valleys are narrower (<200 m), channel-bed gradients are steeper (>0003), the river follows a much straighter course (sinuosity ,110,134), and floodplains are restricted in width. Long-term landscape development in the Klip and numerous similar catchments depends on the interaction between fluvial processes in the sandstone and dolerite valleys. In the sandstone valleys, vertical erosion rates are controlled by erosion rates of the more resistant dolerites downstream. Hence, in the short- to medium-term (decades to tens of thousands of years), lateral erosion dominates over vertical erosion, with the river concomitantly planing sandstone in the channel floor and reworking floodplain sediments. The thickness of alluvial fill in the sandstone valleys is limited (<4 m), but the resultant meanders are naturally dynamic, with processes such as point bar deposition, cutoff formation and channel avulsion resulting in an assemblage of fluvial landforms. In the longer term (greater than tens of thousands of years), however, vertical erosion will occur in the sandstone valleys as the downstream dolerites are lowered by erosion, resulting in channel incision, floodplain abandonment, and desiccation of the wetlands. Identification of the geological controls on meander and wetland formation provides information vital for the design of effective management guidelines for these ecologically rich habitats, and also contributes to a better understanding of rivers that are intermediate between fully alluvial and fully bedrock. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Comparing response of SDF systems to near-fault and far-fault earthquake motions in the context of spectral regions

    EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2001
    Anil K. Chopra
    Abstract In spite of important differences in structural response to near-fault and far-fault ground motions, this paper aims at extending well-known concepts and results, based on elastic and inelastic response spectra for far-fault motions, to near-fault motions. Compared are certain aspects of the response of elastic and inelastic SDF systems to the two types of motions in the context of the acceleration-, velocity-, and displacement-sensitive regions of the response spectrum, leading to the following conclusions. (1) The velocity-sensitive region for near-fault motions is much narrower, and the acceleration-sensitive and displacement-sensitive regions are much wider, compared to far-fault motions; the narrower velocity-sensitive region is shifted to longer periods. (2) Although, for the same ductility factor, near-fault ground motions impose a larger strength demand than far-fault motions,both demands expressed as a fraction of their respective elastic demands,the strength reduction factors Ry for the two types of motions are similar over corresponding spectral regions. (3) Similarly, the ratio um/u0 of deformations of inelastic and elastic systems are similar for the two types of motions over corresponding spectral regions. (4) Design equati ns for Ry (and for um/u0) should explicitly recognize spectral regions so that the same equations apply to various classes of ground motions as long as the appropriate values of Ta, Tb and Tc are used. (5) The Veletsos,Newmark design equations with Ta=0.04 s, Tb=0.35 s, and Tc=0.79 s are equally valid for the fault-normal component of near-fault ground motions. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: a meta-analysis of twin studies

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Karin J. H. Verweij
    ABSTRACT Background Because cannabis use is associated with social, physical and psychological problems, it is important to know what causes some individuals to initiate cannabis use and a subset of those to become problematic users. Previous twin studies found evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on vulnerability, but due to considerable variation in the results it is difficult to draw clear conclusions regarding the relative magnitude of these influences. Methods A systematic literature search identified 28 twin studies on cannabis use initiation and 24 studies on problematic cannabis use. The proportion of total variance accounted for by genes (A), shared environment (C) and unshared environment (E) in (i) initiation of cannabis use and (ii) problematic cannabis use was calculated by averaging corresponding A, C and E estimates across studies from independent cohorts and weighting by sample size. Results For cannabis use initiation, A, C and E estimates were 48%, 25% and 27% in males and 40%, 39% and 21% in females. For problematic cannabis use A, C and E estimates were 51%, 20% and 29% for males and 59%, 15% and 26% for females. Confidence intervals of these estimates are considerably narrower than those in the source studies. Conclusions Our results indicate that vulnerability to both cannabis use initiation and problematic use was influenced significantly by A, C and E. There was a trend for a greater C and lesser A component for cannabis use initiation compared to problematic use for females. [source]


    Life table and heat tolerance of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in subtropical Taiwan

    ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Wei-Nung LU
    Abstract The effect of temperature on the life table of Acyrthosiphon pisum reared on Pisum sativum was evaluated under laboratory conditions using temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35C. The development time of juvenile A. pisum decreased with increasing temperature (from 21.3 days at 10C to 4.7 days at 35C). Adult longevity also decreased with increasing temperature (from 53.2 days at 10C to 2.3 days at 35C). Interestingly, 70% and 25% of A. pisum nymphs reared at 30C and 35C, respectively, successfully developed into adults. These temperatures have previously been considered unsuitable for A. pisum development. However, adult aphids reared at 30C and 35C failed to reproduce. Linear regression analysis revealed that the lower development threshold of A. pisum was 153.1 degree-days above 1.9C. Maximal average reproductive capability was observed at 10C for A. pisum adults, with each adult producing more than 120 nymphs. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of A. pisum increased from 0.124/day at 10C to 0.337/day at 25C, whereas opposite trends were observed for the net reproductive rate (R0) and the mean generation time (GT). At 20C and 25C, the intrinsic rate of increase of A. pisum was significantly higher than at 10C and 15C (P < 0.0001), indicating that 20C and 25C are within the optimal range for the growth of A. pisum, and that 30C is beyond the upper threshold limit for reproduction, which involves a temperature range that is narrower than that of the survival range (upper limit is unknown, but above 35C). [source]


    Metastable zone determination of lipid systems: Ultrasound velocity versus optical back-reflectance measurements

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Kesarin Chaleepa
    Abstract The metastable zone width (MZW) of a multi-component system as influenced by the process parameters cooling rate, agitation speed, and additive concentration was determined via ultrasound velocity measurements. The results were compared with those obtained by optical back-reflectance measurements (ORM) using coconut oil as a model substance. Increasing the cooling rate led to the shift of the nucleation point to lower temperatures. This tendency was better visualized by the ultrasonic curves while a significant disturbance of the ORM signal could be observed. Agitation led to an increase of the nucleation temperature and hence a narrower metastable zone. The influence of an additive on the MZW was found to strongly depend on its concentration. The MZW detected by the ultrasound technique was narrower compared to that obtained by the ORM method, indicating the faster response to the phase transition of the ultrasound technique. Another advantage of the ultrasound technique was the in situ evaluation of the experimental data, while ORM needed a linear fitting to estimate the saturation temperature. Furthermore, ultrasound velocity measurements are based on density determination of the medium whereas the ORM sensor is able to detect only particles that are located within the measuring zone and possess a well-defined size. Practical applications: MZW is one of the most important parameters that determine the characteristics of crystalline products. However, a proper technique that can be used in MZW detection in fat systems has rarely been reported, due to the difficulties in dealing with natural fats. The findings of this study can greatly help those who are involved in the field of fat crystallization from both the academic and the practical point of view. This is due to the fact that new and promising techniques for the online and in situ determination of the MZW of fats, with high accuracy, and reproducibility, under most process conditions, were clarified in this work. The readers can easily follow the procedure developed in this paper. Also information about the influence of process parameters and additives on the MZW is included. [source]


    Effects of masticatory muscle function on craniofacial morphology in growing ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 6 2003
    Tailun He
    Studying the effects of masticatory muscle function on craniofacial morphology in animal models with different masticatory systems is important for further understanding of related issues in humans. Forty 5-wk-old male ferrets were equally divided into two groups. One group was fed a diet of hard pellets (HDG) and the other group was fed the same diet but softened with water (SDG). Lateral and dorsoventral cephalograms were taken on each group after 6 months. Cephalometric measurements were performed by digital procedures. For SDG ferrets, the hard palate plane was more distant from the cranial base plane, and canines were more proclined compared with HDG ferrets. The SDG ferrets were also found to have smaller interfrontal and interparietal widths, and a slenderer zygomatic arch than the HDG ferrets. In the mandible, the coronoid process was generally shorter and narrower for the SDG ferrets. The effects of the altered masticatory muscle function on craniofacial morphology in growing ferrets seemed to differ from those previously reported in other animal models studied under similar experimental conditions. Such differences in the effects are presumably related to the differences in the mode of mastication, craniofacial anatomy and growth pattern in different animal models. [source]


    Examining rival theories of demographic influences on political support: The power of regional, ethnic, and linguistic divisions in Ukraine

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2002
    Lowell W. Barrington
    What effects do regional, linguistic, and ethnic divisions have on support for the government and political system? What is the effect of each when the others are controlled for? Are apparent differences in support across regions simply compositional effects of ethno-linguistic patterns in those regions? This article provides answers to these questions, through the analysis of late 1998 mass survey data from Ukraine. The results indicate that region of residence strongly shapes support for the government and regime. Ethnicity and language, on the other hand, have weaker effects than scholars would expect, once region is controlled for. Thus, regional differences are not simply reflecting ethno-linguistic patterns in Ukraine, as scholars have often implied. These findings shed light on rival theoretical approaches to understanding regional, ethnic and linguistic sources of identity. They also highlight the necessity for scholars who have emphasized ethnic and linguistic cleavages in other countries to consider controlling for region of residence before jumping to conclusions about effects on political attitudes. Finally, the findings have narrower, but important, implications for the study of Ukraine and for its stability. [source]


    MASKING INTERFERENCE AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN THE AMAZONIAN DENDROBATID FROG ALLOBATES FEMORALIS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2006
    Adolfo Amzquita
    Abstract The efficacy of communication relies on detection of species-specific signals against the background noise. Features affecting signal detection are thus expected to evolve under selective pressures represented by masking noise. Spectral partitioning between the auditory signals of co-occurring species has been interpreted as the outcome of the selective effects of masking interference. However, masking interference depends not only on signal's frequency but on receiver's range of frequency sensitivity; moreover, selection on signal frequency can be confounded by selection on body size, because these traits are often correlated. To know whether geographic variation in communication traits agrees with predictions about masking interference effects, we tested the hypothesis that variation in the male-male communication system of the Amazonian frog, Allobates femoralis, is correlated with the occurrence of a single species calling within an overlapping frequency range, Epipedobates trivittatus. We studied frogs at eight sites, four where both species co-occur and four where A. femoralis occurs but E. trivittatus does not. To study the sender component of the communication system of A. femoralis and to describe the use of the spectral range, we analyzed the signal's spectral features of all coactive species at each site. To study the receiver component, we derived frequency-response curves from playback experiments conducted on territorial males of A. femoralis under natural conditions. Most geographic variation in studied traits was correlated with either call frequency or with response frequency range. The occurrence of E. trivittatus significantly predicted narrower and asymmetric frequency-response curves in A. femoralis, without concomitant differences in the call or in body size. The number of acoustically coactive species did not significantly predict variation in any of the studied traits. Our results strongly support that the receiver but not the sender component of the communication system changed due to masking interference by a single species. [source]


    POSTMATING SEXUAL SELECTION: ALLOPATRIC EVOLUTION OF SPERM COMPETITION MECHANISMS AND GENITAL MORPHOLOGY IN CALOPTERYGID DAMSELFLIES (INSECTA: ODONATA)

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2004
    A. Cordero Rivera
    Abstract Postmating sexual selection theory predicts that in allopatry reproductive traits diverge rapidly and that the resulting differentiation in these traits may lead to restrictions to gene flow between populations and, eventually, reproductive isolation. In this paper we explore the potential for this premise in a group of damselflies of the family Calopterygidae, in which postmating sexual mechanisms are especially well understood. Particularly, we tested if in allopatric populations the sperm competition mechanisms and genitalic traits involved in these mechanisms have indeed diverged as sexual selection theory predicts. We did so in two different steps. First, we compared the sperm competition mechanisms of two allopatric populations of Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis (one Italian population studied here and one Spanish population previously studied). Our results indicate that in both populations males are able to displace spermathecal sperm, but the mechanism used for sperm removal between both populations is strikingly different. In the Spanish population males seem to empty the spermathecae by stimulating females, whereas in the Italian population males physically remove sperm from the spermathecae. Both populations also exhibit differences in genital morphometry that explain the use of different mechanisms: the male lateral processes are narrower than the spermathecal ducts in the Italian population, which is the reverse in the Spanish population. The estimated degree of phenotypic differentiation between these populations based on the genitalic traits involved in sperm removal was much greater than the differentiation based on a set of other seven morphological variables, suggesting that strong directional postmating sexual selection is indeed the main evolutionary force behind the reproductive differentiation between the studied populations. In a second step, we examined if a similar pattern in genital morphometry emerge in allopatric populations of this and other three species of the same family (Calopteryx splendens, C. virgo and Hetaerina cruentata). Our results suggest that there is geographic variation in the sperm competition mechanisms in all four studied species. Furthermore, genitalic morphology was significantly divergent between populations within species even when different populations were using the same copulatory mechanism. These results can be explained by probable local coadaptation processes that have given rise to an ability or inability to reach and displace spermathecal sperm in different populations. This set of results provides the first direct evidence of intraspecific evolution of genitalic traits shaped by postmating sexual selection. [source]


    Effects of floods versus low flows on invertebrates in a New Zealand gravel-bed river

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
    ALASTAIR M. SUREN
    Summary 1. Floods and low flows are hydrological events that influence river ecosystems, but few studies have compared their relative importance in structuring invertebrate communities. Invertebrates were sampled in riffles and runs at eight sites along 40 km of a New Zealand gravel-bed river every 1,3 months over 2.5 years, during which time a number of large flood and low flow events occurred. Flows were high in winter and spring, and low in summer and autumn. Four flow-related variables were calculated from hydrological data: flow on the day of sampling (Qsample), maximum and minimum flow between successive samples (Qmax and Qmin, respectively), and the number of days since the last bed-moving flood (Ndays). 2. The invertebrate community was summarised by relative densities of the 19 most abundant taxa and four biotic metrics [total abundance, taxon richness, the number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa (i.e. EPT richness), and per cent EPT]. Invertebrate density fluctuated greatly, and was high in summer and autumn, and low during winter and spring. Stepwise multiple regression (SMR) analysis was used to investigate relationships between the invertebrate community and season, flow, habitat and water temperature. 3. Seasonal variables were included in almost 50% of the SMR models, while flow-related variables were included in >75% of models. Densities of many taxa were negatively correlated to Qmin and Qmax, and positively correlated to Ndays, suggesting that while high flows reduced invertebrate densities, densities recovered with increasing time following a flood. Although season and flow were confounded in this study, many of the taxa analysed display little seasonal variation in abundance, suggesting that flow-related variables were more important in structuring communities than seasonal changes in density associated with life-cycles. 4. Five discrete flood and low flow events were identified and changes to invertebrate communities before and after these events examined. Invertebrate densities decreased more commonly after floods than after low flows, and there was a significant positive relationship between the number of taxa showing reductions in density and flood magnitude. Densities of most invertebrates either remained unchanged, or increased after low flow events, except for four taxa whose densities declined after a very long period (up to 9 months) of low flow. This decline was attributed to autogenic sloughing of thick periphyton communities and subsequent loss of habitat for these taxa. 5. Invertebrate communities changed more after floods and the degree of change was proportional to flood magnitude. Community similarity increased with increasing time since the last disturbance, suggesting that the longer stable flows lasted, the less the community changed. These results suggest that invertebrate communities in the Waipara River were controlled by both floods and low flows, but that the relative effects of floods were greater than even extended periods of extreme low flow. 6. Hydraulic conditions in riffles and runs were measured throughout the study. Riffles had consistently faster velocities, but were shallower and narrower than runs at all measured flows. Invertebrate density in riffles was expressed as a percentage of total density and regressed against the flow-related variables to see whether invertebrate locations changed according to flow. Significant negative relationships were observed between the per cent density of common taxa in riffles and Qsample, Qmax and Qmin. This result suggests either that these animals actively drifted into areas of faster velocity during low flows, or that their densities within riffles increased as the width of these habitats declined. [source]


    Physical apertures as constraints on egg size and shape in the Common Musk Turtle, Sternotherus odoratus

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    P. J. Clark
    Summary 1,Egg size in turtles often increases with female size, contrary to expectations of optimality. Functional constraints on egg width imposed by the pelvic aperture or the gap between the carapace and plastron (the caudal gap) have been inferred for a few populations but appear inapplicable in others. 2,For Sternotherus odoratus (the Common Musk Turtle), the pelvic aperture was always wider than the width of the female's largest egg by at least 37 mm. The caudal gap was narrower than the widest egg for 257% of the females. 3,Egg width increased, and elongation (length/width) decreased, as female size and clutch size increased. 4,Females at three ecologically contrasting sites differed appreciably in size but produced eggs of the same mean shape and size, despite the strong within-site changes in both egg size and shape with female size. As the younger females at all sites were of similar age and produced eggs of similar size and shape (again, despite differences in body size), egg size and shape may be age-specific. 5,No optimal egg size prevailed but the scaled residuals of egg size with female mass were less variable than were those for clutch size. [source]


    Natural-gradient tracer experiments in epikarst: a test study in the Acqua dei Faggi experimental site, southern Italy

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2008
    E. PETRELLA
    Abstract Two natural-gradient tracer experiments were carried out using borehole fluorometers in order to characterize the internal structure of epikarstic horizons and analyze subsurface flow within these high-conductivity layers. The experiments were carried out in a test site in southern Italy where the epikarst is made up of an upper part with pervasive karstification and a lower part without pervasive karstification. Injection and observation boreholes were 6.9 m apart. An initial experiment demonstrated that wider (conduits) and narrower (fractures and bedding planes) openings coexist in a well-connected network within the lower epikarst. The adjusted aperture of the opening network (105 ,m) suggests that conduits are subordinately developed. The lower epikarstic horizon is hydraulically similar to granular porous media and Darcy's law can be applied to describe groundwater flow. A small value of longitudinal dispersivity (0.13 m) shows that variations in the velocity field in the direction of flow are less significant than those typical of carbonate systems at the same experiment scale. A second experiment demonstrated that longitudinal dispersivity (2.42 m) in the upper epikarst is in agreement with findings in other carbonates at the same experiment scale. However, despite the higher dispersivity and more pervasive karstification, the mean tracer velocity (3.7 m day,1) in the upper epikarst is slightly lower than the velocity in the lower epikarst (13.6 m day,1). [source]


    Cover Picture: Assembly of Wiseana Iridovirus: Viruses for Colloidal Photonic Crystals (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2006
    Mater.
    Abstract Assembly of colloids is a versatile tool for micro- and nanofabrication. Natural and artificially engineered viruses offer the opportunity to expand the functionality and versatility of such assemblies. The cover shows optically iridescent, thin polycrystalline arrays (background) as well as bulk pellets (inset right) that exhibit reversible hydration-dependent reflection spectra, as reported by Vaia and co-workers on p.,1086. The films and pellets were created in vitro with classical colloid-assembly techniques from Wiseana iridescent virus (inset, center) harvested from infected Wiseana spp larvae (inset, left). In,vitro assembly of Wiseana iridescent virus (WIV) yields iridescent pellets and films with structural color more vivid than in the native insect. WIV is icosahedral in shape, 140,nm in diameter, with 30,nm long fibrils attached to the outer surface, and exhibits a surface charge ca.,1/6th that of a comparable polymer colloid. The low surface charge and tethered chains on the virus surface allow the facile modification of the interparticle distance. Directed sedimentation yields predominantly an amorphous liquid-like packing of the virus. Such samples exhibit a broad reflection band that is angle independent and for which the broad maximum can be reversibly shifted from blue towards red with increased hydration. Slow sedimentation and flow-assisted assembly methods produce thin films with a polycrystalline morphology that exhibit narrower, more intense reflectivity peaks, which are hydration and angle dependent. This study points toward the potential of viral particles for photonic crystals where their unique structural features (icosahedral symmetry, extreme monodispersity, precise surface functionalization, and tethered surface chains of low surface-charge density) may lead to superior control of optical properties of their assembled arrays. [source]


    Climate dynamics of atmosphere and ocean in the equatorial zone: a synthesis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, Issue 13 2004
    Stefan Hastenrath
    Abstract A synopsis is offered of circulation mechanisms in the oceanic regions of the equatorial zone. Over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific, and especially in boreal summer, cross-equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere is strong and induces a tongue of cold surface waters, centred to the south of the equator. Upon crossing the equator in these sectors, owing to the Coriolis effect and a kinetic energy imbalance, the airstream speeds up and divergence develops, producing the Intertropical Divergence Zone (ITDZ). Once these processes result in the wind recurving from southeasterly to southwesterly, the flow slows down and becomes convergent, manifest in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, with a maximum to the south of the wind confluence. By contrast, over the western Atlantic and central Pacific and especially in boreal winter, winds in the equatorial band are predominantly from the east, upper-ocean Ekman transport is directed away from the equator, and the upwelling and cold tongue are centred on the equator. Cross-equatorial flow is insufficient to produce recurvature, the ITDZ is narrower and weaker, the divergence maximum is at the equator rather than in low northern latitudes, and the convergence maximum straddles the wind confluence. Over the Indian Ocean, the wind field is dominated by the alternation between the predominantly meridional flow of the winter and summer monsoons. Equatorial westerlies are limited to the short monsoon transition seasons. Essential for their origin is an eastward pressure gradient along the equator and weak southern trade winds, allowing recurvature somewhat south of the equator. Because the zonal pressure gradient is strongest in boreal summer and the southern trade winds are weakest in austral summer, the equatorial westerlies peak in spring and autumn. The boreal autumn equatorial westerlies are the surface manifestation of a powerful zonal,vertical circulation cell along the Indian Ocean equator. Equatorial zonal,vertical circulation cells require well-developed zonal flow in the lower troposphere along the equator and, therefore, appear confined to the oceanic longitudes and certain seasons. Thus, they are found over the Atlantic only in boreal winter and over the Indian Ocean only in boreal autumn, whereas over the Pacific they prevail all year round. Copyright 2004 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


    Vegetation structure and prey abundance requirements of the Iberian lynx: implications for the design of reserves and corridors

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    F. Palomares
    Summary 1,Habitat alteration and fragmentation are two of the greatest threats to biodiversity. The conservation of most species in highly encroached areas requires reserves that are connected by suitable habitat corridors to increase the effectiveness of the area under protection. However, the quality required for such corridors is still debated. This study investigated the habitat characteristics (vegetation structure and prey abundance) of sites used by resident and dispersing Iberian lynx in south-western Spain. 2,Vegetation structure and an index of rabbit abundance (the staple prey of lynx) were measured at sites used by radio-collared lynx in 1996 and 1997. Data from 128 plots used by resident lynx and 310 plots used by dispersing individuals were compared with data from 162 randomly located plots in sites considered to be unused by lynx. 3.,Resident sites had a lower percentage of tree cover, shorter tree height, higher percentage of tall shrub cover, higher percentage of overall understorey and higher number of rabbit pellets than both dispersal and unused sites. The height of the short shrub layer was taller and the rabbit abundance index was higher in dispersing sites than in unused sites. 4,Gender did not affect habitat selection by lynx. During dispersal, lynx frequently (50% of cases) used vegetation patches narrower than 300 m. In these cases, sites used by lynx had higher understorey cover and taller shrub height than adjacent unused sites. The percentage of short shrub cover used by lynx increased with the length of time taken to disperse; this was the only variable that changed over time. 5,Range size of resident individuals declined significantly with the index of rabbit abundance but increased with the percentage of short shrub cover. Both variables were good predictors of range size. 6,The study shows that corridors connecting reserves do not have to be prime habitats; they can even support moderate habitat degradation due to human activity. This result has implications both for the conservation of existing corridors, and for the restoration of the many corridors between reserves that have been lost. [source]


    UV-embossed microchannel in biocompatible polymeric film: Application to control of cell shape and orientation of muscle cells

    JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
    Jin-Ye Shen
    Abstract This article shows that ultra violet (UV) micro-embossing can be successfully used for fabricating biocompatible micropatterned films with microchannels separated by high aspect ratio microwalls. Eight series of micropatterns were investigated; the width of the microwall was either 10 or 25 ,m and that of the microchannel either 40, 80, 120, or 160 ,m. The material investigated was principally polyurethane diacrylate. The UV-embossed micropattern was extracted with methanol, converting the micropatterns from cytotoxic to biocompatible. The typical UV embossing method was modified by using a marginally adhesive polyester substrate, which facilitates demolding but is removable before methanol extraction to avoid fragmentation of the embossed micropatterns. The effect of the micropatterns on A7r5 smooth muscle cells and C2C12 skeletal muscle cells was investigated. The dimensions of both channel and wall have significant effects on the elongation of both muscle cells. In the narrower 40-,m channel, the C2C12 cells merged together to form myofibers. These results indicate that UV-embossed micropatterns may present a useful scaffold for in vitro cell shape and orientation control needed in vascular and muscle tissue engineering. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006 [source]


    Porosity and surface characteristics of activated carbons produced from waste tyre rubber

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Guillermo San Miguel
    Abstract Waste tyre rubber has proven to be a suitable precursor for the production of high quality activated carbons. The performance of these carbons in commercial applications such as water treatment or gas purification is highly dependent on their surface characteristics. This paper presents an in-depth investigation on how production conditions may affect the yield and characteristics of activated carbons produced from tyre rubber. For this purpose, three tyre rubbers of different particle sizes were consecutively pyrolysed and then activated in a steam atmosphere at 925,C using a laboratory-scale rotary furnace. Activation was conducted at different intervals over 80,640,min to achieve different degrees of carbon burn-off. The resulting carbons were analysed for their elemental composition, ash content and nitrogen gas adsorption characteristics. The BET and t -plot models were used to investigate various aspects of their porosity and surface area characteristics. SEM analyses were also conducted for visual examination of the carbon surface. Results show that pyrolytic chars, essentially mesoporous materials, developed a very narrow microporosity during the initial stages of the activation process (up to 15,25,wt% burn-off). Further activation resulted in the progressive enlargement of the average micropore width and a gradual development of the mesoporous structure. Total micropore volumes and BET surface areas increased continuously with the degree of activation to reach values up to 0.498,cm3g,1 and 1070,m2g,1 respectively, while external surface areas developed more rapidly at degrees of activation above 45,wt% burn-off. Results presented in this work also illustrate that carbons produced from powdered rubber developed a narrower and more extensive porosity, both in the micropore and mesopore range, than those produced from rubber of a larger particle size. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Peak width-mass correlation in CID MS/MS of isomeric oligosaccharides using traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry

    JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 10 2009
    Tohru Yamagaki
    Abstract Isomeric oligosaccharides ,-cyclodextrin (,-CD), glucosyl-,CD (Glc1 -,CD) and maltosyl-,CD (Glc2 -,CD) were analyzed by traveling-wave ion mobility (twIM) mass spectrometry (MS). Their formation of multicharged multimers differed from each other. The ion mobility-mass spectrometry was useful in the self-assembling and complex formation analyses of CD isomers. The drift times of the isomers and their product ions with the same mass were almost the same in collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. In contrast, the ion mobility peak widths were sensitive to structural differences of the isomeric product ions. The twIM peak width (ms - s) of the product ions [M , Glcn + H]+ (n = 0 , 6) of ,-CD correlated linearly with their masses (Da); the large and/or long chain product ions had wider peak widths, which were much wider than those from the general diffusion effect. This was a novel and useful ,trend line' to discriminate between the three isomers. Plots of [M , Glc2 , 6 + H]+ of Glc1 -,CD and [M , Glc3 , 6 + H]+ of Glc2 -,CD product ions' plots were on the same trend line as ,-CD. The plots of [M , Glc1 + H]+ of Glc1 -,CD and [M , Glc1, 2 + H]+ of Glc2 -,CD strayed from the ,-CD line; their peak widths were narrower than those of ,-CD. These results indicated that product ions from the chemical species of Glc1 -, CD and Glc2 -,CD retained their CD structure. Analyses of the IM peak widths enable us to elucidate the structures of the product ions. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphate: improved precision using TC/EA CF-IRMS,

    JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 6 2009
    D. F. LaPorte
    Abstract Oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite have long demonstrated considerable promise for paleothermometry potential because of the abundance of material in the fossil record and greater resistance of apatite to diagenesis compared to carbonate. Unfortunately, this promise has not been fully realized because of relatively poor precision of isotopic measurements, and exceedingly small size of some substrates for analysis. Building on previous work, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve precision of ,18OPO4 measurements using a ,reverse-plumbed' thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA) coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) via a helium stream [Correction made here after initial online publication]. This modification to the flow of helium through the TC/EA, and careful location of the packing of glassy carbon fragments relative to the hot spot in the reactor, leads to narrower, more symmetrically distributed CO elution peaks with diminished tailing. In addition, we describe our apatite purification chemistry that uses nitric acid and cation exchange resin. Purification chemistry is optimized for processing small samples, minimizing isotopic fractionation of PO4,3 and permitting Ca, Sr and Nd to be eluted and purified further for the measurement of ,44Ca and 87Sr/86Sr in modern biogenic apatite and 143Nd/144Nd in fossil apatite. Our methodology yields an external precision of 0.15, (1,) for ,18OPO4. The uncertainty is related to the preparation of the Ag3PO4 salt, conversion to CO gas in a reversed-plumbed TC/EA, analysis of oxygen isotopes using a CF-IRMS, and uncertainty in constructing calibration lines that convert raw ,18O data to the VSMOW scale. Matrix matching of samples and standards for the purpose of calibration to the VSMOW scale was determined to be unnecessary. Our method requires only slightly modified equipment that is widely available. This fact, and the demonstrated improvement in precision, should help to make apatite paleothermometry far more accessible to paleoclimate researchers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    KINETICS OF HYDROCARBON GAS GENERATION FROM MARINE KEROGEN AND OIL: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GASES IN THE HETIANHE GASFIELD, TARIM BASIN, NW CHINA

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Yunpeng Wang
    In this paper we derive kinetic parameters for the generation of gaseous hydrocarbons (C1-5) and methane (C1) from closed-system laboratory pyrolysis of selected samples of marine kerogen and oil from the SW Tarim Basin. The activation energy distributions for the generation of both C1-5 (Ea = 59-72kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1) and C1 (Ea = 61-78kcal, A = 6.061014 s,1) hydrocarbons from the marine oil are narrower than those for the generation of these hydrocarbons from marine kerogen (Ea = 50-74kcal, A = 1.01014 s,1 for C1-5; and Ea = 48-72kcal, A=3.91013 s,1 for C1, respectively). Using these kinetic parameters, both the yields and timings of C1-5 and C1 hydrocarbons generated from Cambrian source rocks and from in-reservoir cracking of oil in Ordovician strata were predicted for selected wells along a north-south profile in the SW of the basin. Thermodynamic conditions for the cracking of oil and kerogen were modelled within the context of the geological framework. It is suggested that marine kerogen began to crack at temperatures of around 120C (or 0.8 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 138C (or 1.05 %Ro); whereas the marine oil began to crack at about 140 C (or 1.1 %Ro) and entered the gas window at 158 C (or 1.6%Ro). The main geological controls identified for gas accumulations in the Bachu Arch (Southwest Depression, SW Tarim Basin) include the remaining gas potential following Caledonian uplift; oil trapping and preservation in basal Ordovician strata; the extent of breaching of Ordovician reservoirs; and whether reservoir burial depths are sufficiently deep for oil cracking to have occurred. In the Maigaiti Slope and Southwest Depression, the timing of gas generation was later than that in the Bachu Arch, with much higher yields and generation rates, and hence better prospects for gas exploration. It appears from the gas generation kinetics that the primary source for the gases in the Hetianhe gasfield was the Southwest Depression. [source]


    OOSPORE VARIATION IN CLOSELY RELATED CHARA TAXA,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Maja Blume
    Charophytes produce a thick-walled zygote, the so-called oospore, the characters of which (size, shape, and structure) are used as taxonomic determination criteria. In the present study, the variation of length, width, length-to-width ratio, and number of striae of oospores collected both from the field and after cross-fertilization experiments was compared within and among taxa, populations, and individuals belonging to the Chara baltica Bruzelius "species complex." Although the oospore characteristics differed significantly among the taxa, the variations among populations belonging to the same taxon and even among individuals belonging to the same population were still higher. Oospores developed by means of allogamy were not significantly different from oospores developed by autogamy. Oospores were 5% shorter and 27% narrower when measured dry compared with wet material. Information about this treatment is unfortunately lacking in charophyte monographs and oospore determination keys. We concluded that oospore descriptions of different charophyte taxa should be based on a larger amount of data material collected from different populations and individuals and accompanied by a detailed method description, and that a determination of closely related taxa by means of oospores should be interpreted carefully. Ecological aspects of oospore size variation are discussed. [source]


    Nonaqueous dispersion polymerization of styrene in methanol with the ionomer block copolymer poly[(4-methylstyrene)- co -(4-vinyltriethylbenzyl ammonium bromide)]- b -polyisobutene as a stabilizer

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 11 2004
    Yuhong Ma
    Abstract The nonaqueous dispersion polymerization of styrene in methanol with poly[(4-methylstyrene)- co -(4-vinyltriethylbenzyl ammonium bromide)]- b -polyisobutene as a stabilizer was investigated. There was no observable inducing period or autoacceleration in the polymerization process. The conversion increased almost linearly with the polymerization time as high as 80%. The average sizes of the obtained polystyrene particles increased, and the size distributions of the polystyrene particles tended to become narrower, with increasing conversion. The mechanism of the dispersion polymerization in the presence of polyisobutene- b -poly[(4-methylstyrene)- co -(4-vinyltriethylbenzyl ammonium bromide)] was nucleation/growth. When the stabilizer/monomer ratio (w/w) was greater than 2.0%, the polystyrene dispersion was stable, and there was no observable polymer particle coagulation taking place during the whole polymerization process. The average diameter of the polymer particles can be mediated through changes in the polymerization conversion, monomer, and stabilizer. Nearly monodispersed polystyrene particles with average diameters of approximately 0.45,2.21 ,m were obtained under optimal conditions. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 2678,2685, 2004 [source]


    The relationship between craniofacial anatomy and obstructive sleep apnoea: a case-controlled study

    JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
    AMA JOHAL
    Summary The aim of the study was to identify craniofacial and pharyngeal anatomical factors directly related to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The design and setting was a hospital-based, case-controlled study. Ninety-nine subjects (78 males and 21 females) with a confirmed diagnosis of OSA, who were referred to the Dental Hospital for construction of a mandibular advancement splint were recruited. A similar number of control subjects, matched for age and sex, were recruited after completing snoring and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires to exclude habitual snoring and daytime sleepiness. An upright cephalogram was obtained and skeletal and soft tissue landmarks were traced and digitized. In OSA subjects the anteroposterior skeletal measurements, including maxillary and mandibular length were reduced (P < 0.001). The intermaxillary space was found to be 3.1 mm shorter in OSA subjects (P = 0.001). The nasopharyngeal airway in OSA subjects was narrower (P < 0.001) but pharyngeal length showed no difference. The tongue size was increased (P = 0.021), soft plate length, thickness and area were all greater (P < 0.001) and the hyoid bone was more inferiorly positioned in OSA subjects (P < 0.001). This study identifies a significant number of craniofacial and pharyngeal anatomical factors directly related to OSA. [source]


    WIDTH OF STREAMS AND RIVERS IN RESPONSE TO VEGETATION, BANK MATERIAL, AND OTHER FACTORS,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 5 2004
    Russell J. Anderson
    ABSTRACT: An extensive group of datasets was analyzed to examine factors affecting widths of streams and rivers. Results indicate that vegetative controls on channel size are scale dependent. In channels with watersheds greater than 10 to 100 km2, widths are narrower in channels with thick woody bank vegetation than in grass lined or nonforested banks. The converse is true in smaller streams apparently due to interactions between woody debris, shading, understory vegetation, rooting characteristics, and channel size. A tree based statistical method (regression tree) is introduced and tested as a tool for identifying thresholds of response and interpreting interactions between variables. The implications of scale dependent controls on channel width are discussed in the context of stable channel design methods and development of regional hydraulic geometry curves. [source]


    RAFT Miniemulsion Polymerization Kinetics, 2 , Molecular Weight Distribution,

    MACROMOLECULAR THEORY AND SIMULATIONS, Issue 2 2009
    Hidetaka Tobita
    Abstract The molecular weight distribution formed in a RAFT polymerization conducted inside submicron particles (Dp,<,300 nm) is considered. For small particles, the MWD at low to middle conversion might be rather broad because of the large differences in MWDs formed in different polymer particles. Such a broad MWD can be made narrower by increasing the radical entry frequency. On the other hand, larger frequencies of radical entry result in a broader MWD at the final conversion levels. The number of dead polymer chains increases with time, and the dead polymer peak could be observed in the MWD at a prolonged aging time. According to this theoretical investigation, smaller particles are advantageous in implementing a faster polymerization rate, a narrower MWD, and a smaller number of dead polymer molecules. [source]