Myocardial Revascularization (myocardial + revascularization)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Angiogenesis and Direct Myocardial Revascularization

Karan S. Bhalla M.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Myocardial Revascularization: PCI/Stent or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft,What Is Best for Our Patients?

C. Richard Conti MD, MACC Editor-in-Chief
In my opinion, decisions regarding which type of revascularization is to be performed on a specific patient depends on vessel anatomic pathology, (ie, coronary lesion complexity). Thus, for proper decision-making regarding the selection of the revascularization procedure, the details of the coronary angiogram, not just the number of vessels involved, must be discussed by the interventional cardiologist as well as the cardiovascular surgeon. Copyright © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Use of Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Among Patients with Malignant Disease

Ahmad K. Darwazah Ph.D., F.R.C.S.
The surgical strategy among these patients remains controversial. We present our experience of using a two-staged surgical strategy of managing coronary artery disease using off-pump bypass followed by tumor management. Patients and Methods: During a six-year period from 2002 to 2007, 350 patients underwent myocardial revascularization using off-pump bypass. Among these patients, associated malignant disease was found in six patients (1.7%). Two of them had papillary carcinoma of the bladder, one patient had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and the rest suffer from carcinoma affecting the prostate, colon, and right lung. Their mean age was 54 years. Their data was evaluated. Patients were followed up to evaluate their symptoms and progress of their disease. Results: All patients were managed successfully. Complete revascularization was achieved in all patients except one due to small nongraftable vessels. The mean number of grafts was 1.8 ± 0.8. There was no evidence of postoperative infraction or stroke. The mean hospital stay was 5 ± 1.1 days. Management of cancer was done during the same hospital admission in two patients with bladder cancer. The rest had a mean interval of 6.6 ± 5.4 days. Two patients underwent surgery in the form of left hemicolectomy and right lower lobectomy. The rest had chemotherapy as a sole treatment. All patients were followed up completely for a period of 12 to 84 months (mean 39.2 ± 26.7 months). We had no late mortality. All patients remained asymptomatic except one, who had angina of class III and had recurrence of her bladder tumor, which necessitated two sessions of endoscopic resection. Conclusion: We believe that staged operation to treat coronary artery disease and malignancy can be performed safely. The use of off-pump technique to revascularize the myocardium can be performed without any complications.(J Card Surg 2010;25:1-4) [source]

Surgical Treatment of Coronary Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coronary Artery Disease

Pavle Kova, Ph.D.
Usually they are asymptomatic, but sometimes they can mimic other cardiac diseases, most commonly heart failure, myocardial ischemia, and endocarditis. Coronary arteriovenous fistulae have been reported to arise more commonly from the right coronary artery. Most of these fistulae are congenital, and only a small fraction acquired. In this report we present successful surgical treatment of coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula combined with myocardial revascularization. [source]

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Versus Percutaneous Coronary Artery Intervention in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: Does a Drug-Eluting Stent Have an Impact on Clinical Outcome?

Susumu Manabe M.D.
For chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, however, the impact of DES on clinical outcome is yet to be determined. Forty-six consecutive chronic HD patients who underwent myocardial revascularization in our institute were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-eight patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and 18 patients underwent percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI). Patient characteristics were similar between the two groups. In the CABG group, bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) bypass grafting was performed in 27 patients and off-pump CABG was performed in 20 patients. In the PCI group, a DES was used in 12 patients. The number of coronary vessels treated per patient was higher in the CABG group (CABG: 4.25 ± 1.32 vs. PCI: 1.44 ± 0.78; p < 0.001). Two-year survival rates were similar between the two groups (CABG: 94.1% vs. PCI: 73.9%; p = 0.41), but major adverse cardiac event-free survival (CABG: 85.9% vs. PCI: 37.1%; p = 0.001) and angina-free survival (CABG: 84.9% vs. PCI: 28.9%; p < 0.001) rates were significantly higher in the CABG group. The one-year patency rate for the CABG grafts was 93.3% (left ITA: 100%, right ITA: 84.6%, sapenous vein: 90.9%, gastro-epiploic artery: 100%), and six-month restenosis rate for PCI was 57.1% (balloon angio-plasty: 75%, bare metal stent 40%, DES: 58.3%). Even in the era of DES, clinical results favored CABG. The difference in clinical results is due to the sustainability of successful revascularization. [source]

Chordal Cutting VIA Aortotomy in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: Surgical and Echocardiographic Study

Georges Fayad M.D.
In addition, MR may exacerbate during exercise not only trough exercise-induced ischemia but also through an increase in tenting area. Accordingly, we aimed to perform chordal cutting through aortotomy in patients with exercise-induced ischemic worsening of MR. Methods: Five patients with ischemic MR, due to anterior leaflet tenting, whichworsened during exercise echocardiography were enrolled. All patients underwent cutting of the 2 basal chordae attached to the anterior mitral leaflet associated with myocardial revascularization. Three patients had additional mitral valve annuloplasty. Postoperative MR was evaluated using exercise echocardiography. Results: Age ranged from 63 to 78 years and 4 patients were male. Preoperative LV ejection fraction averaged 39 ± 3%. Chordal cutting was performed through aortotomy allowing comfortable access to the anterior mitral valve. Mitral effective regurgitant orifice at rest and at peak exercise was reduced by surgery (10 ± 3 to 0.6 ± 0.5 mm2 at rest and from 20 ± 3 to 6 ± 2 mm2 at peak exercise; p = 0.03). Mitral tenting area at rest and at peak exercise was concomitantly reduced by surgery (1.83 ± 0.21 cm2 to 0.50 ± 0.4 cm2 at rest and from 3.11 ± 0.58 to 1.7 ± 0.5 cm2 at peak exercise; p = 0.03). Left ventricular size and function remained unchanged after surgery. Conclusions: Chordal cutting through aortotomy may be an effective option to treat ischemic MR due to anterior leaflet tenting. Associated with myocardial revascularization, it resulted in a decrease of MR at rest and during exercise through a decrease in tenting area without impairment of LV function. [source]

Systematic Organ Protection in Coronary Artery Surgery With or Without Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Ph.D., Song Wan M.D.
Off-pump coronary surgery has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory injury compared to the conventional approach, thereby reducing the incidence of postoperative cardiopulmonary, renal, or neurological dysfunction. It is believed that off-pump experience may greatly impact on improving the outcome of coronary surgery in certain high-risk patients. Moreover, a better understanding of the underlying mechanism would also help to improve our current CPB management. Accumulating evidence to date indicates that a balance between pro- and antiinflammatory responses is crucial in limiting the extent of such systemic inflammatory injury following surgical myocardial revascularization. [source]

Ventriculo-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency with remifentanil in patients with coronary artery disease

D. Pittarello
Background:, Optimum transfer of energy from the left ventricle to the arterial circulation requires appropriate matching of these mechanical systems. Left ventricular-arterial coupling describes this relationship between the ventricular elastance (Ees) and arterial elastance (Ea). The ratio of these elastances defines the efficiency of myocardium and provides in our study a useful technique for assessment of the actions of remifentanil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of remifentanil on ventriculo-arterial coupling in cardiac surgery in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods:, Fourteen patients with coronary artery disease, submitted intraoperatively to cardiac anesthesia for myocardial revascularization, were examined prospectively. With the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and different dicrotic arterial pressures, we determined the ventricle elastance (Ees), the arterial elastance (Ea) and myocardial efficiency before and after administration of a slow-bolus of remifentanil (1 µ kg,1). Results:, Remifentanil decreases significantly the ventricular elastance (from 6.09 mmHg ml,1 m,2 to 4.88) (P < 0.05), with a less, but however, significant decrease of arterial elastance (from 3.68 mmHg ml,1 m,2 to 3.13) (P < 0.05). Despite causing simultaneous declines, maintains a good myocardial efficiency (0.64,0.68) with no significant difference. Conclusion:, Although remifentanil depresses ventricular and arterial elastance, preserves a good left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency, despite a little increase of coupling. However, these effects are maintained only during a slow intravenous infusion and are dose-dependent with impairment of coupling, that may contribute to decline in overall cardiovascular performance, at higher anesthetic dose and rapid infusion in patients with a severe myocardial dysfunction. [source]

The Effect of Myocardial Surgical Revascularization on Left Ventricular Late Potentials

Levent Can M.D.
Background: The presence of ventricular late potentials (LP) is an important indicator for the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias due to ischemic heart disease. The effect of myocardial revascularization on LP has remained controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether complete myocardial surgical revascularization (CABG) documented by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy might alter the substrate responsible for LP. Methods: Prospectively, enrolled patients undergoing elective CABG were evaluated with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and signal- averaged ECG pre- and postoperatively. SAECG recordings were obtained serially: before, 48,72 hours and 3 months after CABG. LPS were defined as positive if SAECG met at least two of Gomes criteria. Scintigraphies were performed pre-and 3 months postoperatively for determination of the success of revascularization. Changes observed in SAECG recordings after CABG were compared between those with and without successful revascularization. Results: CABG resulted in successful revascularization in 23 patients and was unsuccessful in 17 (no change or deterioration of the perfusion defects). Preoperative SAECG values were not different between groups except for RMS values. The incidence of LP decreased significantly postoperatively in patients with improved myocardial perfusion, whereas there were no changes in patients who did not have postoperative perfusion improvement (McNemar test, P < 0.05). Conclusions: LPs disappear following the elimination of myocardial ischemia by complete surgical revascularization. Persistence of ischemia following CABG usually results in the persistence of late potentials. The incidence of ventricular arrhythmias is expected to be unchanged in these patients and they should be reevaluated for reinterventions. A.N.E. 2001;6(2):84,91 [source]

An everolimus-eluting stent versus a paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessel coronary artery disease: A pooled analysis from the SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III trials,

Antonio L. Bartorelli MD
Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent compared to the TAXUS paclitaxel-eluting stent in small vessels. Backgroud: The XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent (EES) has been shown to improve angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous myocardial revascularization, but its performance in small coronary arteries has not been investigated. Methods: In this pooled analysis, we studied a cohort of 541 patients with small coronary vessels (reference diameter <2.765 mm) by using patient and lesion level data from the SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III studies. TAXUS Express (73% of lesions) and TAXUS Liberté (27% of lesions) paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) were used as controls in SPIRIT II. In SPIRIT III, Taxus Express2 PES was the control. Results: Mean angiographic in-stent and in-segment late loss was significantly less in the EES group compared with the PES group, (0.15 ± 0.37 mm vs. 0.30 ± 0.44 mm; P = 0.011 for in-stent; 0.10 ± 0.38 mm vs. 0.21 ± 0.34 mm; P = 0.034 for in-segment). EES also resulted in a significant reduction in composite major adverse cardiac events at 1 year (19/366 [5.2%] vs. 17/159 [10.7%]; P = 0.037), due to fewer non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions and target lesion revascularizations. At 1 year, the rate of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction was significantly lower in the EES group compared with that of the PES group (6/366 [1.6%] vs. 8/159 [5.0%]; P = 0.037). Conclusions: In patients with small vessel coronary arteries, the XIENCE V EES was superior to the TAXUS PES. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation through the left subclavian artery with a patent LIMA graft,

Maurizio Taramasso MD
Abstract We report the case of an 80-year-old male with severe aortic valve stenosis previously submitted to surgical myocardial revascularization with patent mammary graft treated by TAVI through left-transaxillary approach because of unsuitable transfemoral and transapical approaches.© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A randomized comparison of sirolimus-eluting versus bare metal stents in the treatment of diabetic patients with native coronary artery lesions: The DECODE study,

Charles Chan MD
Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of sirolimus-eluting (SES) versus bare metal stents (BMS) on 6-month in-stent late luminal loss (LLL) and 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Background: In studies of unselected patients, coronary restenosis rates have been lower with SES than with BMS. Comparisons of SES versus BMS in diabetics with more than one stenosis or more than one vessel disease are few. Methods: This open-label trial randomly assigned 200 diabetics with de novo coronary artery stenoses to receive up to three SES versus BMS in a 2:1 ratio. The patients underwent repeat coronary angiography at 6 months after the index procedure and were followed-up for 1 year. The primary study endpoint was in-stent LLL at 6 months. Results: Between August 2002 and May 2004, 83 patients (mean age = 60 years) with 128 lesions (mean = 1.5 per patient) were enrolled at four U.S. and seven Asian medical centers. Enrollment was terminated early by the Safety Monitoring Board because of a statistically significant difference in rates of clinical endpoints. The mean in-stent LLL at 6 months was 0.23 mm in SES versus 1.10 mm in BMS recipients (P < 0.001). At 12 months, 8 patients (15%) assigned to SES had experienced MACE versus 12 patients (41%) assigned to BMS (P = 0.006). Conclusions: In diabetics, the mean 6-month in-stent LLL was significantly smaller, and 12-month MACE rate significantly lower, after myocardial revascularization with SES than with BMS. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Midterm Results of Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in 136 Patients: An Angiographic Control Study

Hakki Kazaz M.D.
This study summarizes the midterm results of 136 off-pump bypass surgery patients. Methods: Between January 2000 and March 2002, out of 178 surgical myocardial revascularizations, 136 (76.4%) were off-pump bypass surgery. Complete revascularization was done and especially arterial grafts were used. All patients were followed clinically and with treadmill test for 2 years. Average control angiography was performed at the end of 2-year follow-up. Results: Of all the patients, 56.7% were male and the mean age of the patients was 63.6 ± 7.4 years. A total of 481 anastomoses were performed,136 (28.27%) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), 135 (28.07%) to the circumflex coronary artery (Cx) branches, 102 (21.20%) to the right coronary artery (RCA), 108 (22.46%) to the D,. The mean graft number was 3.46. We used 96.6% of patients' left internal mammarian artery (LITA), 29.2% radial artery (RA), 4.4% right internal thoracic artery (RITA), and 100% saphenous vein. There were ischemic changes within 12 patients. All ischemic changes came back to normal within 4 and 18 hours, postoperatively. Mean extubation time was 5.36 ± 2.23 hours, mean stay in intensive care unit was 17.53 ± 3.15 hours, mean hospital stay was 5.03 ± 1.29 days. The LITA patency was 99.25%, RA patency was 97.84%, RITA patency was 100%, and saphenous vein patency was 91.79% with control angiography. Conclusion: Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is efficient procedure with lower index of mortality, morbidity, ICU stay, hospital stay, good wound healing, early socialization, and results in lower costs. [source]