Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Narrow

  • very narrow

  • Terms modified by Narrow

  • narrow QR complex tachycardia
  • narrow area
  • narrow band
  • narrow band imaging
  • narrow bands
  • narrow bandwidth
  • narrow channel
  • narrow conception
  • narrow definition
  • narrow distribution
  • narrow endemic
  • narrow focus
  • narrow gap
  • narrow host range
  • narrow leaf
  • narrow molecular mass distribution
  • narrow molecular weight distribution
  • narrow particle size distribution
  • narrow peak
  • narrow ph range
  • narrow polydispersity
  • narrow pore size distribution
  • narrow range
  • narrow sense
  • narrow size distribution
  • narrow slot
  • narrow space
  • narrow spectrum
  • narrow strip
  • narrow therapeutic index
  • narrow therapeutic range
  • narrow therapeutic window
  • narrow window
  • narrow zone

  • Selected Abstracts

    Combination of narrow band UVB and topical calcipotriol for the treatment of vitiligo

    EO Goktas
    Abstract Background, Narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been used successfully for the treatment of vitiligo. Recently, topical calcipotriol has also been claimed to be effective, either as monotherapy or as a part of combination therapies. Objective, The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of NB-UVB and NB-UVB plus topical calcipotriol in the treatment of vitiligo. Methods, NB-UVB treatment was given to 24 patients with generalized vitiligo three times weekly. Topical calcipotriol cream was only applied to the lesions located on the right side of the body. Treatment was continued for 6 months. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining the average response rates of the lesions at 3-month intervals. Results, The average response rates of patients receiving combination of NB-UVB plus calcipotriol and NB-UVB alone were 51 ± 19.6% and 39 ± 18.9%, respectively. The median cumulative UVB dose and number of UVB exposures for initial repigmentation were 6345 mj/cm2 (range; 2930,30980) and 18 (range; 12,67) for the combination therapy, and 8867.5 mj/cm2 (range; 2500,30980) and 24 (range; 15,67) for the narrow band UVB therapy, respectively. Conclusions, These findings indicate that concurrent topical calcipotriol potentates the efficacy of NB-UVB in the treatment of vitiligo. This combination not only provides earlier pigmentation with lower total UVB dosage and less adverse UVB effects, but also reduces the duration and cost of treatment as well. [source]

    A Narrow and Two Wide QRS Complex Tachycardias: What are the Mechanisms?

    First page of article [source]

    Alternating Narrow and Wide Complex Tachycardia

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Transition from Narrow to Wide QRS Tachycardia: What is the Mechanism?

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Narrow band Ultraviolet B 311 nm in the treatment of vitiligo: two right,left comparison studies

    M. El Mofty
    Aim: Evaluation of narrow band ultraviolet B (NB UVB 311 nm) in the treatment of vitiligo by two independent studies. The first study compared NB UVB with a well-established therapeutic modality, psoralen ultraviolet A (PUVA), and the second study was conducted to find out whether psoralen might add to its efficacy. Methods: In the first study, 15 patients were exposed on the left half of their body to UVB 311 nm and then exposed on their right half to UVA after ingestion of psoralen. In the second study, 20 patients were exposed to UVB 311 nm on the left side of the body, followed by ingestion of psoralen and exposure to NB UVB 311 nm 90 min later to the right side of the body. In both studies, while exposing one side, the other was protected by an UV-proof gown. Thus two right,left comparative studies were carried out simultaneously, namely: UVB 311 nm vs. PUVA and UVB 311 nm vs. PUVB 311 nm. Results: In the first study, comparison of PUVA and NB UVB 311 nm showed no difference either in the degree of response or in the incidence of complications. In the second study, comparison of PUVB and UVB showed equal clinical improvement on both sides. The cumulative dose needed to achieve the same response on the PUVB side was lower than that on the UVB side, but the difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of phototoxic reactions was significantly higher on the PUVB treated body half. Conclusion: NB UVB 311 nm has similar repigmentary effects as PUVA. The addition of psoralen does not increase its efficacy. [source]

    From Narrow to Novice in Environmental Health Nursing

    Judith C. Hays
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Combined PIV/PTV-Measurements for the Analysis of Bubble Interactions and Coalescence in a Turbulent Flow

    Dirk Bröder
    Abstract In order to allow more reliable modeling of coalescence processes in turbulent bubbly flows, detailed experiments in a double loop reactor were performed. Narrow and essentially monomodal bubble size distributions in the range of 2 to 4 mm were created. For simultaneous measurements of bubble size, bubble velocity and liquid velocity a combined system of PIV and PTV was developed and applied. It was possible to determine bubble size distributions and mean, as well as fluctuating velocities for both phases. The spatial changes of the bubble size distribution, due to the influence of bubble coalescence, was analyzed and coalescence rates were calculated. Afin d'améliorer la fiabilité de la modélisation des procédés de coalescence dans les écoulements bouillonnants turbulents, des expériences poussées ont été menées dans un réacteur à double boucle. Des distributions de taille des bulles étroites, essentiellement monodisperses, dans la gamme de 2 à 4 mm, ont été créées. Pour les mesures simultanées de la taille des bulles, de la vitesse des bulles et de la vitesse du liquide, on a mis au point et appliqué un système combiné de PIV et PTV. Il a été possible de déterminer les distributions de taille des bulles et la moyenne mais également les vitesses fluctuantes pour les deux phases. Les changements spatiaux de la distribution de la taille des bulles dus à l'influence de la coalescence des bulles ont été analysés et les vitesses de coalescence ont été calculées. [source]

    Motivations for the Restoration of Ecosystems

    cambio climático; capital natural; restauración ecológica Abstract:,The reasons ecosystems should be restored are numerous, disparate, generally understated, and commonly underappreciated. We offer a typology in which these reasons,or motivations,are ordered among five rationales: technocratic, biotic, heuristic, idealistic, and pragmatic. The technocratic rationale encompasses restoration that is conducted by government agencies or other large organizations to satisfy specific institutional missions and mandates. The biotic rationale for restoration is to recover lost aspects of local biodiversity. The heuristic rationale attempts to elicit or demonstrate ecological principles and biotic expressions. The idealistic rationale consists of personal and cultural expressions of concern or atonement for environmental degradation, reengagement with nature, and/or spiritual fulfillment. The pragmatic rationale seeks to recover or repair ecosystems for their capacity to provide a broad array of natural services and products upon which human economies depend and to counteract extremes in climate caused by ecosystem loss. We propose that technocratic restoration, as currently conceived and practiced, is too narrow in scope and should be broadened to include the pragmatic rationale whose overarching importance is just beginning to be recognized. We suggest that technocratic restoration is too authoritarian, that idealistic restoration is overly restricted by lack of administrative strengths, and that a melding of the two approaches would benefit both. Three recent examples are given of restoration that blends the technocratic, idealistic, and pragmatic rationales and demonstrates the potential for a more unified approach. The biotic and heuristic rationales can be satisfied within the contexts of the other rationales. Resumen:,Las razones por la que los ecosistemas deben ser restaurados son numerosas, dispares, generalmente poco sustentadas, y comúnmente poco apreciadas. Ofrecemos una tipología en la que estas razones,o motivaciones,son ordenadas entre cinco razonamientos: tecnocrático, biótico, heurístico, idealista y pragmático. El razonamiento tecnocrático se refiere a la restauración que es llevada a cabo por agencias gubernamentales u otras grandes organizaciones para satisfacer misiones y mandatos institucionales específicos. El razonamiento biótico de la restauración es la recuperación de aspectos perdidos de la biodiversidad local. El razonamiento heurístico intenta extraer o demostrar principios ecológicos y expresiones bióticas. El razonamiento idealista consiste de expresiones personales y culturales de la preocupación o reparación de la degradación ambiental, reencuentro con la naturaleza y/o cumplimiento espiritual. El razonamiento pragmático busca recuperar o reparar ecosistemas por su capacidad de proporcionar una amplia gama de servicios y productos naturales de la que dependen las economías humanas y para contrarrestar extremos en el clima causados por la pérdida de ecosistemas. Proponemos que la restauración tecnocrática, como se concibe y practica actualmente, es muy corta en su alcance y debiera ampliarse para incluir al razonamiento pragmático, cuya importancia apenas comienza a ser reconocida. Sugerimos que la restauración tecnocrática es demasiado autoritaria, que la restauración idealista esta muy restringida por la falta de fortalezas administrativas, y que una mezcla de los dos enfoques podría beneficiar a ambas. Proporcionamos tres ejemplos recientes de restauración que combinan los razonamientos tecnocrático, idealista y pragmático y demuestran el potencial para un enfoque más unificado. Los razonamientos biótico y heurístico pueden ser satisfechos en el contexto de los otros razonamientos. [source]


    Recent Supreme Court decisions have extended jury trial rights and beyond-reasonable-doubt proof standards to certain sentence-enhancement facts. The first two cases, Apprendi v. New Jersey and Ring v. Arizona, were narrow in scope and relatively uncontroversial. But Blakely v. Washington marked a substantial expansion of the rationale and scope of Apprendi, and threatened to invalidate entire sentencing reform systems, both legally-binding guidelines of the type at issue in Blakely and it's sequel, Booker v. United States, and statutory determinate sentence systems like the one invalidated in Cunningham v. California. Each of these decisions has potential effects not only on sentencing severity and disparity in the cases controlled by that decision, but also on prosecutorial, legislative, and sentencing commission measures designed to comply with the decision, avoid it, and/or mitigate its impact. Field resistance and avoidance measures are likely to be stronger in jurisdictions where the existing sentencing system enjoyed broad support; in such jurisdictions, resistance may be particularly strong to the more controversial Blakely ruling. Impact assessments must therefore carefully distinguish the separate impacts of Apprendi and Blakely in each jurisdiction being studied, and the extent of support for the existing sentencing system. Such assessments should also examine pre-existing trends and other independent sources of change; leadership by sentencing commissions or other officials in crafting responsive measures; structural and other features of the sentencing system which render compliance more or less difficult; and second-stage effects, on sentencing, prosecutorial, or sentencing policy decisions, that reflect the prior compliance, avoidance, and mitigation measures adopted in that jurisdiction. The greatest long-term effects may be on prosecutorial, legislative, and commission decisions, rather than on sentencing outcomes. [source]

    Double Butterfly Suture for High Tension: A Broadly Anchored, Horizontal, Buried Interrupted Suture

    Helmut Breuninger MD
    Background. The excision of skin lesions such as tumors, nevi, and scars frequently results in tension on surgical wound margins. This tension is commonly counteracted surgically with buried, intracutaneous, interrupted sutures of absorbable material which are anchored vertically in the corium. Method. The horizontal, buried, intracutaneous butterfly suture has been described elsewhere. It is firmly anchored in the corium, everts wound margins, and adapts them nearly as broadly as two vertical sutures. It can also be laid as a double butterfly suture, as described here, and then has the shape of an "8." This double butterfly suture is equivalent to three vertical sutures because of its broad base in the corium. Moreover, it can cope with much greater tension because of its "pulley" effect. A single double butterfly suture usually suffices for small defects, particularly when the wound edges are cut obliquely with a longer rim of epidermis. Materials. We have laid the traditional butterfly suture in more than 35,000 skin lesion excisions since 1985 and the double butterfly suture alone or as a supplement in more than 10,000 sutures since 1992. We use 2-0 to 6-0 polydioxanone for these procedures, since it has proven in trials to be the best-absorbed suture material. Results. In most cases, the resulting scars were narrow and smooth in spite of high tension. Results were unsatisfactory in only 6.2% of procedures. Conclusion. The double butterfly suture described here has the advantages of withstanding tension better while everting wound margins and requiring fewer stitches for wound closure. However, it is important that the suture knot be deeply anchored beneath the corium. [source]

    Churchill and Sip1a repress fibroblast growth factor signaling during zebrafish somitogenesis

    Fatma O. Kok
    Abstract Cell-type specific regulation of a small number of growth factor signal transduction pathways generates diverse developmental outcomes. The zinc finger protein Churchill (ChCh) is a key effector of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during gastrulation. ChCh is largely thought to act by inducing expression of the multifunctional Sip1 (Smad Interacting Protein 1). We investigated the function of ChCh and Sip1a during zebrafish somitogenesis. Knockdown of ChCh or Sip1a results in misshapen somites that are short and narrow. As in wild-type embryos, cycling gene expression occurs in the developing somites in ChCh and Sip1a compromised embryos, but expression of her1 and her7 is maintained in formed somites. In addition, tail bud fgf8 expression is expanded anteriorly in these embryos. Finally, we found that blocking FGF8 restores somite morphology in ChCh and Sip1a compromised embryos. These results demonstrate a novel role for ChCh and Sip1a in repression of FGF activity. Developmental Dynamics 239:548,558, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effects of substrate geometry on growth cone behavior and axon branching

    Ginger S. Withers
    Abstract At the leading edge of a growing axon, the growth cone determines the path the axon takes and also plays a role in the formation of branches, decisions that are regulated by a complex array of chemical signals. Here, we used microfabrication technology to determine whether differences in substrate geometry, independent of changes in substrate chemistry, can modulate growth cone motility and branching, by patterning a polylysine grid of narrow (2 or 5 ,m wide) intersecting lines. The shape of the intersections varied from circular nodes 15 ,m in diameter to simple crossed lines (nodeless intersections). Time-lapse recordings of cultured hippocampal neurons showed that simple variations in substrate geometry changed growth cone shape, and altered the rate of growth and the probability of branching. When crossing onto a node intersection the growth cone paused, often for hours, and microtubules appeared to defasciculate. Once beyond the node, filopodia and lamellipodia persisted at that site, sometimes forming a collateral branch. At nodeless intersections, the growth cone passed through with minimal hesitation, often becoming divided into separate areas of motility that led to the growth of separate branches. When several lines intersected at a common point, growth cones sometimes split into several subdivisions, resulting in the emergence of as many as five branches. Such experiments revealed an intrinsic preference for branches to form at angles less than 90°. These data show that simple changes in the geometry of a chemically homogeneous substrate are detected by the growth cone and can regulate axonal growth and the formation of branches. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 66: 1183,1194, 2006 [source]

    Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) species diversity in the Pampas, Argentina

    María Marta Cigliano
    Abstract., A study was conducted to describe the major features of geographical and temporal variation in the diversity of grassland grasshopper species (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in different sites of the Pampas, Argentina. Species richness and relative abundance were assessed at 12 sites in eastern La Pampa and western Buenos Aires provinces, from 1994 through 1999. Mean species richness at the regional level was 10, and 34 grasshopper species were collected throughout of the study. Comparison with grasshopper species diversity from the Great Plains of North America is discussed. An evaluation of the proportions of species in each of the three distribution groups (broad, intermediate and narrow) revealed that, over all sites, broadly distributed species made up 14.7% of species composition and intermediately and narrowly distributed species made up 26.5% and 58.8%, respectively. The three top-ranked species in the studied sites were Dichroplus elongatus, D. pratensis and Staurorhectus longicornis. Results showed that, contrary to what was expected, one of the widely distributed species in the region (i.e. Baeacris punctulatus) does not always constitute one of the most abundant species. Finally, the loss of one of the historically most common species in the Pampas, D. maculipennis, is also discussed. [source]

    Stream geomorphology in a mountain lake district: hydraulic geometry, sediment sources and sinks, and downstream lake effects

    C. D. Arp
    Abstract Lakes are common in glaciated mountain regions and geomorphic principles suggest that lake modifications to water and sediment fluxes should affect downstream channels. Lakes in the Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, USA, were created during glaciation and we sought to understand how and to what extent glacial morphology and lake disruption of fluxes control stream physical form and functions. First, we described downstream patterns in channel form including analyses of sediment entrainment and hydraulic geometry in one catchment with a lake. To expand on these observations and understand the role of glacial legacy, we collected data from 33 stream reaches throughout the region to compare channel form and functions among catchments with lakes, meadows (filled lakes), and no past or present lakes. Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships were weak for both the single catchment and regionally. Our data show that downstream patterns in sediment size, channel shape, sediment entrainment and channel hydraulic adjustment are explained by locations of sediment sources (hillslopes and tributaries) and sediment sinks (lakes). Stream reaches throughout the region are best differentiated by landscape position relative to lakes and meadows according to channel shape and sediment size, where outlets are wide and shallow with coarse sediment, and inlets are narrow and deep with finer sediment. Meadow outlets and lake outlets show similarities in the coarse-sediment fraction and channel capacity, but meadow outlets have a smaller fine-sediment fraction and nearly mobile sediment. Estimates of downstream recovery from lake effects on streams suggest 50 per cent recovery within 2,4 km downstream, but full recovery may not be reached within 20 km downstream. These results suggest that sediment sinks, such as lakes, in addition to sources, such as tributaries, are important local controls on mountain drainage networks. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Textural and compositional controls on modern beach and dune sands, New Zealand

    J. J. Kasper-Zubillaga
    Abstract Textural, compositional, physical and geophysical determinations were carried out on 111 beach and dune sand samples from two areas in New Zealand: the Kapiti,Foxton coast sourced by terranes of andesite and greywackes and the Farewell Spit,Wharariki coast sourced by a wide variety of Paleozoic terranes. Our aim is to understand how long-shore drift, beach width and source rock control the sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of beach and dune sands. Furthermore, this study shows the usefulness of specific minerals (quartz, plagioclase with magnetite inclusions, monomineralic opaque grains) to interpret the physical processes (fluvial discharges, long-shore currents, winds) that distribute beach and dune sands in narrow and wide coastal plains. This was done by means of direct (grain size and modal analyses) and indirect (specific gravity, magnetic/non-magnetic separations M/NM, magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops) methods. Results are compared with beach sands from Hawaii, Oregon, the Spanish Mediterranean, Elba Island and Southern California. Compositionally, the Kapiti,Foxton sands are similar to first-order immature sands, which retain their fluvial signature. This results from the high discharge of rivers and the narrow beaches that control the composition of the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions controls the specific gravity of the Kapiti,Foxton sands due to their low content of opaque minerals and coarse grain size. Magnetic susceptibility of the sands is related mainly to the abundance of feldspars with Fe oxides, volcanic lithics and free-opaque minerals. The Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands are slightly more mature than the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The composition of the Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands does not reflect accurately their provenance due to the prevalence of long-shore drift, waves, little river input and a wide beach. Low abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions and free opaque grains produces poor correlations between specific gravity (Sg) and Fe oxide bearing minerals. The small correlation between opaque grains and M/NM may be related to grain size. The magnetic susceptibility of Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands is low due to the low content of grains with magnetite inclusions. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) agree with the magnetic susceptibility values. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Wood storage in a wide mountain river: case study of the Czarny Dunajec, Polish Carpathians

    omiej Wy
    Abstract Storage of large woody debris in the wide, mountain, Czarny Dunajec River, southern Poland, was investigated following two floods of June and July 2001 with a seven-year frequency. Within a reach, to which wood was delivered only by bank erosion and transport from upstream, wood quantities were estimated for eighty-nine, 100 m long, channel segments grouped into nine sections of similar morphology. Results from regression analysis indicated the quantity of stored wood to be directly related to the length of eroded, wooded banks and river width, and inversely related to unit stream power at the flood peak. The largest quantities of wood (up to 33 t ha,1) were stored in wide, multi-thread river sections. Here, the relatively low transporting ability of the river facilitated deposition of transported wood while a considerable length of eroded channel and island banks resulted in a large number of trees delivered from the local riparian forest. In these sections, a few morphological and ecological situations led to the accumulation of especially large quantities of wood within a small river area. Very low amounts of wood were stored in narrow, single-thread sections of regulated or bedrock channel. High stream power facilitated transport of wood through these sections while the high strength of the banks and low channel sinuosity prevented bank retreat and delivery of trees to the channel. Considerable differences in the character of deposited wood existed between wide, multi-thread channel sections located at different distances below a narrow, 7 km long, channellized reach of the river. Wood deposited close to the downstream end of the channellized reach was highly disintegrated and structured into jams, whereas further downstream well preserved shrubs and trees prevailed. This apparently reflects differences in the distance of wood transport and shows that in a mountain river wider than the height of trees growing on its banks, wood can be transported long distances along relatively narrow, single-thread reaches but is preferentially deposited in wide, multi-thread reaches. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The role of leaf inclination, leaf orientation and plant canopy architecture in soil particle detachment by raindrops

    Kirsten Foot
    Abstract A laboratory investigation of the effect of plant architecture on soil particle detachment by rainfall is described. The effects of leaf inclination, leaf orientation, effective canopy area, leaf area index, leaf subcatchment area, lowest canopy area, largest canopy area, canopy overlap area and an alternative leaf area index are examined using artificial plants. Detachment from a 30 cm diameter splash cup filled with sand (150 µm,1 mm particle size) was measured under three types of plant (small leaved, broad leaved and long narrow leaved) for a 10 minute simulated rainstorm of 75 mm/h intensity. There were no significant differences in soil particle detachment between the three plant types or between detachment under the plants and detachment of bare soil. No significant relationships were obtained between detachment and any of the plant parameters. Soil particle detachment by leaf drips can offset any protective effects of the canopy so that detachment does not differ significantly from that on bare soil. Plant architecture significantly affected the distance from the plant stem at which detachment was concentrated even though the canopy diameters of the plants were similar. There would appear to be no advantages in a detailed description of plant architecture and its effects in process-based models of soil erosion. Parameters such as plant height and plant canopy area are sufficient descriptors for modelling plant effects. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The influence of plant cover and land use on slope,channel decoupling in a foothill catchment: a case study from the Carpathian Foothills, southern Poland

    Jolanta, chowicz
    Abstract This paper examines the influence of plant cover and land use on slope,channel decoupling in the Stara Rzeka Stream catchment (22·4 km2) and its subcatchment Dworski Potok Stream (0·3 km2). The Stara Rzeka catchment is situated in the marginal part of the Carpathian Foothills and is characterized by a relief of low and medium hills. The catchment is used for agriculture but unlike other foothill catchments, it has a relatively extensive unfragmented area of forests (41·3 per cent). Grasslands and pastures (13·8 per cent) are mainly along the broad and flat valley floor. In the cultivated area (38·5 per cent) of the northern low hill part of the catchment, the fields are long, narrow and separated by boundary strips. They stretch from the hilltops to the valley bottom and are traditionally ploughed along the slopes. The research into slope wash was carried out at six sites downslope (August 1989 to October 1990) and on experimental plots (1989,1991). Transport of suspended matter was determined in the channels of the Stara Rzeka and Dworski Potok Streams (1987,1991). The results show that transport and export of the material on the slopes depend on the morphology of the slope and on the agricultural use of the area. The mosaic of fields which are used differently makes the soil wash process very intensive only if the slopes are ploughed and unprotected by a dense cover of vegetation. The material displaced is mostly accumulated at the foot of the slopes or at the bottom of the valley. Footslope areas and flat valley bottoms covered with grass function as a barrier separating the slope and the river bed. These features generally negate the transfer of slope-originated material to the bed of the stream. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Electronic gel protein transfer and identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 9 2004
    Jonathan W. Cooper
    Abstract An electronic protein transfer technique is described for achieving the rapid and efficient recovery of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes from polyacrylamide gels. This process involves the use of small-dimension capillaries in physical contact with a resolved protein band within the polyacrylamide gel, providing a large potential drop and high electric field strength at the capillary/gel interface. Several factors controlling the electronic protein transfer, including the applied electric field strength, the electrophoresis buffer concentration, and the capillary dimension, are studied to further enhance the use of field-amplification for sample stacking of extracted SDS-protein complexes. As a result of sample stacking, the extracted proteins from a 50 ng gel loading are present in a narrow (,80 nL) and highly concentrated (0.46 mg/mL or 3.3×10,5 M for cytochrome c) solution plug. Three model proteins with molecular mass ranging from 14 kDa (cytochrome c) to 116 kDa (,-galactosidase) are stained by Coomassie blue and electrophoretically extracted from gels with protein loadings as low as 50 ng. The capillary format of the electronic protein transfer technique allows direct deposition of extracted proteins onto a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) target. Various matrices and solvent compositions are evaluated for the analysis of extracted and concentrated SDS-protein complexes using MALDI-MS. The electronic protein transfer technique, when operated under optimized conditions, is demonstrated for the effective (>70% recovery), speedy (less than 5 min), and sensitive MS identification of gel resolved proteins (as low as 50 ng). [source]

    Phenotypic diagnosis of dwarfism in six Friesian horses

    W. BACK
    Summary An extreme form of abnormal development, dwarfism, is common in man and some animals, but has not been officially reported in horses. Within the Friesian horse breed, congenital dwarfism has been recognised for many years, but no detailed report exists on its phenotype. The most salient feature of the dwarf syndrome is the physeal growth retardation in both limbs and ribs. Affected animals have approximately 25% shorter fore- and hindlimbs and approximately 50% reduced bodyweight. Post natal growth is still possible in these animals, albeit at a slower rate: the head and back grow faster than the limbs and ribs leading to the characteristic disproportional growth disturbance. Thus, mature dwarfs exhibit a normal, but a relatively larger head conformation, a broader chest with narrowing at the costochondral junction, a disproportionally long back, abnormally short limbs, hyperextension of the fetlocks and narrow long-toed hooves. Furthermore, a dysplastic metaphysis of the distal metacarpus and metatarsus is radiographically evident. Microscopic analysis of the growth plates at the costochondral junction shows an irregular transition from cartilage to bone, and thickening and disturbed formation of chondrocyte columns, which is similar to findings in osteochondrodysplasia. [source]

    Advanced Statistics:Statistical Methods for Analyzing Cluster and Cluster-randomized Data

    Robert L. Wears MD
    Abstract. Sometimes interventions in randomized clinical trials are not allocated to individual patients, but rather to patients in groups. This is called cluster allocation, or cluster randomization, and is particularly common in health services research. Similarly, in some types of observational studies, patients (or observations) are found in naturally occurring groups, such as neighborhoods. In either situation, observations within a cluster tend to be more alike than observations selected entirely at random. This violates the assumption of independence that is at the heart of common methods of statistical estimation and hypothesis testing. Failure to account for the dependence between individual observations and the cluster to which they belong can have profound implications on the design and analysis of such studies. Their p-values will be too small, confidence intervals too narrow, and sample size estimates too small, sometimes to a dramatic degree. This problem is similar to that caused by the more familiar "unit of analysis error" seen when observations are repeated on the same subjects, but are treated as independent. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the problem of clustered data in clinical research. It provides guidance and examples of methods for analyzing clustered data and calculating sample sizes when planning studies. The article concludes with some general comments on statistical software for cluster data and principles for planning, analyzing, and presenting such studies. [source]

    Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Linear Friction Welded Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti17) Titanium Alloy Joints,

    Wen-Ya Li
    The microstructural evolution, microhardness, tensile properties and impact toughness of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti17) alloy joints welded by linear friction welding (LFW) are investigated. A narrow, sound weld is formed, consisting of a superfine ,,+,, structure in the weld center. The structure gradually changes from the weld center to the parent Ti17 in the TMAZ, with the highly deformed , and , phases oriented along the deformation direction, owing to the uneven deformation and temperature distribution. The microhardness of the TMAZ is the lowest of the distinct zones and presents a valley-like shape. The tensile strengths of the joints are comparable to that of the parent Ti17 but with a much lower plasticity and impact toughness. The microstructure variation contributes to the resultant properties. [source]

    The application of modified lapped transform domain median filter to narrow,band interference excision in DSSS systems

    Chongni Li Guangruihu
    A novel communication receiver which uses lapped transform (LT) incorporating modified median filter (MMF) algorithm is designed for narrow,band interference (NB1) excision. Comparing to traditional Fourier Transform, LT has longer basis vectors, less spectral leakage, thus better frequency resolution. The LT domain MMF algorithm takes full advantages of the direct sequence spread spectrum signal, as well as the characteristics of LT, performs the transform domain filtering twice. The first filtering locates the position of interference and mitigates most of them. The second filtering was performed in a small neighborhood of the located interference. So LT domain MMF algorithm can completely mitigate the interference without distorting the desired signal. Simulation results demonstrated the improved BER performance and increased robustness of our approach. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2007
    Richard P. Shefferson
    Although coevolution is acknowledged to occur in nature, coevolutionary patterns in symbioses not involving species-to-species relationships are poorly understood. Mycorrhizal plants are thought to be too generalist to coevolve with their symbiotic fungi; yet some plants, including some orchids, exhibit strikingly narrow mycorrhizal specificity. Here, we assess the evolutionary history of mycorrhizal specificity in the lady's slipper orchid genus, Cypripedium. We sampled 90 populations of 15 taxa across three continents, using DNA methods to identify fungal symbionts and quantify mycorrhizal specificity. We assessed phylogenetic relationships among sampled Cypripedium taxa, onto which we mapped mycorrhizal specificity. Cypripedium taxa associated almost exclusively with fungi within family Tulasnellaceae. Ancestral specificity appears to have been narrow, followed by a broadening after the divergence of C. debile. Specificity then narrowed, resulting in strikingly narrow specificity in most of the taxa in this study, with no taxon rewidening to the same extant as basal members of the genus. Sympatric taxa generally associated with different sets of fungi, and most clades of Cypripedium -mycorrhizal fungi were found throughout much of the northern hemisphere, suggesting that these evolutionary patterns in specificity are not the result of biogeographic lack of opportunity to associate with potential partners. Mycorrhizal specificity in genus Cypripedium appears to be an evolvable trait, and associations with particular fungi are phylogenetically conserved. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2004
    Martin Ackermann
    Abstract Theoretical models suggest that resource competition can lead to the adaptive splitting of consumer populations into diverging lineages, that is, to adaptive diversification. In general, diversification is likely if consumers use only a narrow range of resources and thus have a small niche width. Here we use analytical and numerical methods to study the consequences for diversification if the niche width itself evolves. We found that the evolutionary outcome depends on the inherent costs or benefits of widening the niche. If widening the niche did not have costs in terms of overall resource uptake, then the consumer evolved a niche that was wide enough for disruptive selection on the niche position to vanish; adaptive diversification was no longer observed. However, if widening the niche was costly, then the niche widths remained relatively narrow, allowing for adaptive diversification in niche position. Adaptive diversification and speciation resulting from competition for a broadly distributed resource is thus likely if the niche width is fixed and relatively narrow or free to evolve but subject to costs. These results refine the conditions for adaptive diversification due to competition and formulate them in a way that might be more amenable for experimental investigations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2004
    Ben L. Phillips
    Abstract Phylogeographic analyses of the fauna of the Australian wet tropics rainforest have provided strong evidence for long-term isolation of populations among allopatric refugia, yet typically there is no corresponding divergence in morphology. This system provides an opportunity to examine the consequences of geographic isolation, independent of morphological divergence, and thus to assess the broader significance of historical subdivisions revealed through mitochondrial DNA phylogeography. We have located and characterized a zone of secondary contact between two long isolated (mtDNA divergence > 15%) lineages of the skink Carlia rubrigularis using one mitochondrial and eight nuclear (two intron, six microsatellite) markers. This revealed a remarkably narrow (width<3 km) hybrid zone with substantial linkage disequilibrium and strong deficits of heterozygotes at two of three nuclear loci with diagnostic alleles. Cline centers were coincident across loci. Using a novel form of likelihood analysis, we were unable to distinguish between sigmoidal and stepped cline shapes except at one nuclear locus for which the latter was inferred. Given estimated dispersal rates of 90,133 m X gen,1/2 and assuming equilibrium, the observed cline widths suggest effective selection against heterozygotes of at least 22,49% and possibly as high as 70%. These observations reveal substantial postmating isolation, although the absence of consistent deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at diagnostic loci suggests that there is little accompanying premating isolation. The tight geographic correspondence between transitions in mtDNA and those for nuclear genes and corresponding evidence for selection against hybrids indicates that these morphologically cryptic phylogroups could be considered as incipient species. Nonetheless, we caution against the use of mtDNA phylogeography as a sole criterion for defining species boundaries. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2000
    Esa Ranta
    Abstract., A persistent question in the evolution of life histories is the fitness trade-off between reproducing only once (semelparity) in a lifetime or reproducing repeated times in different seasons (iteroparity). The problem can be formulated into a research agenda by assuming that one reproductive strategy is resident (has already evolved) and by asking whether invasion (evolution) of an alternative reproductive strategy is possible. For a spatially nonstructured system, Bulmer (1994) derived the relationship v + PA < 1 (PA is adult survival; vbs and bs are offspring numbers for iteroparous and semelparous breeding strategies, respectively) at which semelparous population cannot be invaded by an iteroparous mutant. When the inequality is changed to v + PA > 1, invasion of a semelparous mutant is not possible. From the inequalities, it is easy to see that possibilities for evolutionary establishment of a novel reproductive strategy are rather narrow. We extended the evolutionary scenario into a spatially structured system with dispersal linkage among the subunits. In this domain, a rare reproductive strategy can easily invade a population dominated by a resident reproductive strategy. The parameter space enabling invasion is far more generous with spatially structured evolutionary scenarios than in a spatially nonstructured system. [source]

    Comparison of the firing patterns of human postganglionic sympathetic neurones and spinal , motoneurones during brief bursts

    Vaughan G. Macefield
    Focal recordings from individual postganglionic sympathetic neurones in awake human subjects have revealed common firing properties. One of the most striking features is that they tend to fire only once per sympathetic burst. Why this should be so is not known, but we propose that the short duration of the burst may limit the number of times a sympathetic neurone can fire. Indeed, while the normal variation in cardiac interval and burst duration is too narrow to reveal a correlation between burst duration and the number of spikes generated, we know that spike generation is doubled when burst duration is doubled following ectopic heart beats. To test the hypothesis that the burst duration constrains the firing of individual sympathetic neurones to one per burst, we used the human skeletomotor system as a model for the sympathetic nervous system, which allowed us to vary burst duration and amplitude experimentally. Intramuscular recordings were made from 27 single motor units (, motoneurones) in the tibialis anterior or soleus muscles of seven subjects; multiunit EMG activity was recorded via surface electrodes and blood pressure was recorded continuously. Subjects were instructed to generate EMG bursts of varying amplitude in the intervals between heart beats. By constraining the firing of , motoneurones to brief (,400 ms) bursts we could emulate real sympathetic bursts. Individual motoneurones generated 0,7 spikes during the emulated sympathetic bursts, with firing patterns similar to those exhibited by real sympathetic neurones. Eleven motor units showed significant positive linear correlations between the number of spikes they generated within a burst and its amplitude, whereas for 17 motor units there were significant positive correlations between the number of spikes and burst duration. This indicates that burst duration is a major determinant of the number of times an , motoneurone will fire during a brief burst, and we suggest that the same principle may explain the firing pattern typical of human sympathetic neurones. [source]

    Project Appraisal and Capital Investment Decision Making in the Scottish Water Industry

    Paul Coleshill
    Restructuring the Scottish water industry has changed the way in which both project appraisal and capital investment decisions are performed. This article examines the project appraisal and subsequent capital investment decision in the case of a reed bed sewage treatment scheme which is compared with a more traditional scheme. Although the capital profiles of the schemes are similar there are major differences in the revenue costs. In addition, there are potential public benefits to the reed bed scheme. A comparison is made of management mechanisms in the pre-1996 water industry with that of restructured water authorities. In the pre-1996 water industry, local authorities had a broad remit which encouraged them to value these factors, in effect an implicit social account. The creation of water authorities with narrow remits and specific performance measures, constructed a framework that does not support the integration of social accounts into the decision making process. The paper demonstrates that investment appraisal is a product of the institutional framework in which the decisions are made. As that framework changes, mechanisms and measures of accountability shift in parallel. [source]

    Linking growth to environmental histories in central Baltic young-of-the-year sprat, Sprattus sprattus: an approach based on otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling

    Abstract Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed ,window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back-calculated days of first feeding (DFF), was narrow compared to the extended spawning season of sprat in the Baltic Sea (mean± SD = 22 June ± 14.1 days) and indicated that only individuals born in summer survived until October 2002. Within the group of survivors, individuals born later in the season exhibited faster larval, but more rapidly decreasing juvenile growth rates than earlier born conspecifics. Back-calculated larval growth rates of survivors (0.48,0.69 mm day,1) were notably higher than those previously reported for average larval sprat populations, suggesting that the YoY population was predominantly comprised of individuals which grew faster during the larval stage. Daily mean temperatures, experienced across the entire YoY population, were derived from Lagrangian particle simulations and correlated with (1) detrended otolith growth and (2) back-calculated, daily somatic growth rates of survivors. The results showed that abrupt changes in ambient temperature can be detected in the seasonal pattern of otolith growth, and that higher temperatures led to significantly faster growth throughout the entire age range of YoY sprat. [source]