Myocardial Fibers (myocardial + fiber)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Nondestructive optical determination of fiber organization in intact myocardial wall

Rebecca M. Smith
Abstract Mapping the myocardial fiber organization is important for assessing the electrical and mechanical properties of normal and diseased hearts. Current methods to determine the fiber organization have several limitations: histological sectioning mechanically distorts the tissue and is labor-intensive, while diffusion tensor imaging has low spatial resolution and requires expensive MRI scanners. Here, we utilized optical clearing, a fluorescent dye, and confocal microscopy to create three-dimensional reconstructions of the myocardial fiber organization of guinea pig and mouse hearts. We have optimized the staining and clearing procedure to allow for the nondestructive imaging of whole hearts with a thickness up to 3.5 mm. Myocardial fibers could clearly be identified at all depths in all preparations. We determined the change of fiber orientation across strips of guinea pig left ventricular wall. Our study confirms the qualitative result that there is a steady counterclockwise fiber rotation across the ventricular wall. Quantitatively, we found a total fiber rotation of 105.7 14.9 (mean standard error of the mean); this value lies within the range reported by previous studies. These results show that optical clearing, in combination with a fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy, is a practical and accurate method for determining myocardial fiber organization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Three-dimensional diffusion tensor microscopy of fixed mouse hearts

Yi Jiang
Abstract The relative utility of 3D, microscopic resolution assessments of fixed mouse myocardial structure via diffusion tensor imaging is demonstrated in this study. Isotropic 100-,m resolution fiber orientation mapping within 5.5 accuracy was achieved in 9.1 hr scan time. Preliminary characterization of the diffusion tensor primary eigenvector reveals a smooth and largely linear angular rotation across the left ventricular wall. Moreover, a higher level of structural hierarchy is evident from the organized secondary and tertiary eigenvector fields. These findings are consistent with the known myocardial fiber and laminar structures reported in the literature and suggest an essential role of diffusion tensor microscopy in developing quantitative atlases for studying the structure,function relationships of mouse hearts. Magn Reson Med 52:453,460, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Restrictive Right Ventricular Physiology and Right Ventricular Fibrosis as Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Exercise Capacity After Biventricular Repair of Pulmonary Atresia and Intact Ventricular Septum

Xue-Cun Liang MD
Background The hypertrophic myocardium, myocardial fiber disarray, and endocardial fibroelastosis in pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) may provide anatomic substrates for restrictive filling of the right ventricle. Hypothesis Restrictive right ventricle (RV) physiology is related to RV fibrosis and exercise capacity in patients after biventricular repair of PAIVS. Methods A total of 27 patients, age 16.5 5.6 years, were recruited after biventricular repair of PAIVS. Restrictive RV physiology was defined by the presence of antegrade diastolic pulmonary flow and RV fibrosis assessed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance. Their RV function was compared with that of 27 healthy controls and related to RV LGE score and exercise capacity. Results Compared with controls, PAIVS patients had lower tricuspid annular systolic and early diastolic velocities, RV global longitudinal systolic strain, systolic strain rate, and early and late diastolic strain rates (all P < 0.05). A total of 22 (81%, 95% confidence interval: 62%,94%) PAIVS patients demonstrated restrictive RV physiology. Compared to those without restrictive RV physiology (n = 5), these 22 patients had lower RV global systolic strain, lower RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates, higher RV LGE score, and a greater percent of predicted maximum oxygen consumption (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Restrictive RV physiology reflects RV diastolic dysfunction and is associated with more severe RV fibrosis but better exercise capacity in patients after biventricular repair of PAIVS. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone as the Primary Site of MGP Accumulation in Fish,

DC Simes
Abstract Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent, Gla-containing proteins, and in mammals, birds, and Xenopus, its mRNA was previously detected in extracts of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues (mainly heart and kidney), whereas the protein was found to accumulate mainly in bone. However, at that time, it was not evaluated if this accumulation originated from protein synthesized in cartilage or in bone cells because both coexist in skeletal structures of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found to accumulate in vertebra of shark, a cartilaginous fish. However, to date, no information is available on sites of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have in their skeleton mineralized structures with both bone and calcified cartilage. To analyze MGP structure and function in bony fish, MGP was acid-extracted from the mineralized matrix of either bone tissue (vertebra) or calcified cartilage (branchial arches) from the bony fish, Argyrosomus regius,, separated from the mineral phase by dialysis, and purified by Sephacryl S-100 chromatography. No MGP was recovered from bone tissue, whereas a protein peak corresponding to the MGP position in this type of gel filtration was obtained from an extract of branchial arches, rich in calcified cartilage. MGP was identified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and the resulting protein sequence was used to design specific oligonucleotides suitable to amplify the corresponding DNA by a mixture of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5,rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE)-PCR. In parallel, ArBGP (bone Gla protein, osteocalcin) was also identified in the same fish, and its complementary DNA cloned by an identical procedure. Tissue distribution/accumulation was analyzed by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In mineralized tissues, the MGP gene was predominantly expressed in cartilage from branchial arches, with no expression detected in the different types of bone analyzed, whereas BGP mRNA was located in bone tissue as expected. Accordingly, the MGP protein was found to accumulate, by immunohistochemical analysis, mainly in the extracellular matrix of calcified cartilage. In soft tissues, MGP mRNA was mainly expressed in heart but in situ hybridization, indicated that cells expressing the MGP gene were located in the bulbus arteriosus and aortic wall, rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was detected in the striated muscle myocardial fibers of the ventricle. These results show that in marine teleost fish, as in mammals, the MGP gene is expressed in cartilage, heart, and kidney tissues, but in contrast with results obtained in Xenopus and higher vertebrates, the protein does not accumulate in vertebra of non-osteocytic teleost fish, but only in calcified cartilage. In addition, our results also indicate that the presence of MGP mRNA in heart tissue is due, at least in fish, to the expression of the MGP gene in only two specific cell types, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was found in the striated muscle fibers of the ventricle. In light of these results and recent information on expression of MGP gene in these same cell types in mammalian aorta, it is likely that the levels of MGP mRNA previously detected in Xenopus, birds, and mammalian heart tissue may be restricted toregions rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Our results also emphasize the need to re-evaluate which cell types are involved in MGP gene expression in other soft tissues and bring further evidence that fish are a valuable model system to study MGP gene expression and regulation. [source]

The Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation

In this article we have reviewed the mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) with special emphasis on the thoracic veins. Based on a number of features, the thoracic veins are highly arrhythmogenic. The pulmonary vein (PV)-left atrial (LA) junction has discontinuous myocardial fibers separated by fibrotic tissues. The PV muscle sleeve is highly anisotropic. The vein of Marshall (VOM) in humans has multiple small muscle bundles separated by fibrosis and fat. Insulated muscle fibers can promote reentrant excitation, automaticity, and triggered activity. The PV muscle sleeves contain periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive large pale cells that are morphologically reminiscent of Purkinje cells. These special cells could be the sources of focal discharge. Antiarrhythmic drugs have significant effects on PV muscle sleeves both at baseline and during AF. Both class I and III drugs have effects on wavefront traveling from PV to LA and from LA to PV. Separating the thoracic veins and the LA with ablation techniques also prevents PV-LA interaction. By reducing PV-LA interaction, pharmacological therapy and PV isolation reduce the activation rate in PV, intracellular calcium accumulation, and triggered activity. Therefore, thoracic vein isolation is an important technique in AF control. We conclude that thoracic veins are important in the generation and maintenance of AF. [source]

Three-dimensional architecture of the left ventricular myocardium

Paul P. Lunkenheimer
Abstract Concepts for ventricular function tend to assume that the majority of the myocardial cells are aligned with their long axes parallel to the epicardial ventricular surface. We aimed to validate the existence of aggregates of myocardial cells orientated with their long axis intruding obliquely between the ventricular epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to quantitate their amount and angulation. To compensate for the changing angle of the long axis of the myocytes relative to the equatorial plane of the ventricles with varying depths within the ventricular walls, the so-called helical angle, we used pairs of cylindrical knives of different diameters to punch semicircular slices from the left ventricular wall of pigs, the slices extending from the epicardium to the endocardium. The slices were pinned flat, fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, stained with azan or hematoxilin and eosin, and analyzed by a new semiautomatic procedure. We made use of new techniques in informatics to determine the number and angulation of the aggregates of myocardial cells cut in their long axis. The alignment of the myocytes cut longitudinally varied markedly between the epicardium and the endocardium. Populations of myocytes, arranged in strands, diverge by varying angles from the epicardial surface. When paired knives of decreasing diameter were used to cut the slices, the inclination of the diagonal created by the arrays increases, while the lengths of the array of cells cut axially decreases. The visualization of the size, shape, and alignment of the myocytic arrays at any side of the ventricular wall is determined by the radius of the knives used, the range of helical angles subtended by the alignment of the myocytes throughout the thickness of the wall, and their angulation relative to the epicardial surface. Far from the majority of the ventricular myocytes being aligned at angles more or less tangential to the epicardial lining, we found that three-fifths of the myocardial cells had their long axes diverging at angles between 7.5 and 37.5 from an alignment parallel to the epicardium. This arrangement, with the individual myocytes supported by connective tissue, might control the cyclic rearrangement of the myocardial fibers. This could serve as an important control of both ventricular mural thickening and intracavitary shape. Anat Rec Part A 288A:565,578, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]