N Uptake (n + uptake)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Effects of 15N Split-application on Soil and Fertiliser N Uptake of Barley, Oilseed Rape and Wheat in Different Cropping Systems

K. Sieling
Abstract In intensive farming systems, farmers split up and apply the N fertilization to winter cereals and oilseed rape (OSR) at several dates to meet the need of the crop more precisely. Our objective was to determine how prior fertilizer N application as slurry and/or mineral N affects contributions of fertilizer- and soil-derived N to N uptake of barley (1997), oilseed rape (OSR; 1998) and wheat (1999). In addition, residual fertilizer N effects were observed in the subsequent crop. Since autumn 1991, slurry (none, slurry in autumn, in spring, in autumn plus in spring) and mineral N fertilizer (0, 12 and 24 g N m,2) were applied annually. Each year, the treatments were located on the same plots. In 1997,1999, the splitting rates of the mineral N fertilization were labelled with 15N. Non-fertilizer N uptake was estimated from the total N uptake and the fertilizer 15N uptake. All three crops utilized the splitting rates differently depending on the time of application. Uptake of N derived from the first N rate applied at the beginning of spring growth was poorer than that from the second splitting rate applied at stem elongation (cereals) or third splitting rate applied at ear emergence or bud formation (all three crops). In contrast, N applied later in the growing season was taken up more quickly, resulting in higher fertilizer N-use efficiency. Mineral N fertilization of 24 g N m,2 increased significantly non-fertilizer N uptake of barley and OSR at most of the sampling dates during the growing season. In cereals, slurry changed the contribution of non-fertilizer N to the grain N content only if applied in spring, while OSR utilized more autumn slurry N. In OSR and wheat, only small residual effects occurred. The results indicate that 7 years of varying N fertilization did not change the contribution of soil N to crop N uptake. [source]

Regionalisation of chemical variability in European mountain lakes

Summary 1. We carried out a coordinated survey of mountain lakes covering the main ranges across Europe (including Greenland), sampling 379 lakes above the local tree line in 2000. The objectives were to identify the main sources of chemical variability in mountain lakes, define a chemical classification of lakes, and develop tools to extrapolate our results to regional lake populations through an empirical regionalisation or upscaling of chemical properties. 2. We investigated the main causes of chemical variability using factor analysis (FA) and empirical relationships between chemistry and several environmental variables. Weathering, sea salt inputs, atmospheric deposition of N and S, and biological activity in soils of the catchment were identified as the major drivers of lake chemistry. 3. We tested discriminant analysis (DA) to predict the lake chemistry. It was possible to use the lithology of the catchments to predict the range of Ca2+ and SO42, into which a lake of unknown chemistry will decrease. Lakes with lower SO42, concentrations have little geologically derived S, and better reflect the variations in atmospheric S loading. The influence of marine aerosols on lakewater chemistry could also be predicted from the minimum distance to the sea and altitude of the lakes. 4. The most remarkable result of FA was to reveal a factor correlated to DOC (positively) and NO3, (negatively). This inverse relationship might be the result either of independent processes active in the catchment soils and acting in an opposite sense, or a direct interaction, e.g. limitation of denitrification by DOC availability. Such a relationship has been reported in the recent literature in many sites and at all scales, appearing to be a global pattern that could reflect the link between the C and N cycles. 5. The concentration of NO3, is determined by both atmospheric N deposition and the processing capacity of the catchments (i.e. N uptake by plants and soil microbes). The fraction of the variability in NO3, because of atmospheric deposition is captured by an independent factor in the FA. This is the only factor showing a clear pattern when mapped over Europe, indicating lower N deposition in the northernmost areas. 6. A classification has been derived which takes into account all the major chemical features of the mountain lakes in Europe. FA provided the criteria to establish the most important factors influencing lake water chemistry, define classes within them, and classify the surveyed lakes into each class. DA can be used as a tool to scale up the classification to unsurveyed lakes, regarding sensitivity to acidification, marine influence and sources of S. [source]

Nitrogen utilization by Hylocomium splendens in a boreal forest fertilization experiment

Summary 1Nitrogen uptake in the terricolous bryophyte Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. was studied in a boreal forest long-term N-treatment experiment including control plots, N-addition plots (50 kg N ha,1 year,1 for 8 years) and recovery plots (50 kg N ha,1 year,1 for 5 years and thereafter no N addition for 3 years). 2A main objective was to explore whether the N treatments changed bryophyte uptake of different inorganic and organic N forms. In addition, we estimated the contribution of N from throughfall precipitation to the bryophyte N supply. 3The results demonstrated that bryophyte N uptake was similar in all the long-term N-treatment plots. Hylocomium splendens took up more 15N labelled than or glycine when these N forms were applied in situ by the spraying of solutions with N concentrations similar to those in precipitation. 4Analysis of the precipitation collected beneath the closed tree canopy from late May to early October revealed that it contributed 2·0 kg N ha,1 during the period studied, distributed between (78%), amino acid N (17%) and (5%). 5The study highlights that, in addition to analyses of and (normally included in standard environmental monitoring of precipitation), analysis of amino acid N must be performed to account fully for the precipitation N input to bryophytes in boreal forest ecosystems. [source]

Plant nitrogen acquisition and interactions under elevated carbon dioxide: impact of endophytes and mycorrhizae

Abstract Both endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi interact with plants to form symbiosis in which the fungal partners rely on, and sometimes compete for, carbon (C) sources from their hosts. Changes in photosynthesis in host plants caused by atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment may, therefore, influence those mutualistic interactions, potentially modifying plant nutrient acquisition and interactions with other coexisting plant species. However, few studies have so far examined the interactive controls of endophytes and mycorrhizae over plant responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Using Festuca arundinacea Schreb and Plantago lanceolata L. as model plants, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 on mycorrhizae and endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) and plant nitrogen (N) acquisition in two microcosm experiments, and determined whether and how mycorrhizae and endophytes mediate interactions between their host plant species. Endophyte-free and endophyte-infected F. arundinacea varieties, P. lanceolata L., and their combination with or without mycorrhizal inocula were grown under ambient (400 ,mol mol,1) and elevated CO2 (ambient + 330 ,mol mol,1). A 15N isotope tracer was used to quantify the mycorrhiza-mediated plant acquisition of N from soil. Elevated CO2 stimulated the growth of P. lanceolata greater than F. arundinacea, increasing the shoot biomass ratio of P. lanceolata to F. arundinacea in all the mixtures. Elevated CO2 also increased mycorrhizal root colonization of P. lanceolata, but had no impact on that of F. arundinacea. Mycorrhizae increased the shoot biomass ratio of P. lanceolata to F. arundinacea under elevated CO2. In the absence of endophytes, both elevated CO2 and mycorrhizae enhanced 15N and total N uptake of P. lanceolata but had either no or even negative effects on N acquisition of F. arundinacea, altering N distribution between these two species in the mixture. The presence of endophytes in F. arundinacea, however, reduced the CO2 effect on N acquisition in P. lanceolata, although it did not affect growth responses of their host plants to elevated CO2. These results suggest that mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes might interactively affect the responses of their host plants and their coexisting species to elevated CO2. [source]

Initial cultivation of a temperate-region soil immediately accelerates aggregate turnover and CO2 and N2O fluxes

Abstract The immediate effects of tillage on protected soil C and N pools and on trace gas emissions from soils at precultivation levels of native C remain largely unknown. We measured the response to cultivation of CO2 and N2O emissions and associated environmental factors in a previously uncultivated U.S. Midwest Alfisol with C concentrations that were indistinguishable from those in adjacent late successional forests on the same soil type (3.2%). Within 2 days of initial cultivation in 2002, tillage significantly (P=0.001, n=4) increased CO2 fluxes from 91 to 196 mg CO2 -C m,2 h,1 and within the first 30 days higher fluxes because of cultivation were responsible for losses of 85 g CO2 -C m,2. Additional daily C losses were sustained during a second and third year of cultivation of the same plots at rates of 1.9 and 1.0 g C m,2 day,1, respectively. Associated with the CO2 responses were increased soil temperature, substantially reduced soil aggregate size (mean weight diameter decreased 35% within 60 days), and a reduction in the proportion of intraaggregate, physically protected light fraction organic matter. Nitrous oxide fluxes in cultivated plots increased 7.7-fold in 2002, 3.1-fold in 2003, and 6.7-fold in 2004 and were associated with increased soil NO3, concentrations, which approached 15 ,g N g,1. Decreased plant N uptake immediately after tillage, plus increased mineralization rates and fivefold greater nitrifier enzyme activity, likely contributed to increased NO3, concentrations. Our results demonstrate that initial cultivation of a soil at precultivation levels of native soil C immediately destabilizes physical and microbial processes related to C and N retention in soils and accelerates trace gas fluxes. Policies designed to promote long-term C sequestration may thus need to protect soils from even occasional cultivation in order to preserve sequestered C. [source]

Seasonal changes in the effects of elevated CO2 on rice at three levels of nitrogen supply: a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment

Abstract Over time, the stimulative effect of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis of rice crops is likely to be reduced with increasing duration of CO2 exposure, but the resultant effects on crop productivity remain unclear. To investigate seasonal changes in the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) crops, a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted at Shizukuishi, Iwate, Japan in 1998,2000. The target CO2 concentration of the FACE plots was 200 µmol mol,1 above that of ambient. Three levels of nitrogen (N) were supplied: low (LN, 4 g N m,2), medium [MN, 8 (1998) and 9 (1999, 2000) g N m,2] and high N (HN, 12 and 15 g N m,2). For MN and HN but not for LN, elevated CO2 increased tiller number at panicle initiation (PI) but this positive response decreased with crop development. As a result, the response of green leaf area index (GLAI) to elevated CO2 greatly varied with development, showing positive responses during vegetative stages and negative responses after PI. Elevated CO2 decreased leaf N concentration over the season, except during early stage of development. For MN crops, total biomass increased with elevated CO2, but the response declined linearly with development, with average increases of 32, 28, 21, 15 and 12% at tillering, PI, anthesis, mid-ripening and grain maturity, respectively. This decline is likely to be due to decreases in the positive effects of elevated CO2 on canopy photosynthesis because of reductions in both GLAI and leaf N. Up to PI, LN-crops tended to have a lower response to elevated CO2 than MN- and HN-crops, though by final harvest the total biomass response was similar for all N levels. For MN- and HN-crops, the positive response of grain yield (ca. 15%) to elevated CO2 was slightly greater than the response of final total biomass while for LN-crops it was less. We conclude that most of the seasonal changes in crop response to elevated CO2 are directly or indirectly associated with N uptake. [source]

Accounting for residual effects of previously applied nitrogen fertilizer on intensively managed grasslands

T. V. Vellinga
Abstract Only 0·20,0·70 of the fertilizer-nitrogen (N) applied to grassland is taken up in herbage in the harvest directly following application. Residual effects at subsequent harvests can be large but are poorly quantified, and rarely taken into account in current management practices. An increased understanding of N-use efficiency per harvest can improve operational management. This study systematically assessed the residual effects of previously applied N fertilizer on N uptake, dry matter (DM) yield and soil mineral-N (SMN) during the whole of the growing season. It is based on field experiments conducted on peat and mineral soils in 1991,1994. Statistical models were derived for SMN, N uptake and DM yield as a function of previously and freshly applied N fertilizer. There were clear residual effects of previously applied N in later cuts. They were relatively greater at higher levels of N fertilizer. On peat soils, 0·15,0·25 of the N applied was recovered as SMN. On mineral soils the proportion was maximally 0·08. There was a clear relationship between SMN and N uptake in the subsequent cut on mineral soils but not on peat soils. The value of SMN as a tool to adjust fertilizer-N application rates was hence found to be limited. There were clear relationships between the amount of previously applied N and the N uptake in subsequent cuts, on both soil types and over the whole of the growing season. It was concluded that the total amount of previously applied N is a useful indicator for adjusting N-fertilizer application rates. [source]

Effects of different rates and timing of application of nitrogen as slurry and mineral fertilizer on yield of herbage and nitrate-leaching potential of a maize/Italian ryegrass cropping system in north-west Portugal

H. Trindade
Abstract Efficient use of cattle-slurry to avoid nitrogen (N) leaching and other losses is important in designing intensive dairy systems to minimize pollution of air and water. The response in dry-matter (DM) yield of herbage and nitrate-leaching potential to different rates and timing of application of N as cattle slurry and/or mineral fertilizer in a double-cropping system producing maize (Zea mays L.) silage and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was investigated in north-west Portugal. Nine treatments with different rates and combinations of cattle slurry, and with or without mineral-N fertilizer, applied at sowing and as a top-dressing to both crops, were tested and measurements were made of DM yield of herbage, N concentration of herbage, uptake of N by herbage and amounts of residual soil nitrate-N to a depth of 1 m, in a 3-year experiment. Regression analysis showed that the application of 150 and 100 kg of available N ha,1 to maize and Italian ryegrass, respectively, resulted in 0·95 of maximum DM yields of herbage and 0·90 of maximum N uptake by herbage. Residual amounts of nitrate-N in soil after maize ranged from 48 to 278 kg N ha,1 with an exponential increase in response to the amount of N applied; there were higher values of nitrate-leaching potential when mineral-N fertilizer was applied. The results suggest that it is possible in highly productive maize/Italian ryegrass systems to obtain high DM yields of herbage for maize silage and Italian ryegrass herbage with minimal leaching losses by using slurry exclusively at annual rates of up to 250 kg available N ha,1 (equivalent to 480 kg total N ha,1) in three applications. [source]

Effects of 15N Split-application on Soil and Fertiliser N Uptake of Barley, Oilseed Rape and Wheat in Different Cropping Systems

K. Sieling
Abstract In intensive farming systems, farmers split up and apply the N fertilization to winter cereals and oilseed rape (OSR) at several dates to meet the need of the crop more precisely. Our objective was to determine how prior fertilizer N application as slurry and/or mineral N affects contributions of fertilizer- and soil-derived N to N uptake of barley (1997), oilseed rape (OSR; 1998) and wheat (1999). In addition, residual fertilizer N effects were observed in the subsequent crop. Since autumn 1991, slurry (none, slurry in autumn, in spring, in autumn plus in spring) and mineral N fertilizer (0, 12 and 24 g N m,2) were applied annually. Each year, the treatments were located on the same plots. In 1997,1999, the splitting rates of the mineral N fertilization were labelled with 15N. Non-fertilizer N uptake was estimated from the total N uptake and the fertilizer 15N uptake. All three crops utilized the splitting rates differently depending on the time of application. Uptake of N derived from the first N rate applied at the beginning of spring growth was poorer than that from the second splitting rate applied at stem elongation (cereals) or third splitting rate applied at ear emergence or bud formation (all three crops). In contrast, N applied later in the growing season was taken up more quickly, resulting in higher fertilizer N-use efficiency. Mineral N fertilization of 24 g N m,2 increased significantly non-fertilizer N uptake of barley and OSR at most of the sampling dates during the growing season. In cereals, slurry changed the contribution of non-fertilizer N to the grain N content only if applied in spring, while OSR utilized more autumn slurry N. In OSR and wheat, only small residual effects occurred. The results indicate that 7 years of varying N fertilization did not change the contribution of soil N to crop N uptake. [source]

Strategies to Improve the Use Efficiency of Mineral Fertilizer Nitrogen Applied to Winter Wheat

K. Blankenau
Recovery of fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied to winter wheat crops at tillering in spring is lower than that of N applied at later growth stages because of higher losses and immobilization of N. Two strategies to reduce early N losses and N immobilization and to increase N availability for winter wheat, which should result in an improved N use efficiency (= higher N uptake and/or increased yield per unit fertilizer N), were evaluated. First, 16 winter wheat trials (eight sites in each of 1996 and 1997) were conducted to investigate the effects of reduced and increased N application rates at tillering and stem elongation, respectively, on yield and N uptake of grain. In treatment 90-70-60 (90 kg N ha,1 at tillering, 70 kg N ha,1 at stem elongation and 60 kg N ha,1 at ear emergence), the average values for grain yield and grain N removal were up to 3.1 and 5.0 % higher than in treatment 120-40-60, reflecting conventional fertilizer practice. Higher grain N removal for the treatment with reduced N rates at tillering, 90-70-60, was attributed to lower N immobilization (and N losses), which increased fertilizer N availability. Secondly, as microorganisms prefer NH4+ to NO3, for N immobilization, higher net N immobilization would be expected after application of the ammonium-N form. In a pot experiment, net N immobilization was higher and dry matter yields and crop N contents at harvest were lower with ammonium (ammonium sulphate + nitrification inhibitor Dicyandiamide) than with nitrate (calcium nitrate) nutrition. Five field trials were then conducted to compare calcium nitrate (CN) and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) nutrition at tillering, followed by two CAN applications for both treatments. At harvest, crop N and grain yield were higher in the CN than in the CAN treatment at each N supply level. In conclusion, fertilizer N use efficiency in winter wheat can be improved if N availability to the crops is increased as a result of reduced N immobilization (and N losses) early in the growth period. N application systems could be modified towards strategies with lower N applications at tillering compensated by higher N dressing applications later. An additional advantage is expected to result from use of nitrate-N fertilizers at tillering. Strategien zur Verbesserung der Effizienz von Düngerstickstoff in Winterweizen Aus früheren Versuchen mit Winterweizen ist bekannt, daß zur Ernte die Wiederfindung von im Frühjahr zur Bestokkung gedüngtem Stickstoff (N) geringer ist, als die von N aus Spätgaben. Die Ursachen liegen in einer höheren mikrobiell-bedingten Netto-N-Immobilisation, aber auch N-Verlusten zwischen Bestockung und Schoßbeginn im Vergleich zu späteren Wachstumstadien begründet. In den vorliegenden Versuchen wurden zwei Strategien getestet, um insbesondere die früh in der Vegetation auftretende Netto-N-Immobilisation zu vermindern. Die dadurch erwartete erhöhte N-Verfügbarkeit sollte zu einer erhöhten N-Effizienz (höherer N-Entzug/Ertrag bezogen auf die N-Düngung) führen. 1996 und 1997 wurden jeweils 8 Feldversuche mit Winterweizen durchgeführt, um den Einfluß einer reduzierten Andüngung bei gleichzeitig erhöhter Schossergabe im Vergleich zur konventionellen N-Düngung zu untersuchen. Tatsächlich wurden in dem Prüfglied 90-70-60 (N-Sollwertdüngung: 90 kg N ha,1, Schossergabe: 70 kg N ha,1, Ährengabe: 60 kg N ha,1) im Mittel bis zu 3.1 % höhere Erträge und 5.0 % höhere N-Abfuhren mit dem Korn im Vergleich zur konventionellen Variante 120-40-60 (N-Sollwertdüngung: 120 kg N ha,1, Schossergabe: 40 kg N ha,1 und Ährengabe: 60 kg N ha,1) erzielt. Die höhere N-Abfuhr kann auf eine erhöhte N-Verfügbarkeit infolge geringerer mikrobieller N-Festlegung zurückgeführt werden. Da die vornehmlich heterotrophen Bodenmikroorganismen bevorzugt NH4+ gegenüber NO3, immobilisieren, kann eine höhere N-Immobilisation bei Ammonium-Düngung erwartet werden. Tatsächlich wurden in einem Gefäßversuch nach Düngung von Ammoniumsulfat (+ Nitrifikationshemmer Dicyandiamid) geringere Trokkenmasseerträge und N-Aufnahmen von Weizenpflanzen erzielt als mit Calciumnitrat. Für die Ammoniumsulfatvariante ergab sich eine höhere Netto-N-Immobilisation. Danach wurde in fünf Feldversuchen mit Winterweizen der Einfluß einer Andüngung mit Nitrat (Calciumnitrat) im Vergleich zur Verwendung des ammoniumhaltigen Kalkammonsalpeters (KAS) auf die N-Aufnahme und den Kornertrag untersucht (beide Varianten erhielten KAS als Spätgaben). In der nitratangedüngten Variante wurden zum Teil signifikant höhere Ertäge und N-Aufnahmen in Korn und Stroh ermittelt. Aus den dargestellten Versuchen kann gefolgert werden, daß die Düngerstickstoff-Effizienz verbessert werden kann, wenn vor allem die N-Immobilisation (und eventuell auch N-Verluste) in frühen Wachstumsstadien zwischen Bestockung und Schoßbeginn verringert und so die N-Verfügbarkeit erhöht wird. Es kann empfohlen werden Winterweizenbestände mit geringeren N-Mengen , als nach N-Sollwert 120 kg N ha,1 vorgesehen , anzudüngen und die Schossergabe entsprechend zu erhöhen. Die Verwendung von nitrathaltigen Düngern bei der Andüngung ist von Vorteil. [source]

Effects of Salinity and Mixed Ammonium and Nitrate Nutrition on the Growth and Nitrogen Utilization of Barley

A. Ali
The absorption and utilization of nitrogen (N) by plants are affected by salinity and the form of N in the root medium. A hydroponic study was conducted under controlled conditions to investigate growth and N uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) supplied with five different NH4+ -N/NO3, -N ratios at electrical conductivity of 0 and 8 dS m,1. The five NH4+ -N/NO3 -N ratios were 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0, each giving a total N supply of 100 mg N l,1 in the root medium. A mixed N supply of NH4+ and NO3, resulted in greater accumulation of N in plants than either NO3, or NH4+ as the sole N source. Plants produced a significantly higher dry matter yield when grown with mixed N nutrition than with NH4+ or NO3, alone. Total dry matter production and root and shoot N contents decreased with increasing salinity in the root medium. The interaction between salinity and N nutrition was found to be significant for all the variables. A significant positive correlation (r=0.97) was found between nitrogen level in the plant shoot and its dry matter yield. Wachstum und Stickstoffausnutzung bei Gerste in Abhängigkeit von Versalzung und Michungen von Ammonium und Nitrat Aufnahme und Nutzung von N durch Pflanzen wird von der Versalzung und N-Form im Wurzelbereich bestimmt. Es wurde in Hydrokultur unter kontrollierten Bedingungen Wachstum und N-Aufnahme durch Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) bei Anwendung von fünf unterschiedlichen NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnissen bei einer elektrischen Konduktivität von 0 und 8 dS m,1 untersucht. Die Gesamtmenge von 100 mg N l,1 im Wurzelmedium wies NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnisse von 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 und 100/0 auf. Mischungen von NH4+ und NO3, führten zu einer größeren Aufnahme durch die Pflanzen als bei alleiniger Anwendung von NO3, oder NH4+. Die Pflanzen produzierten signifikant mehr Gesamttrockenmasse mit Mischungen der beiden N-Formen im Vergleich zu alleiniger Anwendung von NH4+ oder NO3,. Die Gesamttrockenmasse sowie die N-Gehalte von Wurzel und Sproß nahmen mit steigender Versalzung ab. Versalzungs- und N-Versorgungs-Interaktion war signifikant in allen Versuchsbedingungen. Eine signifikante positive Korrelation (r=0,97) wurde zwischen Stickstoffkonzentration und der Trockenmasseproduktion der Pflanze gefunden. [source]

Effect of Different Crop Densities of Winter Wheat on Recovery of Nitrogen in Crop and Soil within the Growth Period

K. Blankenau
Previous experiments have shown that, at harvest of winter wheat, recovery of fertilizer N applied in early spring [tillering, Zadok's growth stage (GS) 25] is lower than that of N applied later in the growth period. This can be explained by losses and immobilization of N, which might be higher between GS 25 and stem elongation (GS 31). It was hypothesized that a higher crop density (i.e. more plants per unit area) results in an increased uptake of fertilizer N applied at GS 25, so that less fertilizer N is subject to losses and immobilization. Different crop densities of winter wheat at GS 25 were established by sowing densities of 100 seeds m,2 (Slow), 375 seeds m,2 (Scfp= common farming practice) and 650 seeds m,2 (Shigh) in autumn. The effect of sowing density on crop N uptake and apparent fertilizer N recovery (aFNrec = N in fertilized treatments , N in unfertilized treatments) in crops and soil mineral N (Nmin), as well as on lost and immobilized N (i.e. non-recovered N = N rate , aFNrec), was investigated for two periods after N application at GS 25 [i.e. from GS 25 to 15 days later (GS 25 + 15d), and from GS 25 + 15d to GS 31] and in a third period between GS 31 and harvest (i.e. after second and third N applications). Fertilizer N rates varied at GS 25 (0, 43 and 103 kg N ha,1), GS 31 (0 and 30 kg N ha,1) and ear emergence (0, 30 and 60 kg ha,1). At GS 25 + 15d, non-recovered N was highest (up to 33 kg N ha,1 and up to 74 kg N ha,1 at N rates of 43 and 103 kg N ha,1, respectively) due to low crop N uptake after the first N dressing. Non-recovered N was not affected by sowing density. Re-mineralization during later growth stages indicated that non-recovered N had been immobilized. N uptake rates from the second and third N applications were lowest for Slow, so non-recovered N at harvest was highest for Slow. Although non-recovered N was similar for Scfp and Shigh, the highest grain yields were found at Scfp and N dressings of 43 + 30 + 60 kg N ha,1. This combination of sowing density and N rates was the closest to common farming practice. Grain yields were lower for Shigh than for Scfp, presumably due to high competition between plants for nutrients and water. In conclusion, reducing or increasing sowing density compared to Scfp did not reduce immobilization (and losses) of fertilizer N and did not result in increased fertilizer N use efficiency or grain yields. Einfluß unterschiedlicher pflanzendichten von Winterweizen auf die Wiederfindung von Stickstoff in Pflanze und Boden während der Vegetationsperiode Aus Wintergetreideversuchen ist bekannt, daß zur Ernte die Wiederfindung von Düngerstickstoff aus der Andüngung (Bestockung, [GS-Skala nach Zadok] GS 25) im Aufwuchs und in mineralischer Form im Boden (Nmin) niedriger ist als die von Düngerstickstoff der Schosser-und Ährengaben. Dies kann auf höhere Verluste bzw. eine höhere Immobilisation von Düngerstickstoff zwischen GS 25 und Schoßbeginn zurückgeführt werden, da hier die N-Aufnahme der Pflanzen im Vergleich zu späteren Wachstumsstadien gering ist. Daraus wurde abgeleitet, daß eine Erhöhung der Pflanzendichte zu einer erhöhten Aufnahme von früh gedüngtem N führen könnte, so daß weniger Dünger-N für Verlust- und Immobilisationsprozesse im Boden verbleibt. Unterschiedliche Pflanzendichten wurden durch unterschiedliche Aussaatstärken im Herbst erreicht (Slow= 100 Körner m,2, Scfp [herkömmliche Praxis]= 375 Körner m,2, Shigh= 650 Körner m,2). In der folgenden Vegetationsperiode wurde der Einfluß der verschiedenen Aussaatstärken auf die N-Aufnahme, die apparente Wiederfindung von Dünger-N (aFNrec = N in gedüngten , N in ungedüngten Prüfgliedern) in Pflanzen und Nmin, sowie auf potentielle Verluste und Immobilisation von Dünger-N (N-Defizit = N-Düngung , aFNrec) für zwei Phasen im Zeitraum zwischen der ersten N-Gabe (GS 25) und der Schossergabe zu GS 31 (d. h. zwischen GS 25 und 15 Tagen später [GS 25 + 15d] und von GS 25 + 15d bis GS 31), sowie zwischen GS 31 und der Ernte (d. h. nach der zweiten und dritten N-Gabe) untersucht. Die N-Düngung variierte zu den Terminen GS 25 (0, 43, 103 kg N ha,1), GS 31 (0, 30 kg N ha,1) und zum Ährenschieben (0, 30, 60 kg N ha,1). Unabhängig von der Aussaatstärke war das N-Defizit zum Termin GS 25 + 15d am höchsten (bis zu 33 kg N ha,1 und 74 kg N ha,1 bei einer N-Düngung von 43 bzw. 103 kg N ha,1), da die N-Aufnahme durch die Pflanzen während der Bestockungsphase am geringsten war. Das N-Defizit zeigt vornehmlich immobilisierten N an, da zu späteren Terminen eine Re-Mobilisation von N auftrat. Zwischen GS 31 und der Ernte wurden für die Aussaatstärke Slow die geringsten Aufnahmeraten von Düngerstickstoff aus der Schosser- und Ährengabe errechnet, so daß für Slow die höchsten N-Defizitmengen ermittelt wurden. Obwohl die N-Defizitmengen für Scfp und Shigh annähernd gleich waren, wurden bei N-Düngung von 43 + 30 + 60 kg N ha,1 für Scfp die höchsten Kornerträge erzielt. Diese Kombination von Aussaatstärke und N-Düngung kann als praxisüblich bezeichnet werden. Für Shigh wurden vermutlich niedrigere Kornerträge erzielt, weil die Konkurrenz um Nährstoffe und Wasser zwischen den Pflanzen aufgrund der hohen Pflanzendichte am intensivsten war. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluß zu, daß eine Verringerung oder Erhöhung der Pflanzendichte über entsprechende Aussaatstärken nicht zu einer Reduktion der Dünger-N-Immobilisation (oder von N-Verlusten) führt und demnach auch nicht die Dünger-N-Ausnutzung durch die Bestände erhöht wird. [source]

Plant amino acid uptake, soluble N turnover and microbial N capture in soils of a grazed Arctic salt marsh

Hugh A. L. Henry
Summary 1The uptake of free amino acids by the grass Puccinellia phryganodes was investigated in soils of an Arctic coastal salt marsh, where low temperatures and high salinity limit inorganic nitrogen (N) availability, and the availability of soluble organic N relative to inorganic N is often high. 2Following the injection of 13C15N-amino acid, 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate tracers into soils, rates of soluble nitrogen turnover and the incorporation of 13C and 15N into plant roots and shoots were assessed. Chloroform fumigation-extraction was used to estimate the partitioning of labelled substrates into microbial biomass. 3Free amino acids turned over rapidly in the soil, with half-lives ranging from 8.2 to 22.8 h for glycine and 8.9 to 25.2 h for leucine, compared with 5.6 to 14.7 h and 5.6 to 15.6 h for ammonium and nitrate, respectively. 15N from both organic and inorganic substrates was incorporated rapidly into plant tissue and the ratio of 13C/15N incorporation into plant tissue indicated that at least 5,11% of 13C15N-glycine was absorbed intact. 4Microbial C and N per unit soil volume were 1.7 and 5.4 times higher, respectively, than corresponding values for plant C and N. Plant incorporation of 15N tracer was 56%, 83% and 68% of the comparable incorporation by soil microorganisms of glycine, ammonium and nitrate ions, respectively. 5These results indicate that P. phryganodes can absorb amino acids intact from the soil despite competition from soil microorganisms, and that free amino acids may contribute substantially to N uptake in this important forage grass utilized by lesser snow geese in the coastal marsh. [source]


Anna Christina Tyler
Macroalgae, often the dominant primary producers in shallow estuaries, can be important regulators of nitrogen (N) cycling. Like phytoplankton, actively growing macroalgae release N to the water column; yet little is known about the quantity or nature of this release. Using 15N labeling in laboratory and field experiments, we estimated the quantity of N released relative to assimilation and gross uptake by Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales), a non-native macroalgae. Field experiments were carried out in Hog Island Bay, a shallow back-barrier lagoon on the Virginia coast where G. vermiculophylla makes up 85%,90% of the biomass. There was good agreement between laboratory and field measurements of N uptake and release. Daily N assimilation in field experiments (32.3±7.2 ,mol N·g dw,1·d,1) was correlated with seasonal and local N availability. The average rate of N release across all sites and dates (65.8±11.6 ,mol N·g dw,1·d,1) was 67% of gross daily uptake, and also varied among sites and seasons (range=33%,99%). Release was highest when growth rates and nutrient availability were low, possibly due to senescence during these periods. During summer biomass peaks, estimated N release from macroalgal mats was as high as 17 mmol N·m,2·d,1. Our results suggest that most estimates of macroalgal N uptake severely underestimate gross N uptake and that N is taken up, transformed, and released to the water column on short time scales (minutes,hours). [source]


Julia C. Phillips
The competitive ability for N uptake by four intertidal seaweeds, Stictosiphonia arbuscula (Harvey) King et Puttock, Apophlaea lyallii Hook. f. et Harvey, Scytothamnus australis Hook. f. et Harvey, and Xiphophora gladiata (Labillardière) Montagne ex Harvey, from New Zealand is described by the uptake kinetics for NO3,, NH4+, and urea. This is the first study to report uptake kinetics for N uptake by a range of southern hemisphere intertidal seaweeds in relation to season and zonation. Species growing at the highest shore positions had higher NO3, and urea uptake at both high and low concentrations and had unsaturable NH4+ uptake in both summer and winter. Although there was evidence of some feedback inhibition of Vmax for NO3, uptake by Stictosiphonia arbuscula growing at the lower vertical limits of its range, rates were high compared with species growing lower on the shore. Our results highlight the superior competitive ability for N uptake of certain high intertidal seaweeds, and consistent with our previous findings we can conclude that intertidal seaweeds in southeast New Zealand are adapted to maximizing N acquisition in a potentially N-limiting environment. [source]


Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
Carmona, R.1, Kraemer G. P.2, Zertuche, J. A.3, Chanes, L.4, Chopin, T.5, Neefus C.4,6 & Yarish, C.1 1Dept. of Ecol. and Evol. Biol., University of Connecticut, One University Place, Stamford, CT 06901, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, State University of New York, Purchase, NY 10577 USA; 3IIO, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. Ensenada,B.C., Mexico; 4DGETI-CBTis41, Mexico; 5CCSA, Dept. of Biol., University of New Brunswick, Saint John, N.B., E2L 4L5, Canada; 6Department of Plant Biology, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA Finfish mariculture along the Northeast US coast continues to develop into a strong industry. At a regional level, mariculture can be a significant contributor to nutrient loading in coastal waters. Since macroalgae are able to concentrate nutrients and grow at high rates, they can be an useful tool for alleviating this problem. In addition, seaweed mariculture is by itself a multi-billion dollar industry, with the red alga Porphyra (nori) valued at over $US 1.8 billion. Local species and strains of Porphyra from the Northeast U.S.A. are being studied to determine their capacity as nutrient scrubbers under different nutrient and temperature conditions. P. purpurea was grown under two N sources (NO3- vs. NH4+). The fastest growth (up to 13% d-1) and greatest N content (ca. 7% DW) were measured in plants grown at 300 µM NH4+. Short-term NH4+ uptake by P. purpurea (strains from Maine and Long Island Sound) and by P. amplissima was not saturated at 150 µM, the highest concentration tested. The P. purpurea isolate from Maine took up NH4+ faster than did the Long Island Sound isolate. NH4+ uptake by P. amplissima was faster than uptake by either P. purpurea strain. The high growth rates obtained and the ability for N uptake and tissue accumulation make these species suitable for using as a biological nutrient removal system. [source]

Phosphate buffer,extractable organic nitrogen as an index of soil-N availability for sorghum and pearl millet

Asako Mori
Abstract The availability of soil nitrogen (N) is usually quantified by the amount of mineralized N as determined after several weeks of soil incubation. Various alternative methods using chemical solvents have been developed to extract the available organic N, which is easily mineralized. We compared one such solution, neutral phosphate buffer (NPB), with conventional incubation and 0.01 M,CaCl2 extraction, as measures of soil N available to two major cereal crops of the semiarid tropics, based on the total N uptake by plants in a pot experiment. Mineralized N had the highest correlation with N uptake by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L., r = 0.979***) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench, r = 0.978***). NPB-extractable N was also highly correlated with N uptake (pearl millet, r = 0.876***; sorghum, r = 0.872***). Only one major peak was detected when NPB extracts were analyzed using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography, regardless of soil properties. In addition, the organic N extracted with NPB was characterized by determining the content of peptidoglycan, the main component of bacterial cell walls. Although the characteristics of NPB-extractable organic N are still unclear, it offers a promising quick assay of available N. [source]

Organic fertilizers derived from plant materials Part II: Turnover in field trials

Torsten Müller
Abstract Our aim was to investigate two different organic fertilizers derived from plant materials (OFDP) with respect to their nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) turnover in field trials planted with small radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. capitata var. alba) or fallow. The two fertilizers investigated were coarse seed meal of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) and coarse meal of castor cake (Ricinus communis L.). Under cool spring conditions, the soil turnover of yellow lupin,seed meal was slightly enhanced compared to castor-cake meal. During the vegetation period of the vegetables, N added with both fertilizers was metabolized more or less completely by soil microorganisms. Due to similar efficiencies of the fertilizers tested, no significant difference could be found in the N uptake of plants. From this point of view, yellow lupin,seed meal, which can be produced by farmers themselves, has the potential to replace the widely used castor-cake meal. Considerable amounts of N may remain in the field after fertilization with OFDPs either as mineral N or as easily mineralizable organic N. This N should be utilized immediately by a succeeding crop to avoid leaching losses. [source]

Increased proline loading to phloem and its effects on nitrogen uptake and assimilation in water-stressed white clover (Trifolium repens)

Bok-Rye Lee
Summary ,,The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of increased proline loading to phloem caused by water-deficit stress in relation to nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. ,,N uptake and N assimilation were quantified by 15N tracing in well-watered (control) and water deficit-stressed white clover (Trifolium repens). De novo proline synthesis and proline loading to the phloem were also compared between treatments. The relationships among proline concentrations in phloem exudates, N uptake, and assimilation of newly absorbed N were assessed. ,,The newly synthesized proline in the phloem exudates increased rapidly after 3 d of water deficit. The water-deficit treatment significantly reduced the maximum nitrate reductase activity (NRA), and also attenuated de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins in the roots. The increase in proline concentrations in phloem exudates was closely related to reductions in NRA in the roots, N uptake, and the assimilation of newly absorbed N. The accumulation of proline induced in roots by exogenous proline and NH4Cl treatments was closely associated with the decrease in NRA. ,,These results indicate that increased proline transport to roots via phloem caused by water deficit has a significant influence on the down-regulation of N uptake and the assimilation of newly absorbed N. [source]

Sequestration of soil nitrogen as tannin,protein complexes may improve the competitive ability of sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia) relative to black spruce (Picea mariana)

G. D. Joanisse
Summary ,,The role of litter tannins in controlling soil nitrogen (N) cycling may explain the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce (Picea mariana), although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. ,,Here, the protein-precipitation capacities of purified tannins and leaf extracts from Kalmia and black spruce were compared. The resistance to degradation of tannin,protein precipitates from both species were compared by monitoring carbon (C) and N dynamics in humus amended with protein, purified tannins or protein,tannin precipitates. The purity of the precipitates was verified using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The ability of mycorrhizal fungi associated with both species to grow on media amended with tannin,protein complexes as the principal N source was also compared. ,,The protein precipitation capacity of Kalmia tannins was superior to those of black spruce. Humus amended with protein increased both mineral and microbial N, whereas humus amended with tannin,protein precipitates increased dissolved organic N. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Kalmia showed better growth than those associated with black spruce when N was provided as tannin,protein precipitates. ,,These data suggest that Kalmia litter increases the amount of soil N sequestered as tannin,protein complexes, which may improve the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce by favouring N uptake by mycorrhizas associated with the former. [source]

Suillus bovinus glutamine synthetase gene organization, transcription and enzyme activities in the Scots pine mycorrhizosphere developed on forest humus

Jarmo T. Juuti
Summary ,,Glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and activity is of central importance for cellular ammonium assimilation and recycling. Thus, a full characterization of this enzyme at the molecular level is of critical importance for a better understanding of nitrogen (N) assimilation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. ,,Genomic and cDNA libraries of Suillus bovinus were constructed to isolate the GS gene, glnA, and corresponding cDNAs. The transcription initiation site was identified and transcription and enzyme activities were characterized in pure culture mycelium and mycorrhiza, and extramatrical mycelium samples harvested from Scots pine,Suillus bovinus microcosms grown on forest humus. ,,Pure culture mycelium, mycorrhiza and extramatrical mycelium all exhibited equivalent levels of GS transcription, translation and enzyme activities. However, levels of transcription and enzyme activity did not correlate as a large majority of detectable transcripts showed specific 5,-end truncation. ,,Our data suggest that GS is constitutively expressed and not directly affected by environmental conditions of the symbiotic N uptake. Any changes in the intracellular ammonium level are most likely handled by regulatory flexibility of GS at enzyme level. [source]

Uncoupling nitrogen requirements for spring growth from root uptake in a young evergreen shrub (Rhododendron ferrugineum)

T. Lamaze
Abstract , , Internal cycling of nitrogen (N) was investigated in a subalpine field population of the evergreen shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum during spring growth. , , The foliar nitrogen of 5-yr-old-plants was directly labeled with 15N and subsequently traced to all plant compartments. In addition, 15N-ammonium uptake was estimated in glasshouse experiments. , , Before shoot growth, redistribution of 15N occurred in the plant without net N transfer. During spring development, the decreases in both leaf 15N and total N were almost identical in terms of percentage, and most of the 15N withdrawn from the leaf compartments was recovered in the growing shoots. Net changes in the N contents of the various leaf and woody compartments indicate that internal remobilization (especially from 1-yr-old leaves) could have met most of the N needs of new shoot growth. Simultaneously, the rate of mineral N uptake was very low. , , Thus, leaves in young plants provide N for new shoots (by contrast with old individuals) and allow, with woody tissues, almost complete uncoupling of N requirement for spring growth from root uptake. [source]

Growth in epiphytic bromeliads: response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
G. Zotz
Abstract Insufficient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) frequently limit primary production. Although most nutrient studies on vascular epiphytes have focused on N uptake, circumstantial evidence suggests that P rather than N is the most limiting element for growth in this plant group. We directly tested this by subjecting a total of 162 small individuals of three bromeliad species (Guzmania monostachia, Tillandsia elongata, Werauhia sanguinolenta) to three N and three P levels using a full-factorial experimental design, and determined relative growth rates (RGR) and nutrient acquisition over a period of 11 weeks. Both N and P supply had a significant effect on RGR, but only tissue P concentrations were correlated with growth. Uptake rates of N and P, in contrast, were not correlated with RGR. Increased nutrient supply led to an up to sevenfold increase in tissue P concentration compared to natural conditions, while concentrations of N hardly changed or even decreased. All treatment combinations, even at the lowest experimental P supply, led to decreased N:P ratios. We conclude that P is at least as limiting as N for vegetative function under natural conditions in these epiphytic bromeliads. This conclusion is in line with the general notion of the prevalence of P limitation for the functioning of terrestrial vegetation in the tropics. [source]

Nitrogen balance in forest soils: nutritional limitation of plants under climate change stresses

H. Rennenberg
Abstract Forest ecosystems with low soil nitrogen (N) availability are characterized by direct competition for this growth-limiting resource between several players, i.e. various components of vegetation, such as old-growth trees, natural regeneration and understorey species, mycorrhizal fungi, free-living fungi and bacteria. With the increase in frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted in current climate change scenarios, also competition for N between plants and/or soil microorganisms will be affected. In this review, we summarize the present understanding of ecosystem N cycling in N-limited forests and its interaction with extreme climate events, such as heat, drought and flooding. More specifically, the impacts of environmental stresses on microbial release and consumption of bioavailable N, N uptake and competition between plants, as well as plant and microbial uptake are presented. Furthermore, the consequences of drying,wetting cycles on N cycling are discussed. Additionally, we highlight the current methodological difficulties that limit present understanding of N cycling in forest ecosystems and the need for interdisciplinary studies. [source]

Effects of Drought on the Competitive Interference of an Early Successional Species (Rubus fruticosus) on Fagus sylvatica L. Seedlings: 15N Uptake and Partitioning, Responses of Amino Acids and other N Compounds

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
M. N. Fotelli
Abstract: We assessed the role of water availability as a factor regulating the ability of beech seedlings to cope with competitive interference for nitrogen resources by an early successional species (Rubus fruticosus). A glasshouse experiment was performed with two levels of interference (beech with and without R. fruticosus) and three levels of irrigation (high, intermediate, none). 15N uptake and partitioning of both species, and composition of N pools in leaves, roots and phloem of beech, were determined. Under all irrigation regimes, 15N uptake by beech seedlings decreased when grown together with R. fruticosus. R. fruticosus had higher 15N uptake rates than beech, under all water supply levels. When irrigation was reduced, a substantial decrease in 15N uptake of beech seedlings and a concurrent increase in 15N uptake by R. fruticosus were observed. Interference by R. fruticosus and low irrigation also affected the 15N partitioning in beech seedlings and resulted in reduced allocation of 15N to the roots. The combination of competitive interference and lack of irrigation led to an increase in soluble non-protein N in roots and leaves of beech, due to protein degradation. This response was attributed to an increase in levels of amino acids serving as osmoprotectants under these conditions. The concentration of proline in leaves of beech was negatively correlated to shoot water potential. A competition-induced reduction of total N in leaves of beech under high and intermediate irrigation was found. These results illustrate (1) the advantage of R. fruticosus in terms of N uptake when compared to young beech, particularly under inadequate water supply, and (2) the changes in N composition of beech seedlings in order to cope with reduced soil water and interference by R. fruticosus. [source]

Nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of European maize hybrids developed under conditions of low and high nitrogen input

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2002
T. Presterl
Abstract Maize varieties with improved nitrogen(N)-use efficiency under low soil N conditions can contribute to sustainable agriculture. Tests were carried to see whether selection of European elite lines at low and high N supply would result in hybrids with differential adaptation to these contrasting N conditions. The objective was to analyze whether genotypic differences in N uptake and N-utilization efficiency existed in this material and to what extent these factors contributed to adaptation to low N supply. Twenty-four hybrids developed at low N supply (L × L) were compared with 25 hybrids developed at high N supply (H × H). The N uptake was determined as total above-ground N in whole plants, and N-utilization efficiency as the ratio between grain yield and N uptake in yield trials at four locations and at three N levels each. Highly significant variations as a result of hybrids and hybrids × N-level interaction were observed for grain yield as well as for N uptake and N-utilization efficiency in both hybrid types. Average yields of the L × L hybrids were higher than those of the H × H hybrids by 11.5% at low N supply and 5.4% at medium N level. There was no significant yield difference between the two hybrid types at high N supply. The L × L hybrids showed significantly higher N uptake at the low (12%) and medium (6%) N levels than the H × H hybrids. In contrast, no differences in N-utilization efficiency were observed between the hybrid types. These results indicate that adaptation of hybrids from European elite breeding material to conditions with reduced nitrogen input was possible and was mainly the result of an increase in N-uptake efficiency. [source]

,15N of soil N and plants in a N-saturated, subtropical forest of southern China

K. Koba
We investigated the ,15N profile of N (extractable NH, NO, and organic N (EON)) in the soil of a N-saturated subtropical forest. The order of ,15N in the soil was EON,>,NH,>,NO. Although the ,15N of EON had been expected to be similar to that of bulk soil N, it was higher than that of bulk soil N by 5,. The difference in ,15N between bulk soil N and EON (,15Nbulk-EON) was correlated significantly with the soil C/N ratio. This correlation implies that carbon availability, which determines the balance between N assimilation and dissimilation of soil microbes, is responsible for the high ,15N of EON, as in the case of soil microbial biomass ,15N. A thorough ,15N survey of available N (NH, NO, and EON) in the soil profiles from the organic layer to 100,cm depth revealed that the ,15N of the available N forms did not fully overlap with the ,15N of plants. This mismatch in ,15N between that of available N and that of plants reflects apparent isotopic fractionation during N uptake by plants, emphasizing the high N availability in this N-saturated forest. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ecophysiology of Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla in decline in an urban parkland

Abstract Eucalypt trees are in decline throughout urban landscapes of south western Australia. This study investigated the cause of decline in Eucalyptus marginata and Corymbia calophylla trees in parkland and compared water and nutrient relations with healthy trees in adjacent bushland in Perth, Western Australia. It was hypothesized that: (i) trees were drought stressed through competition for soil water by the vigorous turf; (ii) excessive uptake of nitrogen, because of fertilizer application to turf, caused toxicity; and/or (iii) micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Mn and/or Zn) deficit was induced by high-pH irrigation water applied to turf around parkland trees. Leaf water potential showed aseasonal variation in the irrigated parkland trees and foliar ,13C indicated that parkland trees generally had low water-use efficiency and were not drought stressed relative to bushland trees. Foliar N levels were not significantly different between parkland and bushland trees indicating that excess N uptake was not a factor in the decline. Foliar total Fe, ,metabolically active' Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly different between parkland and bushland trees. Foliar manganese concentrations were indicative of deficiency and significantly lower in parkland trees (5,14 µg g,1) relative to bushland trees (22,35 µg g,1). It is concluded that application of alkaline irrigation water to the parkland site reduced the plant-availability of Mn; however, our study of only one parkland site does not allow us to generalize the results across other parklands. [source]

Biological and environmental factors controlling root dynamics and function: effects of root ageing and soil moisture

Abstract Understanding factors controlling root dynamics and functioning can lead to more efficient and profitable vineyard management. However, our current understanding of root dynamics and their regulation by plant and environmental factors is limited, particularly under field conditions. This paper presents current understanding of grape root dynamics, highlighting studies using minirhizotron cameras, which directly assess root dynamics, and experiments on roots of known age, which link root phenology and function. Data summarised here show timing of grape root production varies widely among different regions, as well as among rootstocks and canopy management systems in the same region. Timing of production can be responsive to differences in soil moisture. Lifespan of grape roots, however, appears less affected by soil moisture because of nocturnal hydraulic redistribution. Root function, such as capacity for P and N uptake, declines rapidly with root age. Differences in timing and spatial distribution of root production can effect above-ground growth and vineyard water-use efficiency. Improving our understanding of when roots grow and are functionally active in agricultural systems can lead to improved water and fertiliser applications, and more precise vineyard management. Because both environmental and biological factors affect root dynamics, simple predictions of timing of root production or standing populations with shoot development are unlikely to be achieved. However, with multi-year data on root dynamics, and environmental and biological factors, regionally specific models of root populations and their functioning may be possible to develop. [source]