N Retention (n + retention)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Initial cultivation of a temperate-region soil immediately accelerates aggregate turnover and CO2 and N2O fluxes

Abstract The immediate effects of tillage on protected soil C and N pools and on trace gas emissions from soils at precultivation levels of native C remain largely unknown. We measured the response to cultivation of CO2 and N2O emissions and associated environmental factors in a previously uncultivated U.S. Midwest Alfisol with C concentrations that were indistinguishable from those in adjacent late successional forests on the same soil type (3.2%). Within 2 days of initial cultivation in 2002, tillage significantly (P=0.001, n=4) increased CO2 fluxes from 91 to 196 mg CO2 -C m,2 h,1 and within the first 30 days higher fluxes because of cultivation were responsible for losses of 85 g CO2 -C m,2. Additional daily C losses were sustained during a second and third year of cultivation of the same plots at rates of 1.9 and 1.0 g C m,2 day,1, respectively. Associated with the CO2 responses were increased soil temperature, substantially reduced soil aggregate size (mean weight diameter decreased 35% within 60 days), and a reduction in the proportion of intraaggregate, physically protected light fraction organic matter. Nitrous oxide fluxes in cultivated plots increased 7.7-fold in 2002, 3.1-fold in 2003, and 6.7-fold in 2004 and were associated with increased soil NO3, concentrations, which approached 15 ,g N g,1. Decreased plant N uptake immediately after tillage, plus increased mineralization rates and fivefold greater nitrifier enzyme activity, likely contributed to increased NO3, concentrations. Our results demonstrate that initial cultivation of a soil at precultivation levels of native soil C immediately destabilizes physical and microbial processes related to C and N retention in soils and accelerates trace gas fluxes. Policies designed to promote long-term C sequestration may thus need to protect soils from even occasional cultivation in order to preserve sequestered C. [source]

Immobilization, stabilization and remobilization of nitrogen in forest soils at elevated CO2: a 15N and 13C tracer study

Frank Hagedorn
Abstract The fate of immobilized N in soils is one of the great uncertainties in predicting C sequestration at increased CO2 and N deposition. In a dual isotope tracer experiment (13C, 15N) within a 4-year CO2 enrichment (+200 ppmv) study with forest model ecosystems, we (i) quantified the effects of elevated CO2 on the partitioning of N; (ii) traced immobilized N into physically separated pools of soil organic matter (SOM) with turnover rates known from their 13C signals; and (iii) estimated the remobilization and thus, the bio-availability of newly sequestered C and N. (1) CO2 enrichment significantly decreased NO3, concentrations in soil waters and export from 1.5 m deep lysimeters by 30,80%. Consequently, elevated CO2 increased the overall retention of N in the model ecosystems. (2) About 60,80% of added 15NH415NO3 were retained in soils. The clay fraction was the greatest sink for the immobilized 15N sequestering 50,60% of the total new soil N. SOM associated with clay contained only 25% of the total new soil C pool and had small C/N ratios (<13), indicating that it consists of humified organic matter with a relatively slow turn over rate. This implies that added 15N was mainly immobilized in stable mineral-bound SOM pools. (3) Incubation of soils for 1 year showed that the remobilization of newly sequestered N was three to nine times smaller than that of newly sequestered C. Thus, inorganic inputs of N were stabilized more effectively in soils than C. Significantly less newly sequestered N was remobilized from soils previously exposed to elevated CO2. In summary, our results show firstly that a large fraction of inorganic N inputs becomes effectively immobilized in relative stable SOM pools and secondly that elevated CO2 can increase N retention in soils and hence it may tighten N cycling and diminish the risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater. [source]

Individual response of growing pigs to lysine intake

J. Heger
Summary Nitrogen (N) balance experiment was carried out to study the individual and group response of growing pigs to lysine (Lys) intake. A series of 15 purified diets limiting in Lys were fed sequentially to nine pigs (initial body weight, 39 kg) during a 15-day experiment. Lysine concentration ranged from 50% to 140% of its assumed requirement. N retention in individual pigs was related to Lys intake using linear-plateau (LP) and quadratic-plateau (QP) models. No difference in the closeness of fit between the models was found (p = 0.72). There were significant differences between the slopes of individual regression lines in the LP model (p = 0.018) and between the individual plateau values in both models (p < 0.0001). The breakpoint values in the QP model were greater than those of the LP model (p = 0.027), while the plateau values estimated by both models were similar (p = 0.32). In the LP model, no relationship was found between the slopes and plateau values (p = 0.67, r = 0.17) or between the slopes and breakpoint values (p = 0.55, r = ,0.23), thus suggesting that pigs with higher protein deposition rate do not utilize lysine more efficiently. However, there was a close positive correlation between breakpoint and plateau values (p = 0.0005, r = 0.92). Based on LP and QP models, the mean daily requirement of Lys for a 47-kg gilt was estimated to be 20.8 and 24.2 g (0.79 and 0.92 g/MJ metabolizable energy), respectively, with coefficients of variation of approximately 10%. Marginal efficiency of Lys utilization derived from the LP model was 0.67 and was dependent on the range of input data selected. Lysine disappearance was a curvilinear function of Lys intake, indicating that Lys catabolism is not directly related to Lys intake. The closeness of fit of exponential, saturation kinetics or four-parameter logistic models applied to data set of all pigs was similar to that of LP or QP models. [source]

Lysine requirement studies in modern genotype barrows dependent on age, protein deposition and dietary lysine efficiency

C. Wecke
Summary N balance experiments were conducted to derive age-dependent model parameters for modelling of lysine (Lys) requirements in growing pigs. Modern genotype barrows from 16 litters were utilized (four piglets/litter) at 15, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 kg body weight respectively. Six diets provided graded dietary protein supply (40 to 320 g/kg) by a constant mixture of barley, wheat, potato protein, wheat gluten, soybean protein concentrate and crystalline amino acids. Lys was set as the first limiting dietary amino acid. Each age period provided 24 N balance data (n = 4) to derive N maintenance requirement (NMR) and theoretical maximum for daily N retention (NRmaxT) by non-linear regression analysis. At high dietary Lys efficiency, 17,18 g daily Lys intake was required for 170 g daily protein deposition. To achieve similar daily protein deposition, pigs need 21,23 g Lys if the Lys efficiency is 20% lower. For higher daily protein deposition (195,200 g) and varying dietary Lys efficiency, between 22 and 29 g Lys was required. The Lys requirement data yielded by modelling were in line with current recommendations. Further developments of the approach are discussed to improve age-independent applications. [source]

Individual response of growing pigs to sulphur amino acid intake

J. Heger
Summary Two N balance experiments were conducted to study the individual response of growing pigs to limiting amino acid (AA) intake. Series of fifteen diets with increasing concentration of sulphur amino acids (SAA, Expt 1) or methionine in the presence of excess cystine (Expt 2) were fed sequentially to nine pigs during a 15-day experimental period. The concentration of the AA under test ranged from 50% to 140% of the requirement while other essential AA were given in a 25% excess relative to the limiting AA. N retention was related to the limiting AA intake using rectilinear and curvilinear models. In Expt 1, the quadratic-plateau model fitted the individual data significantly better (p = 0.01) than the linear-plateau model. No difference was found between the two models in Expt. 2, presumably due to the sparing effect of excess cystine on methionine utilization. Exponential, saturation kinetics or four-parameter logistic models fitted to data for all pigs showed that their goodness of fit was similar to those of quadratic-plateau or linear-plateau models. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between individual plateau values for N retention within each experiment while the slopes of the regression lines did not significantly differ either in Expt 1 (p = 0.07) or Expt 2 (p = 0.45). There was a positive correlation between the slope and plateau values of the linear-plateau model in Expt 1 (r = 0.74, p = 0.02) but no significant correlation was found in Expt 2 (r = ,0.48, p = 0.13). Marginal efficiencies of SAA and methionine utilization derived from the linear-plateau model were 0.43 and 0.65 respectively. Based on linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models, daily requirements of SAA and methionine for a 50 kg pig were estimated to be 13.0 and 5.9 g and 14.3 and 6.1 g respectively. [source]

The use of endogenous nitrogen for microbial crude protein synthesis in the rumen of growing bulls

H. Kluth
Summary The objective of this study was to quantify endogenous nitrogen (N) recycled for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Four growing bulls (Schwarzbuntes Milchrind; bodyweight: 240,310 kg) with duodenal T-shaped cannulas were fed diets containing four levels of crude protein content (200, 156, 102 and 63 g/kg dry matter, respectively). The diets were based on wheat, barley, tapioca meal, soybean extracted meal, dried beet pulp, meadow hay and straw. The diets had an energy level of 11.1, 10.9, 10.2 and 9.6 MJ metabolizable energy/kg dry matter. Faeces and urine were collected in four 7-day balance periods. Duodenal flow rate was estimated by TiO2, pelleted with grain, as a marker. The relationship between urine N excretion, the amount of microbial N reaching the duodenum, ruminal N balance and N retention were examined and the amount of endogenous N available for microbial protein synthesis without negative effects on the N retention was determined. It can be concluded that up to 16% of the microbial N supply could be covered by recycled endogenous N, but N retention should not be decreased by more than 1.5 residual standard deviations of maximal N retention. [source]

Effect of supplementation of garlic powder on rumen ecology and digestibility of nutrients in ruminants

Metha Wanapat
Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effect of garlic powder (GAP) supplementation on rumen fermentation pattern, nutrient digestibility and intake in ruminants fed on straw as a roughage source. RESULTS: Dry matter intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients were similar among treatments. The apparent digestibility of crude protein tended to be higher in cattle supplemented with GAP compared to those fed without GAP (P = 0.08). Ruminal populations of protozoa and bacteria were decreased, as influenced by GAP supplementation. Ruminal pH and NH3 -N were similar among treatments, while blood urea nitrogen tended to be decreased (P < 0.05). Total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were not affected by GAP supplementation but individual VFAs were significantly different (P < 0.05), especially C3; meanwhile, C2:C3 ratio was reduced by GAP supplementation (P < 0.05). In addition, N balances were significantly increased as level of GAP supplementation increased and was highest at 120 g d,1 GAP. CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that feeding of GAP at 80 g d,1 with urea-treated rice straw could enhance ruminal propionate production and thus lower C2:C3 ratio, decreasing the protozoal population, as well as increasing N retention and absorption in ruminants. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effects of high potassium chloride supplementation on water intake, urine volume and nitrogen balance in mice

ABSTRACT Sixteen ICR male mice were assigned to a control diet group or a KCl diet group in metabolic cages to clarify the effects of KCl supplementation on water intake, urine volume and N balance, and 5% of KCl was supplemented in KCl diets for 4 or 8 weeks. Bodyweight of KCl supplemented mice was significantly higher than that of control mice from 24 to 28 days after treatment. Feed intake, water intake and urine volume of KCl supplemented mice were significantly higher than those of control mice, and the increased water intake and urine volume in KCl supplemented mice were 4.49 and 4.15 g, respectively. Urinary N, K and Cl excretion were significantly higher in KCl supplemented mice. Although N retention was not significantly different between control and KCl supplemented mice, N retention in KCl supplemented mice tended to be lower. Serum creatinine concentration at 8 weeks after treatment was lower in KCl supplemented mice. Histological alteration using hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining was not found in the kidney of each mouse at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. These results suggest that high KCl supplementation increases water intake, urine volume and urinary N excretion in mice. [source]

Dietary protein requirement of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles

Abstract A trial was undertaken to estimate the protein requirement of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus). Five fish meal-based diets were formulated to contain graded levels of protein (from 60 to 490 g kg,1). Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 25 fish with a mean individual body weight of 22 g. Fish fed the 60 g kg,1 protein diet lost weight during the trial, while growth improved in the other groups as dietary protein level increased up to 270,370 g kg,1. Feed efficiency improved as dietary protein level increased. Maximum protein efficiency ratio (PER) was observed with the 17% protein diet. N retention (NR) (% N intake) was not different among groups fed diets with 17% protein and above. Ammonia excretion (g kg,1ABW day,1) increased as dietary protein level increased, while no differences in urea excretion were noted. An exponential model was used to adjust specific growth rate and NR (g kg,1 day,1) to dietary protein level. Based on that model, dietary protein required for maximum retention was 330 g kg,1, while for maximum growth it was 270 g kg,1. On a wet weight basis, there were no differences in whole body composition of fish-fed diets with 170 g kg,1 protein and above, except for the protein content, which was lower in group fed the 170 g kg,1 protein diet than the 490 g kg,1 protein diet. Specific activities of hepatic amino acid catabolism enzymes (glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) increased as dietary protein levels increased. There were no differences among groups in fatty acid synthetase and malyc enzyme but 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was significantly lower in fish fed the 60 g kg,1 protein diet than the 170 and 490 g kg,1 protein diets. [source]

Phosphorus requirements of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) juveniles

A M Pimentel-Rodrigues
Abstract A trial was conducted to evaluate the phosphorus requirements of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Seven semipurified diets were formulated to contain 54% crude protein and 15% lipids and phosphorus (di-calcium phosphate) levels ranging from 0.37% to 1.5% (DM basis). Each diet was fed to duplicate groups of 25 fish with an initial average weight of 5 g over 42 days. The fish were fed by hand to visual apparent satiety twice daily, six days a week. At the end of the trial growth rate was not significantly different in groups fed diets containing 0.75% phosphorus or higher, while growth rate of fish fed the 0.37% phosphorus diet was significantly lower than all the other diets. Feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and N retention were significantly lower in fish fed the 0.37% phosphorus diet than in those fed diets with 0.75% and higher phosphorus levels. Phosphorus content of the fish averaged 2% (on a dry weight basis) and was not significantly affected by dietary phosphorus content. Phosphorus retention averaged 6.6 g kg,1 weight gain and was not statistically different among groups. Phosphorus retention (% phosphorus intake) decreased with the increase of dietary phosphorus content, being even higher than 100% in groups fed diets with 0.37% and 0.57% phosphorus, indicating phosphorus absorption from the water. The results of this study indicate that phosphorus requirements of gilthead sea bream juveniles were satisfied with a diet including 0.75% phosphorus. [source]

Retention of Inorganic Nitrogen by Epiphytic Bryophytes in a Tropical Montane Forest,

BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2005
Kenneth L. Clark
ABSTRACT We developed and evaluated a model of the canopy of a tropical montane forest at Monteverde, Costa Rica, to estimate inorganic nitrogen (N) retention by epiphytes from atmospheric deposition. We first estimated net retention of inorganic N by samples of epiphytic bryophytes, epiphyte assemblages, vascular epiphyte foliage, and host tree foliage that we exposed to cloud water and precipitation solutions. Results were then scaled up to the ecosystem level using a multilayered model of the canopy derived from measurements of forest structure and epiphyte mass. The model was driven with hourly meteorological and event-based atmospheric deposition data, and model predictions were evaluated against measurements of throughfall collected at the site. Model predictions were similar to field measurements for both event-based and annual hydrologic and inorganic N fluxes in throughfall. Simulation of individual events indicated that epiphytic bryophytes and epiphyte assemblages retained 33,67 percent of the inorganic N deposited in cloud water and precipitation. On an annual basis, the model predicted that epiphytic components retained 3.4 kg N ha/yr, equivalent to 50 percent of the inorganic N in atmospheric deposition (6.8 kg N ha/yr). Our results indicate that epiphytic bryophytes play a major role in N retention and cycling in this canopy by transforming highly mobile inorganic N (ca. 50% of atmospheric deposition is NO,3) to less mobile (exchangeable NH+4) and recalcitrant forms in biomass and remaining litter and humus. RESUMEN En este estudio se desarrollo y se evaluo un modelo para estimar la retención de nitrogeno (N) inorganico atmospherico en el dosel de un bosque tropical montano en Monteverde, Costa Rica. Primeramente, estimamos la retención de N inorganico en muestras de briófitas, grupos de epífitas, hojas de epífitas, y hojas de árboles que fueron expuestas a agua de neblina y de lluvia. Basandose en medidas de estructure del bosque y la biomasa de epífitas se derivo un modelo multi nivel de dosel, estos resultados fueron aumentados a la escala de ecosystema. El modelo fue guiado por datos meteorológicos tomados a cada hora y datos de deposición atmosféricos y las predicciónes del modelo fueron evaluadas con medidas de la lluvia indirecta (throughfall) del sitio. Las predicciónes del modelo fueron similares a los datos de campo para eventos individuales, el ciclo hidrológico anual y las fluctuaciones de N en la lluvia indirecta. La simulación de eventos individuales indicaron que las briófitas y grupos de epífitas retuvieron 33,67 por ciento de N inorganico en agua de nubes y de lluvia. Predicciónes anuales del modelo indican que los grupos de epífitas retienen 3.4 kg N ha/año, equivalente al 50 por ciento del N inorganico en la deposición atmosférica (6.8 kg N ha/año). Nuestros resultados indican que las briófitas en el dosel desempeñan un papel muy importante en la retención y ciclaje de N inorganico, porque transforman el N con alta mobilidad en N de baja mobilidad y a formas mas recalcitrantes en la biomasa, la hojarasca y el humus. [source]