Narrow Sense (narrow + sense)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Analysing and Assessing Accountability: A Conceptual Framework1

Mark Bovens
But how can we establish the existence of accountability deficits? This article tries to get to grips with the appealing but elusive concept of accountability by asking three types of questions. First a conceptual one: what exactly is meant by accountability? In this article the concept of accountability is used in a rather narrow sense: a relationship between an actor and a forum, in which the actor has an obligation to explain and to justify his or her conduct, the forum can pose questions and pass judgement, and the actor may face consequences. The second question is analytical: what types of accountability are involved? A series of dimensions of accountability are discerned that can be used to describe the various accountability relations and arrangements that can be found in the different domains of European governance. The third question is evaluative: how should we assess these accountability arrangements? The article provides three evaluative perspectives: a democratic, a constitutional and a learning perspective. Each of these perspectives may produce different types of accountability deficits. [source]

Americans in the Dark?

Recent Hollywood Representations of the Nation's History
This article examines how Hollywood blockbuster movies made since the 1970s have commonly presented a distorted and conventional narrative of American history, in respect both to domestic incidents and to engagements abroad. Equally distorting is the image of America as a highly homogeneous society projected through popular television shows. These patterns are investigated in the following way. First, the article presents an overview of how early Hollywood movies dealt with the country's immigrant and racial diversity. Secondly, the effect of mobilization in both the Second World War and the cold war in inducing a narrow sense of national identity in movies is examined. Thirdly, these two sections provide a prelude to the analysis of historical distortion and ideology in selected major Hollywood blockbusters. [source]

The inhibitory effect of the components of Cornus officinalis on melanogenesis

Yasuhiko Nawa
Five known compounds were isolated from a Cornus officinalis 50% ethanol extract (C. officinalis extract) and a hot water extract. We investigated the photochemical and pharmacological active compounds of C. officinalis hot water extract and ethanol extract. We understood that C. officinalis is a medicinal plant with potent free-radical-scavenging activity not only against reactive oxygen species (H2O2, superoxiside anion, hydroxyl radical, etc.) in a narrow sense, but also against many other free radicals (peroxynitrate, peroxyradical). It is estimated that the reduction effect with C. officinalis extract can block oxidative reaction on melanogenesis. Loganin and cornuside, the components in C. officinalis, showed a significant free-radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on melanogenesis. We report to prove the inhibitory effect of UVB-induced pigmentation in C. officinalis extract through its radical scavenging activity. [source]

Omitting types in fuzzy logic with evaluated syntax

Petra Murinová
Abstract This paper is a contribution to the development of model theory of fuzzy logic in narrow sense. We consider a formal system Ev, of fuzzy logic that has evaluated syntax, i. e. axioms need not be fully convincing and so, they form a fuzzy set only. Consequently, formulas are provable in some general degree. A generalization of Gödel's completeness theorem does hold in Ev,. The truth values form an MV-algebra that is either finite or ,ukasiewicz algebra on [0, 1]. The classical omitting types theorem states that given a formal theory T and a set ,(x1, , , xn ) of formulas with the same free variables, we can construct a model of T which omits ,, i. e. there is always a formula from , not true in it. In this paper, we generalize this theorem for Ev,, that is, we prove that if T is a fuzzy theory and ,(x1, , , xn ) forms a fuzzy set , then a model omitting , also exists. We will prove this theorem for two essential cases of Ev,: either Ev, has logical (truth) constants for all truth values, or it has these constants for truth values from [0, 1] , , only. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Genetic parameters and QTL analysis of ,13C and ring width in maritime pine

O. Brendel
Abstract Classical quantitative genetics and quantitative trait dissection analysis (QTL) approaches were used in order to investigate the genetic determinism of wood cellulose carbon isotope composition (,13C, a time integrated estimate of water use efficiency) and of diameter growth and their relationship on adult trees (15 years) of a forest tree species (maritime pine). A half diallel experimental set-up was used to (1) estimate heritabilities for ,13C and ring width and (2) to decompose the phenotypic ,13C/growth correlation into its genetic and environmental components. Considerable variation was found for ,13C (range of over 3,) and for ring width (range of over 5 mm) and significant heritabilities (narrow sense 0·17/0·19 for ,13C and ring width, respectively, 100% additivity). The significant phenotypic correlation between ,13C and ring width was not determined by the genetic component, but was attributable to environmental components. Using a genetic linkage map of a full-sib family, four significant and four suggestive QTLs were detected for ,13C, the first for ,13C in a forest tree species, as far as known to the authors. Two significant and four suggestive QTLs were found for ring width. No co-location of QTLs was found between ,13C and growth. [source]

Political Theory and Practical Public Reasoning

Albert Weale
Political theory and political philosophy (used interchangeably in this article) have always played a role in public life. The argument pursued here is that this is not accidental. We cannot understand in an explanatory sense developments in public policy without understanding the structure of ideas that influence those developments, including the normative presuppositions at the core of those structures of ideas. However, we can pass from explanation in the narrow sense to justification and the evaluation of the merits of those ideas. The techniques of normative political theory are invaluable in this context of justification and evaluation. Two examples are given to illustrate this last claim. [source]

Genetic characterisation of traditional chestnut varieties in Italy using microsatellites (simple sequence repeats) markers

M.A. Martín
European chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important multipurpose tree that has been cultivated for wood and fruit in the Mediterranean basin since ancient times. Cultivation of traditional chestnut varieties has a long tradition in Italy, where cultivars have been selected over centuries as a function of the best nut traits. In this study, 94 grafted chestnuts corresponding to 26 representative cultivars from Italy were evaluated by seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish whether they corresponded to varieties in the narrow sense. The results allowed 20 genotypes to be identified that corresponded to the same number of clones. In total, 52 alleles were identified, eight of which were exclusive. Cases of homonymies and synonymies were detected. Moreover, our results highlighted a considerable genetic uniformity among ,Marrone-type' cultivars and, on the contrary, a high genetic diversity among the evaluated cultivars demonstrating that this is a valuable germplasm and an important genetic resource to be preserved. [source]