NMR Titration (nmr + titration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by NMR Titration

  • nmr titration experiment

  • Selected Abstracts

    Specific Ca2+ Fluorescent Sensor: Signaling by Conformationally Induced PET Suppression in a Bichromophoric Acridinedione

    Pichandi Ashokkumar
    Abstract A series of acridinedione-based bichromophoric podand systems 1a,c were synthesized and characterized. Among these, bichromophore 1c shows specific binding of Ca2+ in the presence of other biologically important metal ions like Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. The selective complexation was proved by steady-state emission, time-resolved emission, and 1H NMR titration. Signaling of the binding event was achieved by Ca2+ -induced folding of the bichromophore, resulting in PET suppression in the acridinedione chromophore. Involvement of a PET process in the optical signaling was confirmed by comparing bichromophores 1a,c with non-PET compound 2 and monochromophore model compound 3. Non-PET compound 2 failed to give optical response upon Ca2+ binding as a result of the absence of a PET process in the Ca2+ -bound complex. Monochromophore 3 shows a similar optical response, which is the same as that in 1c. Titration of the metal-ion-bound complex of 1c with EDTA released the metal ion from the complex, thereby regaining the original photophysical properties of the bichromophore.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Comparison of monofunctional and multifunctional monomers in phosphate binding molecularly imprinted polymers

    Xiangyang Wu
    Abstract In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared using a multifunctional and a monofunctional monomer were compared with respect to their affinities, selectivities, and imprinting efficiencies for organophosphates. This is of interest because multifunctional monomers have higher affinities than traditional monofunctional monomers for their target analytes and thus should yield MIPs with higher affinities and selectivities. However, polymers containing multifunctional monomer may also have a higher number of unselective, non-templated binding sites. This increase in background binding sites could lead to a decrease in the magnitude of the imprinting effect and in the selectivity of the MIP. Therefore, phosphate selective imprinted and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were prepared using a novel multifunctional triurea monomer. The binding properties of these polymers were compared with polymers prepared using a monofunctional monourea monomer. The binding affinities and selectivities of the monomers, imprinted polymers, and NIPs were characterized by NMR titration, binding uptake studies, and binding isotherms. MIPs prepared with the triurea monomer showed higher binding affinity and selectivity for the diphenylphosphate anion in organic solvents than the MIPs prepared with the monofunctional monomer. Surprisingly, the binding properties of the NIPs revealed that the polymers prepared using the multifunctional and monofunctional monomers were very similar in affinity and selectivity. Thus, the multifunctional monomers increase not only the affinity of the MIP but also enhance the imprinting effect. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Studies on inclusion complexes of calix[4]arenes capped by diamide bridges with small organic molecules,

    Barbara Balázs
    Abstract The inclusion of small neutral organic guests (acetonitrile, toluene, pyrazine, butylamine, nitromethane) by cyclic calix[4]arene diamide receptors was studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The binding constants determined by 1H NMR titration, and the results obtained by T1 relaxation measurements and DOSY confirm the importance of the acidity of the CH bond of the guests and highlight the role of steric interactions including conformational properties of the receptors in the recognition process. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    NMR structure of the enzyme GatB of the galactitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system and its interaction with GatA

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 10 2006
    Laurent Volpon
    Abstract The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate transport system (PTS) couples uptake with phosphorylation of a variety of carbohydrates in prokaryotes. In this multienzyme complex, the enzyme II (EII), a carbohydrate-specific permease, is constituted of two cytoplasmic domains, IIA and IIB, and a transmembrane channel IIC domain. Among the five families of EIIs identified in Escherichia coli, the galactitol-specific transporter (IIgat) belongs to the glucitol family and is structurally the least well-characterized. Here, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to solve the three-dimensional structure of the IIB subunit (GatB). GatB consists of a central four-stranded parallel ,-sheet flanked by ,-helices on both sides; the active site cysteine of GatB is located at the beginning of an unstructured loop between ,1 and ,1 that folds into a P-loop-like structure. This structural arrangement shows similarities with other IIB subunits but also with mammalian low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW PTPase) and arsenate reductase (ArsC). An NMR titration was performed to identify the GatA-interacting residues. [source]

    3-Hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-Trisphosphate, a Novel Second Messenger Mimic and unusual Substrate for Type-I myo -Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 5-Phosphatase: Synthesis and Physicochemistry

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 11 2006
    Stephen J. Mills Dr.
    Abstract 3-Hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 4 is a new myo -inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate analogue based on the core structure of benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 2 with an additional hydroxyl group at position-3, and is the first noninositol based compound to be a substrate for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase. In physicochemical studies on 2, when three equivalents of protons were added, the 31P NMR spectrum displayed monophasic behaviour in which phosphate-1 and phosphate-2 behaved independently in most of the studied pH range. For compound 4, phosphate-2 and phosphate-4 interacted with the 3-OH group, which does not titrate at physiological pH, displaying complex biphasic behaviour which demonstrated co-operativity between these groups. Phosphate-1 and phosphate-2 strongly interacted with each other and phosphate-4 experienced repulsion because of the interaction of the 3-OH group. Benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 2 is resistant to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type I 5-phosphatase catalysed dephosphorylation. However, surprisingly, 3-hydroxybenzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 4 was dephosphorylated by this 5-phosphatase to give the symmetrical 2,3-dihydroxybenzene 1,4-bisphosphate 16. The extra hydroxyl group is shown to form a hydrogen bond with the vicinal phosphate groups at ,15,°C, and 1H NMR titration of the ring and hydroxyl protons in 4 shows the OH proton to be strongly stabilized as soon as the phosphate groups are deprotonated. The effect of the phenolic 3-OH group in compound 4 confirms a critical role for the 6-OH group of the natural messenger in the dephosphorylation mechanism that persists even in radically modified analogues. [source]

    Bisamides Derived from Azulene-1,3- and -5,7-dicarboxylic Acids as New Building Blocks for Anion Receptors

    Tomasz Zieli, ski Dr.
    Abstract Bisamides based on the azulene moiety were investigated as building blocks for anion receptors. In the course of these studies, derivatives of azulene-1,3- and -5,7-dicarboxylic acid were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The anion affinities of the derivatives based on functionalization in the five-membered ring and in the seven-membered ring were determined by 1H,NMR titration. The structural analysis of these building blocks was performed by X-ray diffractometry, molecular modelling and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The five-membered ring derivatives are easy to obtain, offer a binding site preorganized in the syn,syn conformation and bind anions with a strength similar to those of pyrrole-based analogues. There is also strong evidence for aromatic CH,,,anion interactions. The ligands substituted at the 5- and 7-positions offer a binding cleft with an uncommon geometry that originates from the seven-membered ring and seems to be complementary to the chloride anion. [source]

    Novel Enantioselective Receptors for N-Protected Glutamate and Aspartate

    Andrea Ragusa
    Abstract A series of chiral bisthiourea macrocycles 1,4 have been prepared and their binding properties with various dicarboxylate salts have been examined by using NMR titration and isothermal calorimetry experiments. Macrocycle 1, in particular, favours the 1:1 binding of N-protected L -glutamate and aspartate, but favours 1:2 binding of the corresponding D -amino acids in polar solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide and acetonitrile). The macrocycles, however, do not bind carboxylates at all in the less competitive solvent chloroform. The binding properties of these macrocyles are sensitive to small structural changes as demonstrated by the altered binding properties of macrocycles 2,4 compared with 1. [source]

    Dendrimers as Ligands: An Investigation into the Stability and Kinetics of Zn2+ Complexation by Dendrimers with 1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane (Cyclam) Cores

    Christophe Saudan Dr.
    Abstract We have investigated the complexation of Zn2+ with 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(naphthylmethyl) cyclam (1; cyclam=1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) and with two dendrimers consisting of a cyclam core with four dimethoxybenzene and eight naphthyl appendages (2), and twelve dimethoxybenzene and sixteen naphthyl appendages (3). An important, common feature of model compound 1 and dendrimers 2 and 3 is that their potentially fluorescent naphthyl units are quenched by exciplex formation with the cyclam nitrogen atoms. Complexation with Zn2+, however, prevents exciplex formation and results in the appearance of an intense naphthyl fluorescence signal that can be used for monitoring the complexation process. Luminescence titration, together with competition experiments and 1H NMR titration, have shown that 1:1 and 1:2 (metal/ligand) complexes are formed in the cases of 2 and 3, whereas model compound 1 gives only a 1:1 complex. We have also investigated the 1:1 complexation kinetics by the stopped-flow technique. In the case of 1, a second-order process (k1=44×105,M,1,s,1) is followed by two consecutive first-order steps (k2=0.53 s,1 and k3=0.10 s,1). For 2, a slower second-order process (k1=4.9×105,M,1,s,1) is followed by a slow first-order step (k2=0.40 s,1). In the case of 3, only a very slow second-order process was observed (k1=1.2×105,M,1,s,1). The different metal,ion incorporation rates for model compound 1 and dendrimers 2 and 3 have been discussed in terms of conformational changes of the dendron subunits affecting the chelating properties of the cyclam core. This work reports the first kinetic study on metal,ion coordination by dendrimers with a well-defined coordination site. [source]

    Calix[4] crowns with Methoxynaphthoylmethyl Pendant Groups

    Chuan-Min Jin
    Abstract The novel calix [4] crowns with two pendant groups were prepared by the alkylation of calix [4] crowns with 6-methoxy-2-bromoacetylnaphthalene. 1H NMR titration and picrate extraction experiments indicated that they exhibit higher complexing efficiency than their parent compounds and possess obvious selectivity for Na+ or K+, respectively, and that the cation is encapsulated inside the preorganized ionophoric cavity defined by carbonyl oxygens, the crown ether and the phenoxy oxygens. From UV and fluorescent spectra it is revealed that calix [4]-crown-4 3a with 6-methoxy-2-naphthoylmethyl pedant groups exhibits remarkable cation-induced photophysical effects and it could be utilized as a selective fluorescent sensor for Ca2+. [source]

    Sequence-Selective Peptide Recognition with Designed Modules

    Mark Wehner
    Abstract A concept for the rational design of sequence-selective peptide receptors has been extended: in addition to recognition modules for polar, aromatic and basic amino acids, the series has now been completed with new receptor units for apolar and acidic amino acids. The underlying strategy uses the intermolecular ,-sheet stabilization of a dipeptide as a prerequisite to bind its N-terminal amino acid side chain through a strategically placed recognition tip at the end of a U-turn protruding from the receptor moiety. Thus, a diaminopyrazole has been covalently attached to Kemp's triacid by way of a cyclic imide, while a meta -substituted aniline was coupled as an amide to the pendant third carboxylate arm, bringing the two aromatic units into a sub-van der Waals distance in a tight conformational lock. NMR titrations, Karplus analyses and Monte-Carlo simulations demonstrate the effective sequence-selective recognition of alanine-containing dipeptides. No example of such a rationally designed set of peptide receptors had existed previously. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Solution structure of the bb, domains of human protein disulfide isomerase

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Alexey Y. Denisov
    Protein disulfide isomerase is the most abundant and best studied of the disulfide isomerases that catalyze disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum, yet the specifics of how it binds substrate have been elusive. Protein disulfide isomerase is composed of four thioredoxin-like domains (abb,a,). Cross-linking studies with radiolabeled peptides and unfolded proteins have shown that it binds incompletely folded proteins primarily via its third domain, b,. Here, we determined the solution structure of the second and third domains of human protein disulfide isomerase (b and b,, respectively) by triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. NMR titrations identified a large hydrophobic surface within the b, domain that binds unfolded ribonuclease A and the peptides mastoparan and somatostatin. Protein disulfide isomerase-catalyzed refolding of reduced ribonuclease A in vitro was inhibited by these peptides at concentrations equal to their affinity to the bb, fragment. Our findings provide a structural basis for previous kinetic and cross-linking studies which have shown that protein disulfide isomerase exhibits a saturable, substrate-binding site. [source]

    High resolution structure of the HDGF PWWP domain: A potential DNA binding domain

    PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
    Stephen M. Lukasik
    Abstract Hepatoma Derived Growth Factor (HDGF) is an endogenous nuclear-targeted mitogen that is linked with human disease. HDGF is a member of the weakly conserved PWWP domain family. This 70,amino acid motif, originally identified from the WHSC1 gene, has been found in more than 60 eukaryotic proteins. In addition to the PWWP domain, many proteins in this class contain known chromatin remodeling domains, suggesting a role for HDGF in chromatin remodeling. We have determined the NMR structure of the HDGF PWWP domain to high resolution using a combination of NOEs, J-couplings, and dipolar couplings. Comparison of this structure to a previously determined structure of the HDGF PWWP domain shows a significant difference in the C-terminal region. Comparison to structures of other PWWP domains shows a high degree of similarity to the PWWP domain structures from Dnmt3b and mHRP. The results of selected and amplified binding assay and NMR titrations with DNA suggest that the HDGF PWWP domain may function as a nonspecific DNA-binding domain. Based on the NMR titrations, we propose a model of the interaction of the PWWP domain with DNA. [source]

    Anion Recognition by Neutral Macrocyclic Amides

    J. Chmielewski Dr., Micha
    Abstract Although amides often serve as anchoring groups in natural and synthetic anion receptors, the structure,affinity relationship studies of amide-based macrocyclic receptors are still very limited. Therefore, we decided to investigate the influence of the size of the macroring on the strength and selectivity of anion binding by uncharged, amide-based receptors. With this aim, we synthesized a series of macrocyclic tetraamides derived from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and aliphatic ,,,-diamines of different lengths. X-ray analysis shows that all ligands studied adopt expanded conformations in the solid state with the convergent arrangement of all four hydrogen-bond donors. 1H NMR titrations in DMSO solution revealed a significant effect of the ring size on the stability constants of anion complexes; the 20-membered macrocyclic tetraamide 2 is a better anion receptor than its both 18- and 24-membered analogues. This effect cannot be interpreted exclusively in terms of matching between anion diameter and the size of macrocyclic cavity, because 2 forms the most stable complexes with all anions studied, irrespective of their sizes. However, geometric complementarity manifests in extraordinarily high affinity of 2 towards the chloride anion. The results obtained for solutions were interpreted in the light of solid-state structural studies. Taken together, these data suggest that anion binding by this family of macrocycles is governed by competitive interplay between their ability to adjust to a guest, requiring longer aliphatic spacers, and preorganization, calling for shorter spacers. The 20-membered receptor 2 is a good compromise between these factors and, therefore, it was selected as a promising leading structure for further development of anion receptors. Furthermore, the study of an open chain analogue of 2 revealed a substantial macrocyclic effect. X-ray structure of the acyclic model 14 suggests that this may be due to its ill-preorganized conformation, stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. [source]