NMRI Mice (nmri + mouse)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Postnatal stress in mice: Does "stressing" the mother have the same effect as "stressing" the pups?

A. Moles
Abstract Short- and long-term effects of brief maternal separation, maternal exposure to novel male odor, and standard rearing were compared in NMRI mice. The first condition consisted of 15 min of daily exposure of pups to clean bedding (CB), and the second condition consisted of 15 min of mothers' exposure to the odor of strange males (SM), for 14 days after birth starting from postnatal Day 1. Thus, both conditions entailed the same period of maternal separation. A control mother,offspring group was left undisturbed (nonhandled, N-H). Corticosterone levels of mothers and pups were measured at the end of the last manipulation session. Corticosterone levels were higher in SM mothers, differing from both those of CB and of control dams; CB pups showed the highest corticosterone levels in comparison with the pups belonging to the other groups. Maternal behavior observed as furthest as possible from the daily separation session did not differ among the three groups. The behavioral response to 0.5 mg/kg of apomorphine in 15-day-old pups was enhanced in both CB and SM animals, which suggests an alteration of dopaminergic functioning. Finally, adult CB and SM male mice showed an increase in the percentage of time and entries into the open arms of the plus-maze in comparison to nonhandled males. This study indicates that exposure to ecologically relevant stimuli elicited a stress response in lactating dams. This "social stress" brings about short- and long-term effects in the offspring, even in the absence of any direct manipulation of the pups. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 44: 230,237, 2004. [source]

Critical analysis of potential body temperature confounders on neurochemical endpoints caused by direct dosing and maternal separation in neonatal mice: a study of bioallethrin and deltamethrin interactions with temperature on brain muscarinic receptors

Jürgen Pauluhn
Abstract The present investigation was conducted to understand better possible confounding factors caused by direct dosing of neonatal mice during the pre-weaning developmental period. By direct dosing, pups might encounter thermal challenges when temporarily removed from their ,natural habitat'. Typically, this leads to a cold environment and food deprivation (impaired lactation) and modulation of the toxic potency of the substance administered. Growth retardation as a consequence of such behavioural changes in pups makes it increasingly difficult to differentiate specific from non-specific mechanisms. Neonatal NMRI mice were dosed daily by gavage (0.7 mg kg,1 body wt.) from postnatal day (PND) 10,16 with S -bioallethrin, deltamethrin or the vehicle. Then the pups, including their non-treated foster dams, were subjected temporarily for 6 h day to a hypo-, normo- or hyperthermic environment, which was followed by normal housing. The measured temperatures in the environmental chambers were ca. 21, 25 and 30°C, respectively. Thus, temperatures in the hypo- and normothermic groups are comparable to the temperatures commonly present in testing laboratories, whereas the hyperthermic condition is that temperature typically present in the ,natural habitat' of pups. A deviation from the normal behaviour of both pups and dams was observed in the hypo- and normothermic groups. In these groups the rectal temperatures of pups were markedly decreased, especially in the early phase of the study (PND 10,12). Neonates that received either test substance displayed changes in body weights and brain weights at terminal sacrifice (PND 17) when subjected temporarily to a non-physiological environment. An enormous influence of environmental temperature on the density of muscarinic receptors in the crude synaptosomal fraction of the cerebral cortex was ascertained. In summary, these results demonstrate that the direct dosing of thermolabile neonatal mice by gavage is subject to significant artefacts that render the interpretation of findings from such studies difficult. It appears that if direct dosing of neonatal pups is mandated, and inhalation is a relevant route of exposure, the combined inhalation exposure of dams with their litters is an alternative procedure that does not cause disruption of the ,natural habitat' of pups. However, owing to their higher ventilation, under such conditions the pups may receive dosages at least double those of the dams. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a 99mTc-labeled hypericin derivative as a necrosis avid imaging agent

Humphrey Fonge
Abstract Mono-[123I]iodohypericin and mono-[123I]iodohypericin monocarboxylic acid are iodine-123-labeled hypericin derivatives which have shown great promise in preclinical studies as necrosis avid imaging agents in animal models of infarction. In view of the more attractive properties of a 99mTc-labeled hypericin derivative, we have synthesized a conjugate of protohypericin monocarboxylic acid with S -benzoylmercaptoacetyldiglycyl-diaminopentane in an overall yield of 15%. The conjugate was labeled with technetium-99m by exchange labeling at pH 10 in a labeling yield of 95% followed by photocyclization to yield 99mTc-mercaptoacetyldiglycyl-1,5-diaminopentylene hypericincarboxamide (99mTc-13). The negatively charged 99mTc-13 complex was purified by reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and the log,P7.4 was determined to be 2.36. In normal NMRI mice, the complex showed slow hepatobiliary clearance while plasma clearance was rapid. The tracer was evaluated in rats with reperfused hepatic infarction by ex vivo autoradiography, gamma counting and histochemical techniques. Unlike the radioiodinated hypericin derivatives, the new tracer agent did not show preferential uptake in necrotic tissue on autoradiography and gamma counting techniques. Conjugation of hypericin with a 99mTc-chelate, resulting in a change in size, charge and lipophilicity, had a profound effect on the necrosis avidity of the tracer agent. The results show that 99mTc-13 is not suitable for imaging necrosis. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Endogenous and exogenous ghrelin enhance the colonic and gastric manifestations of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in mice

B. De Smet
Abstract, Ghrelin is an important orexigenic peptide that not only exerts gastroprokinetic but also immunoregulatory effects. This study aimed to assess the role of endogenous and exogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of colitis and in the disturbances of gastric emptying and colonic contractility during this process. Dextran sodium sulphate colitis was induced for 5 days in (i) ghrelin+/+ and ghrelin,/, mice and clinical and histological parameters were monitored at days 5, 10 and 26 and (ii) in Naval Medical Research Institute non-inbred Swiss (NMRI) mice treated with ghrelin (100 nmol kg,1) twice daily for 5 or 10 days. Neural contractility changes were measured in colonic smooth muscle strips, whereas gastric emptying was measured with the 14C octanoic acid breath test. Inflammation increased ghrelin plasma levels. Body weight loss, histological damage, myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1, levels were attenuated in ghrelin,/, mice. Whereas absence of ghrelin did not affect changes in colonic contractility, gastric emptying in the acute phase was accelerated in ghrelin+/+ but not in ghrelin,/, mice. In agreement with the studies in ghrelin knockout mice, 10 days treatment of NMRI mice with exogenous ghrelin enhanced the clinical disease activity and promoted infiltration of neutrophils and colonic IL-1, levels. Unexpectedly, ghrelin treatment decreased excitatory and inhibitory neural responses in the colon of healthy but not of inflamed NMRI mice. Endogenous ghrelin enhances the course of the inflammatory process and is involved in the disturbances of gastric emptying associated with colitis. Treatment with exogenous ghrelin aggravates colitis, thereby limiting the potential therapeutic properties of ghrelin during intestinal inflammation. [source]

Interpolated twitches in fatiguing single mouse muscle fibres: implications for the assessment of central fatigue

Nicolas Place
An electrically evoked twitch during a maximal voluntary contraction (twitch interpolation) is frequently used to assess central fatigue. In this study we used intact single muscle fibres to determine if intramuscular mechanisms could affect the force increase with the twitch interpolation technique. Intact single fibres from flexor digitorum brevis of NMRI mice were dissected and mounted in a chamber equipped with a force transducer. Free myoplasmic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator indo-1. Seven fibres were fatigued with repeated 70 Hz tetani until 40% initial force with an interpolated pulse evoked every fifth tetanus. Results showed that the force generated by the interpolated twitch increased throughout fatigue, being 9 ± 1% of tetanic force at the start and 19 ± 1% at the end (P < 0.001). This was not due to a larger increase in [Ca2+]i induced by the interpolated twitch during fatigue but rather to the fact that the force,[Ca2+]i relationship is sigmoidal and fibres entered a steeper part of the relationship during fatigue. In another set of experiments, we observed that repeated tetani evoked at 150 Hz resulted in more rapid fatigue development than at 70 Hz and there was a decrease in force (,sag') during contractions, which was not observed at 70 Hz. In conclusion, the extent of central fatigue is difficult to assess and it may be overestimated when using the twitch interpolation technique. [source]

Tetramethylcyclopropyl analogue of the leading antiepileptic drug, valproic acid: Evaluation of the teratogenic effects of its amide derivatives in NMRI mice,

Akinobu Okada
Abstract BACKGROUND: Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsy, it causes hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity. In an attempt to develop a more potent and safer second generation to VPA drug, the amide derivatives of the tetramethylcyclopropyl VPA analogue, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (TMCD), N -methyl-TMCD (MTMCD), 4-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide)-benzenesulfonamide (TMCD-benzenesulfonamide), and 5-(TMCD)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (TMCD-thiadiazolesulfonamide) were synthesized and shown to have more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA. Teratogenic effects of these CNS-active compounds were evaluated in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice susceptible to VPA-induced teratogenicity by comparing them to those of VPA. METHODS: Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single sc injection of either VPA or TMC-amide derivatives on gestation day 8.5, and then the live fetuses were examined to detect any external malformations on gestation day 18. After double-staining for bone and cartilage, their skeletons were examined. RESULTS: In contrast to VPA, which induced NTDs in a high number of fetuses at 2.4,4.8 mmol/kg, TMCD, TMCD-benzenesulfonamide, and TMCD-thiadiazolesulfonamide at 4.8 mmol/kg and MTMCD at 3.6 mmol/kg did not induce a significant number of NTDs. TMCD-thiadiazolesulfonamide exhibited a potential to induce limb defects in fetuses. Skeletal examination also revealed that fetuses exposed to all four of the tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide derivatives developed vertebral and rib abnormalities less frequently than those exposed to VPA. Our results established that TMCD, MTMCD, and TMCD-benzenesulfonamide are distinctly less teratogenic than VPA in NMRI mice. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS-active amides containing a tetramethylcyclopropanecarbonyl moiety demonstrated better anticonvulsant potency compared to VPA and a lack of teratogenicity, which makes these compounds good second-generation VPA antiepileptic drug candidates. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]