Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Nanofibers

  • carbon nanofiber
  • composite nanofiber
  • electrospun nanofiber
  • hybrid nanofiber
  • hydrogel nanofiber
  • polymer nanofiber

  • Terms modified by Nanofibers

  • nanofiber mat
  • nanofiber scaffold

  • Selected Abstracts

    Morphology and Crystalline Structure of Poly(, -Caprolactone) Nanofiber via Porous Aluminium Oxide Template

    Yang Chen
    Abstract Summary: Poly(, -caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers with a dimension of about 150 nm were successfully fabricated by using a process of extruding PCL solution via a porous aluminium oxide template and then solidifying in methanol. The morphology, melting behavior and crystalline structure of the nanofibers were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results revealed that the weight-average molecular weight () of PCL hardly influenced the morphology of the nanofibers. However, the melting temperature (Tm) of the PCL crystalline increased slightly from 55.4 to 57.5,°C with an increase in . The accessional pressure and the presence of the porous template played an important role in the improvement of the orientation and crystallization structures of the polymer chains when they were passing through the nano-scale porous channel, leading to the conglomeration of the fiber and the much larger diameter than those from the pressure-induced extrusion process. Furthermore, comparing the processes with and without accessional pressure, the crystallinity of the nanofibers obtained under 0.2 MPa pressure increased, and the diffraction for the (001) lattice plane occurred. SEM image of PCL nanofibers extruded via a porous aluminium oxide template with the aid of pressure. [source]

    General Strategy for a Large-Scale Fabric with Branched Nanofiber,Nanorod Hierarchical Heterostructure: Controllable Synthesis and Applications

    Meng Shang
    Abstract The preparation and characterization of a branched nanofiber,nanorod hierarchical heterostructure fabric (TiO2/NiO, TiO2/ZnO, and TiO2/SnO2) are described. The nanomaterial was synthesized on a large scale by an inexpensive, generalizable, facile, and controllable approach by combining the electrospinning technique with a hydrothermal method. The controllable formation process and factors (assistance by hexamethylenetetramine and metal oxide nuclei) influencing the morphology of the branched hierarchical heterostructure are discussed. In addition, photocurrent and photocatalytic studies suggest that the branched hierarchical heterostructure fabric shows higher mobility of charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic activity relative to a bare TiO2 nanofibrous mat and other heterostructures under irradiation by light. This work demonstrates the possibility of growing branched heterostructure fabrics of various uniform, one-dimensional, functional metal oxide nanorods on a TiO2 nanofibrous mat, which has a tunable morphology by changing the precursor. The study may open a new channel for building hierarchical heterostructure device fabrics with optical and catalytic properties, and allow the realization of a new class of nano-heterostructure devices. [source]

    A Fibronectin Peptide-Coupled Biopolymer Nanofibrous Matrix to Speed Up Initial Cellular Events

    Ji-Eun Kim
    Degradable polymer nanofibers produced by electrospinning are attractive for use in cell culture and tissue repair. However, the hydrophobicity and initial poor cell adhesion of synthetic polymers have limited their use in tissue regeneration. Herein, the surface of a poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) Arg-Gly-Asp sequence of nanofiber was tailored with a fibronectin peptide (FN10), which was designed to retain the central cell-binding domain. The electrospun nanofibers are first treated with an alkaline solution to reveal the carboxyl groups on the surface, which is followed by coupling with an FN10 solution in conjunction with a carbodiimide-based agent. Peptide coupling occurs effectively with saturation within 1,h, and the coupled peptide maintains its stability for several days. The peptide-coupled nanofibers show significant improvements in initial cell adhesion and spreading compared with the untreated one, confirming the role of the FN10 peptide in the initial cell events. This methodology may be useful in tailoring the surface of polymeric nanofibers with biomolecules targeted for specific tissue responses. [source]

    Cone calorimeter testing of S2 glass reinforced polymer composites

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 7 2009
    Alexander B. Morgan
    Abstract With the ever increasing demand for fuel savings on vehicles, there is a strong push to replace metal with polymeric + fiber (carbon/glass) composites. However, the replacement of metal with polymeric composites can lead to additional fire risk. Our study focused on glass fiber reinforced polymer composites meant for vehicular structural applications, and flammability performance of these composites was studied by cone calorimetery. The effects of fiberglass loading, nanocomposite use (clay, carbon nanofiber) and polymer type (epoxy, phenolic) were studied under a heat flux of 50kW/m2 to better understand the potential effects that these variables would have on material flammability. It was found that as fiberglass loading increased, flammability decreased, but at a cost to structural integrity of the residual polymer + fiber char. The use of nanocomposites has little effect on reducing flammability in this set of samples, but the use of phenolic resins in comparison with epoxy resins was found to yield the greatest improvements in flammability performance. Further, the phenolic system yielded a higher level of structural integrity to the final polymer + fiberglass char when compared with the other polymer systems of low heat release. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Biotemplated Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticle,Bacteria Cellulose Nanofiber Nanocomposites and Their Application in Biosensing

    Taiji Zhang
    Abstract Bacteria cellulose (BC) nanofibers are used as robust biotemplates for the facile fabrication of novel gold nanoparticle (NP),bacteria cellulose nanofiber (Au,BC) nanocomposites via a one-step method. The BC nanofibers are uniformly coated with Au NPs in aqueous suspension using poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) as the reducing and linking agent. With the addition of different halides, Au,BC nanocomposites with different Au shell thicknesses are formed, and a possible formation mechanism is proposed by taking into account the special role played by PEI. A novel H2O2 biosensor is constructed using the obtained Au,BC nanocomposites as excellent support for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilization, which allows the detection of H2O2 with a detection limit lower than 1,µM. The Au,BC nanocomposites could be further used for the immobilization of many other enzymes, and thus, may find potential applications in bioelectroanalysis and bioelectrocatalysis. [source]

    Nanofibers from Laser Spinning: Laser Spinning of Bioactive Glass Nanofibers (Adv. Funct.

    This cover image is a graphical representation of the laser spinning process described by Félix Quintero et al. on page 3084. Laser spinning involves the use of a high power laser to melt a very small volume from a plate of the precursor material. A high speed supersonic gas jet causes the rapid elongation and cooling of the melt, yielding a glass nanofiber. The authors also describe the use of this technique in producing Bioglass nanofibers. [source]

    Nanofiber Generation of Gelatin,Hydroxyapatite Biomimetics for Guided Tissue Regeneration,

    H.-W. Kim
    Abstract The development of biomimetic bone matrices is one of the major goals in the bone-regeneration and tissue-engineering fields. Nanocomposites consisting of a natural polymer and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals, which mimic the human bone matrix, are thus regarded as promising bone regenerative materials. Herein, we developed a biomimetic nanocomposite with a novel nanofibrous structure by employing an electrospinning (ES) method. The HA precipitate/gelatin matrix nanocomposites are lyophilized and dissolved in an organic solvent, and then electrospun under controlled conditions. With this process, we can successfully generate a continuous fiber with a diameter of the order of hundreds of nanometers. The internal structure of the nanofiber features a typical nanocomposite, i.e., HA nanocrystals well distributed within a gelatin matrix. These nanocomposite fibers improve the bone-derived cellular activity significantly when compared to the pure gelatin equivalent. This method of generating a nanofiber of the biomimetic nanocomposite was effective in producing a biomedical membrane with a composition gradient, which is potentially applicable in the field of guided tissue regeneration (GTR). [source]

    Single Negative Metamaterials in Unstructured Polymer Nanocomposites Toward Selectable and Controllable Negative Permittivity

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 41 2009
    Bin Li
    Negative permittivity is realized in unstructured imide polymer/carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites. The microstructure of CNFs is one of the factors that exert profound effects on the permittivity. Compared with cup-stacked CNFs-filled polyetherimide nanocomposites, the negative permittivity in the herringbone CNFs-filled nanocomposites is inhibited, occurring only at the frequencies near resonance, where the permittivity dips slightly into the negative region. [source]

    Energy Transfer in Fluorescent Nanofibers Embedding Dye-Loaded Zeolite L Crystals

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 10-11 2009
    Varun Vohra
    Electroluminescent polymeric nanofibers embedding dye-loaded zeolite L crystals are prepared. By exciting the polymer nanofiber, the energy is transferred to the fluorescent dyes inside the zeolite L channels through a two-step Förster resonant energy transfer process. This study opens new perspectives in the field of low-cost fabrication technology of flexible nanoscale OLEDs. [source]

    GaN Nanofibers based on Electrospinning: Facile Synthesis, Controlled Assembly, Precise Doping, and Application as High Performance UV Photodetector,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 2 2009
    Hui Wu
    Nitride nanofibers have been synthesized based on a simple electrospinning technique for the first time. No catalysts or templates are needed in this new synthetic method. Highly oriented GaN nanofiber arrays, as well as a high-performance UV photodetector based on single GaN nanofiber assembled FET devices, can be facilely fabricated using this technique. Precise doping of other elements into the GaN nanofibers is easy by this solution-based synthetic method. [source]

    The substituent effects on the structure and surface morphology of polyaniline

    Mutlu Sahin
    Abstract In this work, poly(2-fluoroaniline), poly(2-chloroaniline), poly(2-methylaniline), and poly(N -ethylaniline) were prepared by a self-assembly method using an oxidizing system consisting of a dopant anion, p-toluene sulfonate with ammonium peroxydisulfate. The effects of substituents on the surface morphology, conductivity, molecular weight, spectral and thermal properties of the polymers were studied. SEM results revealed that the surface morphology of the resulting polymers changed from nanofiber to spherical structure by changing the substituent on the aniline monomers. The structure and properties of these conducting films were characterized by FTIR, UV-vis, elemental analysis, TGA, conductivity, and cyclic voltammetry. The polymer films show electroactivity in monomer free solution. Molecular weight of the polymers was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The dry electrical conductivity values of the substituted-polyanilines were found to be lower than that of PANI. The results revealed that the molecular structures of the polymers were similar to those of the emeraldine form of polyaniline. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    The influence of electrospinning parameters on the structural morphology and diameter of electrospun nanofibers

    Valencia Jacobs
    Abstract Electrospinning is a simple method of producing nanofibers by introducing electric field into the polymer solutions. We report an experimental investigation on the influence of processing parameters and solution properties on the structural morphology and average fiber diameter of electrospun poly ethylene oxide (PEO) polymer solution. Experimental trials have been conducted to investigate the effect of solution parameters, such as concentration, molecular weight, addition of polyelectrolyte in PEO solution, solvent effect, as well as governing parameter, such as applied voltage. The concentration of the aqueous PEO solution has shown noteworthy influence on the fiber diameter and structural morphology of electrospun nanofibers. At lower concentrations of PEO polymer solution, the fibers showed irregular morphology with large variations in fiber diameter, whereas at higher concentrations, the nanofibers with regular morphology and on average uniform fiber diameter were obtained. We find that the addition of polyelectrolytes, such as sodium salt of Poly acrylic acid (PAA) and Poly allylamine hydrochloride (PAH), increases the conductivity of PEO solutions and thereby decreases the bead formation in electrospun nanofibers. The increase in applied voltage has been found to affect the structural morphology of nanofiber while the addition of ethanol in PEO solution diminishes the bead defects. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Structural characterization and dynamic water adsorption of electrospun polyamide6/montmorillonite nanofibers

    Qi Li
    Abstract A facile compounding process, which combined nanocomposite process with electrospinning for preparing novel polyamide6/organic modified montmorillonite (PA6/O-MMT) composite nanofibers, is reported. In this compounding process, the O-MMT slurry was blended into the formic acid solution of PA6 at moderate temperatures, where the nanosized O-MMT particles were first dispersed in N,N -dimethyl formamide solvent homogeneously via ultrasonic mixing. Subsequently the solution via electrospinning formed nanofibers, which were collected onto aluminum foil. The O-MMT platelets were detected to be exfoliated at nanosize level and dispersed homogeneously along the axis of the nanofibers using an electron transmission microscope. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope were used to analysis the size and surface morphology of polyamide6/O-MMT composite nanofibers. The addition of O-MMT reduced the surface tension and viscosity of the solution, leading to the decrease in the diameter of nanofiber and the formation of rough and ridge-shape trails on the nanofiber surface. The behavior of the dynamic water adsorption of composite nanofibers was also investigated and discussed in this article. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Performance of electrospun nanofibers for SPE of drugs from aqueous solutions

    Xue-jun Kang
    Abstract A novel extraction technique was reported. The solid phase material, nanofiber, was prepared by electrospinning using polystyrene. Twenty different drugs (10 ,g/L in water) were extracted using 1 mg of nanofibers within 5 min. The analytes can be desorpted from the fibers with 50 ,L of the methanol and then monitored by LC coupled to a UV detector. Packed-fiber SPE (PFSPE) provide high recoveries (>50%) for some relatively non-polar drugs (log P >1.5) (n -octanol-to-water partition ratio), and relatively low recoveries (9.9,39.8%) for the drugs within the log P window below 1. Experimental optimization of the technique has been carried out using seven representative drugs, edaravone, cinchonine, quinine, voriconazole, chlordiazepoxide, verapamil, and rutonding. Except for edaravone, the maximum yields of seven drugs (0.2 ,g/L) from water samples were approximately 100%, and were 33.7,88.2% from human plasma. The advantageous aspect of the technique encompasses high throughput, high sensitivity, simplicity, low cost, and green chemistry. [source]

    Photocatalytic and Magnetic Properties of the Fe-TiO2/SnO2 Nanofiber Via Electrospinning

    Rui Zhang
    Fe-doped TiO2/0.03SnO2 hybrid nanofiber has been prepared via electrospinning method. The magnetic property versus Fe-doping content was characterized, and the corresponding photocatalytic activity under visible light radiation was evaluated by using Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation as a probe reaction. The hybrid nanofiber has proved to be an excellent visible light-excitable photocatalyst with much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO2/SnO2 hybrid nanofibers. The magnetic properties have also been characterized for the Fe-TiO2/SnO2 nanofibers before and after annealing under vacuum atmosphere, and nanofibers shows obvious ferromagnetic property at room temperature as they were annealed. It is believed that this nanofiber may become a potential photocatalyst in environmental remediation. [source]

    Preparation of Necklace-Structured TiO2/SnO2 Hybrid Nanofibers and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    Rui Zhang
    TiO2/SnO2 nanonecklace-structured hybrid nanofibers have been prepared via an electrospinning method. These hybrid nanofibers are characterized with SnO2 -rich beads and pure TiO2 chains. It is found that TiO2 in the beads shows a rutile structure, and the one in the chains is entirely composed of anatase phase. This novel microstructure enhanced the photocatalytic activity, as well as its ideal recyclable character. We believe that this fire-new type of nanofiber may potentially serve as a new generation photocatalyst in environmental remediation. [source]

    ZnO Nanofiber Field-Effect Transistor Assembled by Electrospinning

    Hui Wu
    A ZnO nanofiber field-effect transistor (FET) was assembled by electrospinning. Uniform ZnO nanofibers with a diameter of ,70 nm and length over 100 ,m were first synthesized by electrospinning. Using two paralleled electrodes as fiber collectors, we have successfully placed a single ZnO nanofiber on the electrodes, and an FET device was fabricated based on the assembled nanofiber. An electrical transport measurement was conducted on the FET device, showing that ZnO nanofibers are intrinsic n- type semiconductors. The present findings demonstrate that electrospinning can potentially be used as a straightforward and cost-effective means for the assembly of one-dimensional nanostuctures for building integrated nanodevices for various applications, such as transistors, sensors, diodes, and photodetectors. [source]

    Ionic-Strength- and pH-Responsive Poly[acrylamide- co -(maleic acid)] Hydrogel Nanofibers

    Haiqing Liu
    Abstract A novel acrylamide/maleic acid copolymer [P(AM-MA)] hydrogel nanofibrous membrane with a fiber diameter of ca. 120 nm is prepared by electrospinning an aqueous P(AM-MA) solution with diethylene glycol as crosslinker, followed by a heat-induced esterification crosslinking reaction at 145,°C. This hydrogel nanofiber can maintain a fiber form, but becomes distorted and merges to form many physical crosslinking points after immersion in water. The P(AM-MA) hydrogel nanofibers are sensitive to external stimuli ionic strength and pH. Their water-swelling ratio decreases with increasing solution ionic strength, and it shows a characteristic two-step increase at pH,=,2.5 and 8.5 in response to the increase of solution pH. The maximum water-swelling ratios of the P(AM-MA) hydrogel nanofibers are 18.1 and 22.5 g,·,g,1 in a solution of 0.05 mol,·,dm,3 ionic strength and in an aqueous solution of pH 11, respectively. [source]

    Lead-free piezoelectric (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.94TiO3,Ba0.06TiO3 nanofiber by electrospinning

    Y. Q. Chen
    Abstract Lead-free (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.94TiO3,Ba0.06TiO3 (NBT-BT6) nanofibers were synthesized by the sol,gel process and electrospinning, and a butterfly-shaped piezoelectric response was measured by scanning force microscopy. NBT-BT6 nanofibers with perovskite phase were formed, after being cleaned at 700 °C for 1 hour, and the diameters are in the range of 150 nm to 300 nm. The average value of the effective piezoelectric coefficient d33 is 102 pm/V. The high piezoelectricity may be attributed to the easiness for the electric field to tilt the polar vector of the domain and to the increase of the possible spontaneous polarization direction. There is a potential for the application of NBT-BT6 nanofibers in nanoscale piezoelectric devices. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Temperature and strain rate dependences of yield stress of polypropylene composites reinforced with carbon nanofibers

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 12 2009
    S.P. Bao
    Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites filled with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 wt% carbon nanofiber (CNF) were prepared via melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding. The effects of CNF additions on the structure, mechanical and tensile yielding behavior of PP were investigated. TEM and SEM observations showed that CNFs were dispersed uniformly within PP matrix. Tensile test showed that the yield strength and Young's modulus of PP were improved considerably by adding very low CNF loadings. The reinforcing effect of CNF was also verified from the dynamic mechanical analysis. Impact measurement revealed that the CNF additions were beneficial to enhance the impact toughness of PP. The yield stress of the PP/CNF nanocomposites was found to be strain rate and temperature dependent. The yielding responses of PP/CNF nanocomposites can be described successfully by the Erying's equation and a reinforcing index n. The structure and mechanical property relationship of the nanocomposites is discussed. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Effectual dispersion of carbon nanofibers in polyetherimide composites and their mechanical and tribological properties

    Bin Li
    The use of proliferation of nanotechnology in commercial applications is driving requirements for minimal chemical processing and simple processes in industry. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) products possess very high purity levels without the need of purification processing before use and are in growing demand for this quality. Polyetherimide (PEI) has excellent mechanical and thermal performance, but its high viscosity makes its nanocomposites processing very challenging. In this study, a facile melt-mixing method was used to fabricate PEI nanocomposites with as received and physically treated CNFs. The dispersion of CNFs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmitted optical microscopy, and electrometer with large-area electrodes. The results showed that the facile and powerful melt-mixing method is effective in homogeneously dispersing CNFs in the PEI matrix. The flexural and tribological characteristics were investigated and the formation of spatial networks of CNFs and weak interfacial bonding were considered as competitive factors to enhanced flexural properties. The composites with 1.0 wt% CNFs showed flexural strength and toughness increased by more than 50 and 550%, respectively, but showed very high wear rate comparable with that of pure PEI. The length of the CNFs also exerted great influences on both mechanical and tribological behaviors. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 50:1914,1922, 2010. © 2010 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in carbon nanofiber/unsaturated polyester nanocomposites

    Toshiaki Natsuki
    This article described the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity for carbon nanofiber (CNF)/unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) nanocomposites prepared by a solvent evaporation method. It was found that the CNF/UPR nanocomposites had quite low electrical percolation threshold due to CNFs having a large aspect ratio and being well dispersed into the UPR matrix. A sharp decrease in the electrical resistivity was observed at about 1 wt% CNF content. The influence of CNF content on the electrical resistivity was investigated as a function of temperature in detail. The nanocomposites showed a positive temperature coefficient effect for the resistivity, and had a strong temperature dependence near the percolation threshold. When the number of thermal cycles was increased, the electrical resistivity decreased and had a weak temperature dependence, especially in the case of melting temperature. Moreover, the size influences of CNFs on the electrical properties of nanocomposites were analyzed and discussed. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2008. © 2008 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Synthesis of pH-responsive crosslinked poly[styrene- co -(maleic sodium anhydride)] and cellulose composite hydrogel nanofibers by electrospinning

    Shengguang Cao
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Stimuli-sensitive materials show enormous potential in the development of drug delivery systems. But the low response rate of most stimuli-sensitive materials limits their wider application. We propose that electrospinning, a technique for the preparation of ultrafine fibrous materials with ultrafine diameters, may be used to prepare materials with a fast response to stimuli. RESULTS: Poly[styrene- co -(maleic sodium anhydride)] and cellulose (SMA-Na/cellulose) hydrogel nanofibers were prepared through hydrolysis of precursor electrospun poly[styrene- co -(maleic anhydride)]/cellulose acetate (SMA/CA) nanofibers. In the presence of diethylene glycol, the SMA/CA composite nanofibers were crosslinked by esterification at 145 °C, and then hydrolyzed to yield crosslinked SMA-Na/cellulose hydrogel nanofibers. These nanofibers showed better mechanical strengths and were pH responsive. Their water swelling ratio showed a characteristic two-step increase at pH = 5.0 and 8.2, with the water swelling ratio reaching a maximum of 27.6 g g,1 at pH = 9.1. CONCLUSION: The crosslinked SMA-Na hydrogel nanofibers supported on cellulose showed improved dimensional stability upon immersion in aqueous solutions. They were pH responsive. This new type of hydrogel nanofiber is a potential material for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Nanofiller-reinforced polymer nanocomposites

    J. Njuguna
    Abstract In this work, the technology of nano- and micro-scale particle reinforcement concerning various polymeric fiber-reinforced systems including polyamides (PAs), polyesters, polyurethanes (PUs), polypropylenes (pps), and high-performance/temperature engineering polymers such as polyimide (PI), poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), polyarylacetylene (PAA), and poly p -phenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO) is reviewed. When the diameters of polymer fiber materials are shrunk from micrometers to submicrons or nanometers, there appear several unique characteristics such as very large surface area to volume ratio (this ratio for a nanofiber can be as large as 103 times of that of a microfiber), flexibility in surface functionalities and superior mechanical performance (such as stiffness and tensile strength) compared to any other known form of the material. While nanoparticle reinforcement of fiber-reinforced composites has been shown to be a possibility, much work remains to be performed in order to understand how nanoreinforcement results in dramatic changes in material properties. The understanding of these phenomena will facilitate their extension to the reinforcement of more complicated anisotropic structures and advanced polymeric composite systems. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    General Strategy for a Large-Scale Fabric with Branched Nanofiber,Nanorod Hierarchical Heterostructure: Controllable Synthesis and Applications

    Meng Shang
    Abstract The preparation and characterization of a branched nanofiber,nanorod hierarchical heterostructure fabric (TiO2/NiO, TiO2/ZnO, and TiO2/SnO2) are described. The nanomaterial was synthesized on a large scale by an inexpensive, generalizable, facile, and controllable approach by combining the electrospinning technique with a hydrothermal method. The controllable formation process and factors (assistance by hexamethylenetetramine and metal oxide nuclei) influencing the morphology of the branched hierarchical heterostructure are discussed. In addition, photocurrent and photocatalytic studies suggest that the branched hierarchical heterostructure fabric shows higher mobility of charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic activity relative to a bare TiO2 nanofibrous mat and other heterostructures under irradiation by light. This work demonstrates the possibility of growing branched heterostructure fabrics of various uniform, one-dimensional, functional metal oxide nanorods on a TiO2 nanofibrous mat, which has a tunable morphology by changing the precursor. The study may open a new channel for building hierarchical heterostructure device fabrics with optical and catalytic properties, and allow the realization of a new class of nano-heterostructure devices. [source]

    Fabrication of Luminescent CdS Nanoparticles on Short-Peptide-Based Hydrogel Nanofibers: Tuning of Optoelectronic Properties

    Goutam Palui
    Abstract The pH-induced self-assembly of three synthetic tripeptides in water medium is used to immobilize luminescent CdS nanoparticles. These peptides form a nanofibrillar network structure upon gelation in aqueous medium at basic pH values (pH,11.0,13.0), and the fabrication of CdS nanoparticles on the gel nanofiber confers the luminescent property to these gels. Atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy clearly reveal the presence of CdS nanoparticles in a well-defined array on the gel nanofibers. This is a convenient way to make organic nanofiber,inorganic nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposite systems. The size of the CdS nanoparticles remains almost same before and after deposition on the gel nanofiber. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement of the CdS nanoparticles upon deposition on the gel nanofibers shows a significant blue shift in the emission spectrum of the nanoparticles, and there is a considerable change in the PL gap energy of the CdS nanoparticles after immobilization on different gel nanofibrils. This finding suggests that the optoelectronic properties of CdS nanoparticles can be tuned upon deposition on gel nanofibers without changing the size of the nanoparticles. [source]

    Pt immobilization on TiO2 -embedded carbon nanofibers using photodeposition

    S. Kim
    Abstract Currently, the use of fuel cell electrodes containing Pt catalysts has been limited due to technological problems in this system, primarily the system's high cost. The improvement of Pt catalyst use has been achieved by changes in the Pt immobilization method. In this study, we have studied Pt immobilization on carbon nanofiber composites using the photodeposition method. First, we prepared the carbon nanofibers, which were homogeneously embedded TiO2 using the electrospinning technology. These TiO2 -embedded carbon nanofiber composites (TiO2/CNFs) were then immersed in a Pt precursor solution and irradiated with UV light. The obtained Pt-deposited TiO2/CNFs contained Pt that was immobilized on the carbon nanofibers, and the Pt particle size was 2-5 nm. The XPS spectra showed that the amount of Pt increased with an increasing UV irradiation time. The current densities and total charge also increased with an increase in the UV irradiation time, possibly due to an increase of active specific area by finely dispersed Pt nanoparticles. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanofibers by electrospinning

    R. Siddheswaran
    Abstract Electrospun ZnO nanofibers were obtained by calcinating PVA/Zinc Acetate composite fibers at various temperatures. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed that the ZnO fibers have diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The fibers were characterized by FT- IR, TGA-DTA, and XRD studies. The XRD results showed that the crystal structure and the morphology of the fibers were largely dependent on the calcination temperature (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Accelerated neuritogenesis and maturation of primary spinal motor neurons in response to nanofibers

    Caitlyn C. Gertz
    Abstract Neuritogenesis, neuronal polarity formation, and maturation of axons and dendrites are strongly influenced by both biochemical and topographical extracellular components. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of polylactic acid electrospun fiber topography on primary motor neuron development, because regeneration of motor axons is extremely limited in the central nervous system and could potentially benefit from the implementation of a synthetic scaffold to encourage regrowth. In this analysis, we found that both aligned and randomly oriented submicron fibers significantly accelerated the processes of neuritogenesis and polarity formation of individual cultured motor neurons compared to flat polymer films and glass controls, likely due to restricted lamellipodia formation observed on fibers. In contrast, dendritic maturation and soma spreading were inhibited on fiber substrates after 2 days in vitro. This study is the first to examine the effects of electrospun fiber topography on motor neuron neuritogenesis and polarity formation. Aligned nanofibers were shown to affect the directionality and timing of motor neuron development, providing further evidence for the effective use of electrospun scaffolds in neural regeneration applications. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 589,603, 2010 [source]

    Voltammetric Antioxidant Analysis in Mineral Oil Samples Immobilized into Boron-Doped Diamond Micropore Array Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2009
    Xiaohang Zhang
    Abstract Mineral oil microdroplets containing the model antioxidant N,N -didodecyl- N,,N, -diethyl-phenylene-diamine (DDPD) are immobilized into a 100×100 pore-array (ca. 10,,m individual pore diameter, 100,,m pitch) in a boron-doped diamond electrode surface. The robust diamond surface allows pore filling, cleaning, and reuse without damage to the electrode surface. The electrode is immersed into aqueous electrolyte media, and voltammetric responses for the oxidation of DDPD are obtained. In order to further improve the current responses, 20,wt% of carbon nanofibers are co-deposited with the oil into the pore array. Voltammetric signals are consistent with the oxidation of DDPD and the associated transfer of perchlorate anions (in aqueous 0.1,M NaClO4) or the transfer of protons (in aqueous 0.1,M HClO4). From the magnitude of the current response, the DDPD content in the mineral oil can be determined down to less than 1,wt% levels. Perhaps surprisingly, the reversible (or midpoint) potential for the DDPD oxidation in mineral oil (when immersed in 0.1 NaClO4) is shown to be concentration-dependent and to shift to more positive potential values for more dilute DDPD in mineral oil solutions. An extraction mechanism and the formation of a separate organic product phase are proposed to explain this behavior. [source]