Myth

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Myth

  • political myth


  • Selected Abstracts


    3. "PRESENCE" AND MYTH

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 3 2006
    F. R. ANKERSMIT
    ABSTRACT There are no dictionary meanings or authoritative discussions of "presence" that fix the significance of this word in a way that ought to be accepted by anybody using it. So we are in the welcome possession of great freedom to maneuver when using the term. In fact, the only feasible requirement for its use is that it should maximally contribute to our understanding of the humanities. When trying to satisfy this requirement I shall relate "presence" to representation. Then I focus on a variant of representation in which the past is allowed to travel to the present as a kind of "stowaway" (Runia), so that the past is literally "present" in historical representation. I appeal to Runia's notion of so-called "parallel processes" for an analysis of this variant of historical representation. [source]


    Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task

    INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2003
    Lilianne Nyberg
    Abstract In light of the previously found overlap between Type A behaviour as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) and hyperactivity scales, the overall aim of this study was to clarify the standing of MYTH-defined Type A behaviour relative to hyperactivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using observed task motivation and performance on a choice reaction-time task, the Complex Reaction Time (CRT) measure. This study included 21 boys exhibiting Type A behaviour, 22 ADHD boys, 20 non-clinically hyperactive boys, and 20 non-hyperactive boys, between the ages of 6 and 13 years. It was proposed that a differentiation of constructs would be possible using observed task motivation if the MYTH were a discriminantly valid measure of Type A behaviour. Results showed that the MYTH-defined Type A group differed from the clinically diagnosed ADHD group, although it was markedly similar to the non-clinical hyperactive group, displaying comparable CRT performance and low level of task motivation. Type A behaviour correlated to CRT performance and task motivation in a way which was conceptually more indicative of hyperactivity than of Type A behaviour, which questions the validity of the MYTH as a measure of the Type A construct. The MYTH Impatience subscale was found to be particularly impure with regard to hyperactivity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    THE MYTH OF CARTESIAN QUALIA

    PACIFIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2007
    RAFFAELLA DE ROSA
    Accordingly, Descartes' view would be that in perceiving the color red, for example, we are merely experiencing the subjective feel of redness rather than seeming to perceive a property of bodies. In this paper, I establish that the argument and textual evidence offered in support of SV fail to prove that Descartes held this view. Indeed, I will argue that there are textual and theoretical reasons for believing that Descartes held the negation of SV. Qualia aren't Descartes' legacy. [source]


    DUBUFFET's MYTH by Julien Dieudonné and Marianne Jakobi

    ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
    Sophie Berrebi
    First page of article [source]


    THE MYTH OF SELF-CREATION

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 3 2001
    Sue Gerhardt
    ABSTRACT This paper situates a case history in the context of an emerging theoretical perspective, influenced by attachment research, that gives increasing weight to early real interactions. It suggests that the developing individual often has little choice in the kind of relational strategies that their early interactions unconsciously set up. The case history explores how this might have been the case for Marian, and asks to what extent such a patient can subsequently choose to modify her way of relating to others, as an act of selfcreation. It suggests that to a large extent this is determined by her current social context and the vicissitudes of a jointly created therapeutic relationship. [source]


    THREE ASIAN MYTHS AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2009
    Razeen Sally
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BIOGEOGRAPHY OF MARINE RED ALGAE: MYTHS AND REALITIES

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2001
    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Hommersand, M. H. Department of Biology, Coker Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280 USA Theories about the geographical distribution of marine algae fall roughly into two categories: (1) a concept of biogeographical regions in which algal distribution is determined primarily by growth, reproductive and lethal temperature boundaries (Setchell, van den Hoek, Breeman, Lüning) and (2) an historical perspective in which distribution is determined primarily by patterns of dispersal and the establishment of barriers to dispersal (vicariance biogeography) (Svedelius, Garbary, Lindstrom, Hommersand). Setchell proposed the 5° isotherm rule in 1920, and in 1924 Svedelius advocated a worldwide distribution for tropical and subtropical groups followed by discontinuous distribution upon closure of the connection between the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and, later, between North and South America (Wegener's theory). Transarctic dispersal routes have received special attention in recent years (Lindstrom, Lüning, van Oppen, Olsen, Stam), as have special relationships between Australasia, South Africa and South America (Hommersand). Less well understood are the climatic changes that have taken place in the Cenozoic which are strategic to an understanding vicariant biogeography. The advent of molecular methods combined with the tools of phylogenetic systematics now make it possible to identify ancestral taxa, test the consistency of tree topologies, and calculate mean branch lengths between sister lineages diverging from an interior node of a tree. With such methods it may be possible to infer ancestral areas, identify dispersal pathways, determine the chronology of isolating events, assess the impact of multiple invasions, and generally relate dispersal and vicariance models to phylogenetic hypotheses for red, brown and green algal taxa. [source]


    THE MYTHS ABOUT RADIOTHERAPY AND METASTATIC BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2007
    David Christie MB ChB, FRANZCR
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Construction of the Myth of Survival

    DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2007
    Mercedes González de la Rocha
    ABSTRACT A myth has come into being that the poor household/family is able to survive in spite of a lack of resources and the presence of macroeconomic policies that foster unemployment and poverty. It has an accompanying fable that tells of how the poor manage to implement survival strategies that are based on their endless capacity to work, to consume less and to be part of mutual help networks. This myth has become a useful tool for policy makers as they design more aggressive neoliberal economic adjustment policies. This contribution examines anthropological and sociological insights regarding the life of the poor and the organization of their households, in which women's paid and unpaid work is an integral part. Through the lens of a researcher in the field of urban poverty and household organization, the article re-examines the fable of the good survivor. Evidence debunks the myth, showing that the optimistic message of this fable does not match with the realities of the impact of economic change on women's lives. But the myth is sustained, as this more negative story is not one that supra-national policy actors want to hear. [source]


    News and Nuances of the Entrepreneurial Myth and Metaphor: Linguistic Games in Entrepreneurial Sense-Making and Sense-Giving

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE, Issue 2 2005
    Louise Nicholson
    This article describes a social construction of entrepreneurship by exploring the constructionalist building blocks of communication, myth, and metaphor presented in a major British middle range broadsheet newspaper with no particular party political allegiance. We argue that the sense-making role of figurative language is important because of the inherent problems in defining and describing the entrepreneurial phenomena. Myth and metaphor in newspapers create an entrepreneurial appreciation that helps define our understanding of the world around us. The content analysis of articles published in this newspaper revealed images of male entrepreneurs as dynamic wolfish charmers, supernatural gurus, successful skyrockets or community saviors and corrupters. Finally, this article relates the temporal construction of myth and metaphor to the dynamics of enterprise culture. [source]


    Conceptualism and the Myth of the Given

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY, Issue 3 2009
    Walter Hopp
    First page of article [source]


    Multiple Refractions, or Winning Movement out of Myth: Barbara Köhler's Poem Cycle ,Elektra.

    GERMAN LIFE AND LETTERS, Issue 1 2004
    Spiegelungen'
    Barbara Köhler's poem cycle ,Elektra. Spiegelungen' (written 1984,5, first published 1991) is the response of the female poet to Heiner Müller's Die Hamletmaschine (1977). The paper examines the relation between Müller's Ophelia/Elektra, who swears revenge while being bound into a wheelchair in the course of the final scene, and Köhler's multiple figure (,die gestalt nähert sich wird körper verdoppelt verviel-/facht eins in allen bildern neigt sie sich zu und fordert', I), focusing in particular on the strategies with which the woman writer seeks to elicit movement from the potential entrapment in immobility of the female figure in the mirror-images of male-created myth. If iconoclasm is rejected as an option ,,und schlag ich dann treffe ich/dein gesicht und mein gesicht//zerfällt', III , the multiple refractions created by the eight-poem cycle nevertheless win a liberating movement from reductive mythical images of Woman (in contrast to Christa Wolf's re-entrapment of her Kassandra figure in an alternative heroic narrative in her 1983 Erzählung), opening out into a utopian space ,,traum hinter dem irrgarten beginnt eine landschaft', VIII , in the final poem in the cycle. [source]


    The Deukalion and Pyrrha Myth in Paul Celan and Christoph Ransmayr

    GERMAN LIFE AND LETTERS, Issue 2 2003
    Scott G. Williams
    This article examines the rewriting of Ovid's version of the Deukalion and Pyrrha myth by Paul Celan and Christoph Ransmayr. The myth relates how Jupiter destroys the world by deluge and how Deukalion and Pyrrha repopulate the earth. This myth of destruction and renewal finds resonance in the poetry of Celan and the novel Die letzte Welt by Ransmayr, one at the start of the literature of the post-war years, the other closing the second half of the century. In the case of Celan, this article highlights a connection to the classical tradition little noticed in the critical literature. In turn, it also helps lift a corner of the veil on some of his enigmatic poetry. Ransmayr's version of the myth is embedded in his rewriting of Ovid's Metamorphoses. The analysis of that version also elucidates the sparse reference to the Holocaust in the novel. There are similar metaphoric responses to the myth in both contemporary writers. Furthermore, the critical response to both writers reflects the tumultuous relationship of German-language literature and history since 1945. [source]


    Hofmannsthal, Elektra and the Representation of Women'sBehaviour Through Myth

    GERMAN LIFE AND LETTERS, Issue 1 2000
    Philip Marshall Ward
    In Elektra Hofmannsthal created a drama more of its time than he cared to admit, but he concealed this specificity in the ,eternal' materials of myth. The play came into being in response to the promptings of a director (Max Reinhardt) and an actress (Gertrud Eysoldt). Contemporaries received the play as a revision, either for good or bad, of accepted ideas of the Greeks. In a climate which identified a parallel between the ,cathartic' effect of Greek tragedy and the ,cathartic' treat-ment of hysteria in the new psychoanalysis, Elektra was readily understandable as an ,hysteric'. Hofmannsthal does not present her specifically as such but participates in a fin de siécle trend to use hysteria as a synecdoche for female behaviours which challenged the status quo. Hofmannsthal's own attitudes to women imply an anxiety about counter-cultural behaviour which, in Elektra, he mediates through two literary precedents: Sophocles's Electra and Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris. The article concludes by illustrating how Hofmannsthal constructs Elektra's behaviour as ,improper'. [source]


    Myth and Reality in the Attitude toward Valence-Bond (VB) Theory: Are Its ,Failures' Real?

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 4 2003
    Sason Shaik
    According to common wisdom propagated in textbooks and papers, valence-bond (VB) theory fails and makes predictions in contradiction with experiment. Four iconic ,failures' are: a) the wrong prediction of the ground state of the O2 molecule, b) the failure to predict the properties of cyclobutadiene (CBD) viz. those of benzene, c) the failure to predict the aromaticity/anti-aromaticity of molecular ions like C5H and C5H, C3H and C3H, C7H and C7H, etc; and d) the failure to predict that, e.g., CH4 has two different ionization potentials. This paper analyzes the origins of these ,failures' and shows that two of them (stated in a and d) are myths of unclear origins, while the other two originate in misuse of an oversimplified version of VB theory, i.e., simple resonance theory that merely enumerate resonance structures. It is demonstrated that, in each case, a properly used VB theory at a simple and portable level leads to correct predictions, as successful as those made by use of molecular-orbital (MO) theory. This notion of VB ,failure', which is traced back to the VB-MO rivalry, in the early days of quantum chemistry, should now be considered obsolete, unwarranted, and counterproductive. A modern chemist should know that there are two ways of describing electronic structure, which are not two contrasting theories, but rather two representations or two guises of the same reality. Their capabilities and insights into chemical problems are complementary, and the exclusion of any one of them undermines the intellectual heritage of chemistry. [source]


    Myth, Rulership, Church and Charters: Essays in Honour of Nicholas Brooks , Edited by J. Barrow and A. Wareham

    HISTORY, Issue 315 2009
    ALAN B. COBBAN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Vikings on the Continent in Myth and History

    HISTORY, Issue 290 2003
    Simon Coupland
    The Vikings have a bad reputation, and it was no different on the Continent in the middle ages where they were regularly portrayed as brutally cruel, devilishly cunning and of superhuman stature. This article examines the evidence for the Vikings' supposed cruelty, cunning and remarkable height and investigates how true the stereotypes were. What emerges is that all three contained a grain of truth, but led to exaggeration and distortion in later medieval texts and even some ninth-century sources. There were, for example, tall individuals among the invaders, but little difference overall between the height of the average Frank and the average Dane. There were likewise instances of Scandinavian brutality, but not on a large scale, and they were no worse than acts carried out by the Franks in the same period. Nor, surprisingly, is there clear evidence of Viking rape: certainly they were not known for ,rape and pillage' in the ninth century. Finally, though the invaders were capable of duplicity, Carolingian parallels are once again not hard to find. In sum, tales of tall, treacherous and brutal Northmen can be shown to have grown in the telling, and there is an evident gap between the Vikings of myth and the Vikings of history. [source]


    Political Myth, Mythology and the European Union,

    JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 1 2010
    VINCENT DELLA SALA
    The EU, as is commonly held, is a different form of political rule: a polity based on rationality and functional interests, not emotional appeals. Without reference to the narrative of the nation or the state, the question emerges as to whether the European Union needs or has myths? If it does, what are they and how successful have they been? The aim of this article , indeed of the special issue , is to explore the role of political myth in creating normative and cognitive foundations for governing in the EU and to examine whether these are applicable to the case of the European Union. [source]


    Studying Contemporary Constitutionalism: Memory, Myth and Horizon

    JCMS: JOURNAL OF COMMON MARKET STUDIES, Issue 1 2010
    HANNES HANSEN-MAGNUSSON
    This article proposes to apply a praxeological approach to study contemporary constitutionalism. The approach is conceptualized following critical constructivist research on constitutionalism that focuses on experience and expectation when studying the contested meaning of norms in international relations. It argues that the concept of memory offers an important view on the language-based concept of experience which extends beyond the confines of behavioural approaches that study habitual change with regard to norms. The article offers a conceptual discussion of approaches to constitutionalism, emphasizing the distinction between modern and contemporary constitutionalism and their respective foci on regulatory versus cultural practices, introduces a praxeological dimension of horizons and elaborates on political memory and myth as concepts of functional memory. [source]


    "Reckless Inaccuracies Abounding": André Malraux and the Birth of a Myth

    JOURNAL OF AESTHETICS AND ART CRITICISM, Issue 2 2009
    DEREK ALLAN
    First page of article [source]


    The Rise in Autism and the Mercury Myth

    JOURNAL OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC NURSING, Issue 1 2009
    Lawrence Scahill MSN
    [source]


    Myth and reality: practical test system for the measurement of anti-DNA antibodies in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL LABORATORY ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2010
    Laura J. McCloskey
    Abstract The myth persists that only the labor intensive Farr radioimmunoassay and Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence (CL-IFA) are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-specific tests. We compared them to ELISA with bacteriophage , DNA (EL-dsDNA) and denatured calf thymus DNA (EL-ssDNA). By percentile ranking, the specificity cut-off level was set both out of clinical context (SOCC) on 100 blood bank donors, and in clinical context (SICC) on 100 patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma (50/50). Clinical sensitivity was calculated on 100 random SLE patients. At 95% SICC, the sensitivity of Farr, CL-IFA, EL-dsDNA, and EL-ssDNA was similar (95%CI): 76% (66,84), 76% (66,84), 63% (53,72), and 75% (65,83), respectively; 87% of the patients were positive by at least one method and 55%by all methods. At 99% SICC, the sensitivity was also similar (95% CI): 57% (47,67), 47% (37,57), 58% (47,67), and 43% (33,53), respectively. The areas under ROC curve were similar (95% CI) when patients were used as controls for specificity. At 99% SOCC, EL-ssDNA identified 89% positive, 2 negative but positive by another method at 95% SICC, and 9 negative (i.e. 89/2/9), followed by CL-IFA (80/6/14), Farr (76/12/12), and EL-dsDNA (64/23/13). Thus, at relatively low cost and easy automation, under the same conditions of specificity, the two ELISA tests combined were at least as good, if not superior, to CL-IFA or Farr: they showed similar clinical sensitivity and also identified more patients with anti-DNA antibodies. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 24:77,84, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Abfraction Lesions: Myth or Reality?

    JOURNAL OF ESTHETIC AND RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY, Issue 5 2003
    J.S. REES BDS
    ABSTRACT Loss of tooth substance in the cervical region is usually attributed to toothbrush abrasion, erosion, or a combination of both factors. Recently the role of occlusal loading has become increasingly prominent. It is suggested that high occlusal loads cause large cervical stress concentrations, resulting in a disruption of the bonds between the hydroxyapatite crystals and the eventual loss of cervical enamel. This process has been called noncarious cervical tooth loss or abfraction. This article reviews the available evidence to support the thesis that occlusal loading can contribute to the process of abfraction. It also reviews the potential interactions between occlusal loading and erosion that may contribute to abfraction lesion formation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE It is important to recognize the potential role of occlusal loading in the loss of cervical tooth tissue so that management of the occlusion can be incorporated into a treatment plan for a patient with abfraction lesions. [source]


    After Dark and Out in the Cold: Part-time Law Students and the Myth of ,Equivalency'

    JOURNAL OF LAW AND SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    Andrew Francis
    This paper presents the findings of the first major research study of part-time law students. It argues that many face multiple disadvantages, largely unrecognized by universities, whose emphasis on the formal equivalency of part-time and full-time law degrees ignores the distinctive backgrounds and needs of part-time students. As a result, many are marginalized, impacting on their retention, overall performance, and work prospects. It is also argued that the context within which part-time law students experience legal education contributes to a collective habitus which may structure what is ,thinkable' for their futures. Such concerns are of particular importance given the strong vocational drive amongst part-time law students. An effective response requires action by both universities and the legal profession. Without this, part-time legal education will remain a fundamentally paradoxical experience, offering broader access to legal practice for non-traditional entrants, while continuing to inhibit their chances of success by entrenching their difference in the eyes of the profession. [source]


    When Production and Consumption Meet: Cultural Contradictions and the Enchanting Myth of Customer Sovereignty

    JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 4 2004
    Marek Korczynski
    ABSTRACT The central cultural contradiction of capitalism, argued Bell some 25 years ago, was the existence of rationalized, disciplined production alongside free and hedonistic consumption. This paper argues that this thesis, although overstated, has resonance within contemporary capitalism. The paper then considers the question of how this contradiction is managed when production and consumption meet directly within the service interaction. On the production-side rationalization is joined by customer-orientation, and on the consumption-side management promotes consumption of the enchanting myth of sovereignty. Here the customer is meant to experience a sense of being sovereign. At the same time the space is created for the customer to be, potentially, substantively directed and influenced to follow the requirements that flow from the rationalized elements of production. Key aspects of the service interaction, including the menu and its presentation, the display of empathy and aesthetic labour, and the use of naming within the service interaction, are analysed in terms of the promotion of the enchanting myth of sovereignty. Consumption, however, is a fragile process, and remains, to an important degree, ,unmanageable'. The analysis, therefore, also examines how the promotion of the enchanting myth of sovereignty systematically creates the conditions for the myth's negation. [source]


    Culture and Personality Studies, 1918,1960: Myth and History

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2001
    Robert A. LeVine
    The field known as "culture and personality studies" in the middle decades of the 20th century was a precursor of contemporary cross-cultural research on personality. Its rejection by anthropologists and sociologists after 1950 was accompanied by stereotypes that have hardened into myth and obscured its character and relevance for contemporary investigators. This article dispels some prevalent misconceptions (concerning its chronology, its theoretical unity, its positions on individual differences and its relationship to Freudian psychoanalysis) and proposes a tentative explanation of its decline. [source]


    Taíno Indian Myth and Practice: The Arrival of the Stranger King by William F. Keegan

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 3 2008
    DEANNA M. RIVERA
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The subthalamic nucleus: Myth and opportunities

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 2 2001
    Andres M. Lozano MD PhD FRCS(C)
    [source]


    Myth and mobilisation: the triadic structure of nationalist rhetoric

    NATIONS AND NATIONALISM, Issue 2 2001
    Matthew Levinger
    Drawing on the theory of collective action frames, this essay analyses the use of images of a primordial ,golden age' in the rhetoric of national mobilisation. Such idealised images of the past, juxtaposed with exaggerated depictions of a degraded present and a utopian future condition, constitute a rhetorical triad that is an effective instrument for motivating mass political movements. The model developed here emphasises the links between identity formation and political mobilisation, analysing how narratives of communal decline and redemption play a central role in defining the agendas of nationalist movements. [source]


    To Die in This Way: Nicaraguan Indians and the Myth of Mestizaje, 1880-1965

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2002
    Thomas Maloney
    To Die in This Way: Nicaraguan Indians and the Myth of Mestizaje, 1880-1965. Jeffrey L. Gould. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998. 305 pp. [source]