N Nutrition (n + nutrition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Potassium cycling and losses in grassland systems: a review

M. Kayser
Abstract Cycling of potassium in grassland systems has received relatively little attention in research and practice in recent years. Balanced nutrient systems require consideration of nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Potassium (K) is needed in large amounts and is closely related to N nutrition. In intensive dairy farming, surpluses of K arise from the input of concentrates and fertilizer and are returned to the grassland and may lead to increasing K content in the soil. Organic farming, on the other hand, is characterized by limitations in input of nutrient sources and quantities. Leaching of K from grassland is usually low, but high levels of available soil K, high K input from fertilizer or at urine patches lead to increasing losses. High K inputs have a negative influence on Mg and Ca uptake by plants and can cause accelerated leaching of these cations. High levels of K have been associated with inducing nutrition-related dairy cow health problems such as milk fever (hypocalcaemia) and grass tetany (hypomagnesaemia). This review gives an overview of the cycling of potassium and related cations in grassland systems especially with regard to leaching losses and identifies limitations to knowledge. [source]

Effects of Salinity and Mixed Ammonium and Nitrate Nutrition on the Growth and Nitrogen Utilization of Barley

A. Ali
The absorption and utilization of nitrogen (N) by plants are affected by salinity and the form of N in the root medium. A hydroponic study was conducted under controlled conditions to investigate growth and N uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) supplied with five different NH4+ -N/NO3, -N ratios at electrical conductivity of 0 and 8 dS m,1. The five NH4+ -N/NO3 -N ratios were 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0, each giving a total N supply of 100 mg N l,1 in the root medium. A mixed N supply of NH4+ and NO3, resulted in greater accumulation of N in plants than either NO3, or NH4+ as the sole N source. Plants produced a significantly higher dry matter yield when grown with mixed N nutrition than with NH4+ or NO3, alone. Total dry matter production and root and shoot N contents decreased with increasing salinity in the root medium. The interaction between salinity and N nutrition was found to be significant for all the variables. A significant positive correlation (r=0.97) was found between nitrogen level in the plant shoot and its dry matter yield. Wachstum und Stickstoffausnutzung bei Gerste in Abhängigkeit von Versalzung und Michungen von Ammonium und Nitrat Aufnahme und Nutzung von N durch Pflanzen wird von der Versalzung und N-Form im Wurzelbereich bestimmt. Es wurde in Hydrokultur unter kontrollierten Bedingungen Wachstum und N-Aufnahme durch Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) bei Anwendung von fünf unterschiedlichen NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnissen bei einer elektrischen Konduktivität von 0 und 8 dS m,1 untersucht. Die Gesamtmenge von 100 mg N l,1 im Wurzelmedium wies NH4+ -N/NO3, -N Verhältnisse von 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 und 100/0 auf. Mischungen von NH4+ und NO3, führten zu einer größeren Aufnahme durch die Pflanzen als bei alleiniger Anwendung von NO3, oder NH4+. Die Pflanzen produzierten signifikant mehr Gesamttrockenmasse mit Mischungen der beiden N-Formen im Vergleich zu alleiniger Anwendung von NH4+ oder NO3,. Die Gesamttrockenmasse sowie die N-Gehalte von Wurzel und Sproß nahmen mit steigender Versalzung ab. Versalzungs- und N-Versorgungs-Interaktion war signifikant in allen Versuchsbedingungen. Eine signifikante positive Korrelation (r=0,97) wurde zwischen Stickstoffkonzentration und der Trockenmasseproduktion der Pflanze gefunden. [source]

Does the source of nitrogen affect the response of subterranean clover to prolonged root hypoxia?

Faouzi Horchani
Abstract Nitrogen (N) is taken up by most plant species in the form of nitrate (NO) or ammonium (NH). The plant response to continuous ammonium nutrition is species-dependent. In this study, the effects of the source of N nutrition (NO, NH, or the mixture of NO and NH) on the response of clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. 45C) plants to prolonged root hypoxia was studied. Under aerobic conditions, plant growth was strongly depressed by NH, compared to NO or mixed N nutrition, as indicated by the significant decrease in root and shoot-dry-matter production (DW), root and shoot water contents (WC), leaf chlorophyll concentration, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm). However, the N source had no effect on chlorophyll a,to,chlorophyll b ratio. Under hypoxic conditions, the negative effects of root hypoxia on plant-growth parameters (DW and WC), leaf chlorophyll concentration, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were alleviated by NH rather than NO supply. Concomitantly, shoot DW,to,root DW ratio, and root and leaf NH concentrations were significantly decreased, whereas root and leaf carbohydrate concentrations, glutamine synthetase activities, and protein concentrations were remarkably increased. The present data reveal that the N source (NO or NH) is a major factor affecting clover responses to hypoxic stress, with plants being more tolerant when NH is the N form used. The different sensitivity is discussed in terms of a competition for energy between nitrogen assimilation and plant growth. [source]

Calluna vulgaris root cells show increased capacity for amino acid uptake when colonized with the mycorrhizal fungus Hymenoscyphus ericae

Sergei G. Sokolovski
Summary ,,Ericoid mycorrhizas are believed to improve N nutrition of many ericaceous plant species that typically occur in habitats with impoverished nutrient status, by releasing amino acids from organic N forms. Despite the ubiquity of mycorrhizal formation the mechanisms and regulation of nutrient transport in mycorrhizal associations are poorly understood. ,,We used an electrophysiological approach to study how amino acid transport characteristics of Calluna vulgaris were affected by colonization with the ericoid mycorrhiza fungus Hymenoscyphus ericae . ,,Both the Vmax and Km parameters of amino acid uptake were affected by fungal colonization in a manner consistent with an increased availability of amino acid to the plant. ,,The ecophysiological significance of altered amino acid transport in colonized root cells of C. vulgaris is discussed. [source]

Growth-Promoting Nitrogen Nutrition Affects Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Young Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Leaves

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
T. Strissel
Abstract: Enhanced shoot growth and a decrease in flavonoid concentration in apple trees grown under high nitrogen (N) supply was observed in previous studies, along with increasing scab susceptibility of cultivar "Golden Delicious" after high N nutrition. Several hypotheses have suggested that there is a trade-off between primary and secondary metabolism because of competition for common substrates, but nothing is known about regulation at the enzyme level. In this study, a set of experiments was performed to elucidate the effect of N nutrition on the activities of key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL], chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase [CHS/CHI}, flavanone 3-hydroxylase [FHT], flavonol synthase [FLS], dihydroflavonol 4-reductase [DFR]) and the accumulation of different groups of phenylpropanoids. The inhibition of flavonoid accumulation by high N nutrition could be confirmed, but the influence of N supply on the flavonoid enzymes CHS/CHI, FHT, DFR, and FLS was not evident. However, PAL activity seems to be downregulated, thus forming a bottleneck resulting in a generally decreased flavonoid accumulation. Furthermore, the response of the scab-resistant cultivar "Rewena" to high N nutrition was not as strong as that of the susceptible cultivar "Golden Delicious". [source]

Does soil nitrogen influence growth, water transport and survival of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel.) under CO2 enrichment?

ABSTRACT Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel. (snow gum) was grown under ambient (370 µL L,1) and elevated (700 µL L,1) atmospheric [CO2] in open-top chambers (OTCs) in the field and temperature-controlled glasshouses. Nitrogen applications to the soil ranged from 0.1 to 2.75 g N per plant. Trees in the field at high N levels grew rapidly during summer, particularly in CO2 -enriched atmosphere, but suffered high mortality during summer heatwaves. Generally, wider and more numerous secondary xylem vessels at the root,shoot junction in CO2 -enriched trees conferred fourfold higher below-ground hydraulic conductance. Enhanced hydraulic capacity was typical of plants at elevated [CO2] (in which root and shoot growth was accelerated), but did not result from high N supply. However, because high rates of N application consistently made trees prone to dehydration during heatwaves, glasshouse studies were required to identify the effect of N nutrition on root development and hydraulics. While the effects of elevated [CO2] were again predominantly on hydraulic conductivity, N nutrition acted specifically by constraining deep root penetration into soil. Specifically, 15,40% shallower root systems supported marginally larger shoot canopies. Independent changes to hydraulics and root penetration have implications for survival of fertilized trees under elevated atmospheric [CO2], particularly during water stress. [source]