Myeloma Patients (myeloma + patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Myeloma Patients

  • multiple myeloma patient

  • Selected Abstracts

    Four crystal forms of a Bence-Jones protein

    Debora L. Makino
    Four crystal forms have been grown and characterized by X-ray diffraction of a Bence-Jones protein collected from the urine of a multiple myeloma patient more than 40,years ago. Closely related tetragonal and orthorhombic forms belonging to space groups P43212 and P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 68.7, c = 182.1 and a = 67.7, b = 69.4, c = 87.3,, diffract to 1.5 and 1.9,, respectively. Two closely related trigonal forms, both belonging to space group P3121 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.3, but differing by a doubling of the c axis, one 46.9, and the other 94.0,, diffract to 2.9 and 2.6, resolution, respectively. The trigonal crystal of short c -axis length shows a positive indication of twinning. The trigonal crystal of longer c axis, which appeared only after eight months of incubation at room temperature, is likely to be composed of proteolytically degraded molecules and unlike the other crystal forms contains two entire Bence-Jones dimers in the asymmetric unit. This latter crystal form may shed some light on the formation of fibrils common to certain storage diseases. [source]

    Plasmacytoma in a multiple myeloma patient

    Mathieu Jablonski
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Encouraging preliminary results in 12 patients with high-risk haematological malignancies by omitting graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation

    Athanasios B.-T.
    Immunosuppressive therapy, routinely given after allogeneic transplantation to modulate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may have an adverse effect on the graft-versus-tumour (GVT) effect. Twelve patients with high-risk haematological malignancies were given cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation and antithymocyte globulin followed by peripheral blood stem cell grafts from HLA-identical siblings without prophylactic immunosuppression. At the earliest clinical evidence of GVHD, patients were treated with high-dose solumedrol and tacrolimus. Prompt haematological recovery [absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >,10 109/l] was observed (median time 9 d). All patients developed grade III,IV GVHD (median onset 9 d), involving the skin (11), intestine (five) and liver (three). Of nine evaluable patients, seven developed chronic GVHD [extensive (six), limited (one)]. Six patients died 1,65 months after transplantation. Three patients died from treatment-related complications, two from acute GVHD and one from relapsing disease. The remaining six patients are alive 5,26 months after transplantation, five in complete remission and one myeloma patient in very good partial remission. In conclusion, omission of post-transplantation GVHD prophylaxis is feasible, does not lead to graft failure or a high incidence of uncontrollable GVHD and appears to be associated with encouraging clinical responses in a group of patients with high-risk disease features. [source]

    Late relapse of a light-chain myeloma as extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland after second allogeneic stem-cell transplantation

    Evren zdemir
    Abstract:, We present a rare experience with a myeloma patient who had a late relapse as isolated extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland after a second allogeneic transplantation. We give PET/CT scan findings at diagnosis and during follow up of the disease after subsequent management. The possible pathogenesis of the late extramedullary relapse of myeloma after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and management options are discussed. [source]

    Therapeutic approaches for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients in the era of novel drugs

    Fortunato Morabito
    Abstract The treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) has evolved rapidly over recent years. The availability of new effective drugs with novel mechanisms of action, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in the last decade, has resulted in a new scenario expected to impact favorably on the outcome of patients with MM. The introduction of new drugs in the treatment of patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has allowed for a significant increase of complete response rate with a positive impact on progression-free survival. In patients not eligible for ASCT, randomized trials have shown that both thalidomide and bortezomib when combined with melphalan and prednisone (MP) are superior to MP and are now considered the standard of care. Ongoing trials are assessing whether MP plus lenalidomide or the combination of lenalidomide plus dexamethasone should be considered an attractive treatment option, while additional studies are needed to determine the role of routine maintenance or consolidation therapy with these new drugs. This new therapeutic armamentarium in light of adequate prophylaxis and supportive care allows clinicians to greatly improve the survival perspectives for both young and elderly patients. In this review, we report updated data for the front-line therapy of MM, examining the role of new drugs either when administered as induction therapy before ASCT in younger patients or when combined with alkylating agents for the treatment of older patients. The most relevant articles on therapy of MM published from November 1982 to January 2010 (selected through PubMed), and recent meeting abstracts were used as sources for this review. [source]

    What changes in health-related quality of life matter to multiple myeloma patients?

    A prospective study
    Abstract Objective: To determine the clinical significance of changes in quality-of-life scores in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), we have estimated the minimal important difference (MID) for the health-related quality-of-life instrument, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The MID is the smallest change in a quality-of-life score considered important to patients. Methods: Between 2006 and 2008, 239 patients with MM completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 at inclusion (T1) and after 3 months (T2). At T2, a structured quality-of-life interview was also performed. MIDs were calculated by using mean score changes (T2,T1) for patients who in the interview stated they had improved, deteriorated or were unchanged. MIDs were also estimated by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve method as well as by calculation effect sizes using standard deviations of baseline scores. Results: MIDs varied slightly depending on the method used. Patients stating in the interview that they had ,improved' or ,deteriorated' had a corresponding change in EORTC QLQ-C30 score ranging from 6 to15 (improvement) and from 9 to17 (deterioration) (scale range 0,100). The ROC analysis indicated that changes in score from 7 to17 represent clinically important changes to patients. The effect size method suggested 5,6 to be a small and 11,15 to be a medium change. Conclusion: Calculation of MIDs as mean score changes or by ROC analysis suggested that a change in the EORTC QLQ-C30 score in the range of approximately 6,17 is considered important by patients with MM. These MIDs are closer to a medium effect size than to a small effect size. Our findings imply that mean score changes smaller than 6 are unlikely to be important to the patients, even if these changes are statistically significant. [source]

    Long-term effects of idiotype vaccination on the specific T-cell response in peripheral blood and bone marrow of multiple myeloma patients

    Amir Osman Abdalla
    Abstract Objectives:, To elucidate long-term effects of idiotype (Id) vaccination on Id-specific T cells of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and compare Id-specific T-cell responses of peripheral blood with those of bone marrow (BM). Materials and methods:, Id-specific T-cell responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were compared with those of BM mononuclear cells (BMMC) in 10 MM patients vaccinated with the Id protein at a median time of 41 months since the last immunization. The PBMC responses at late follow-up were also compared with those during active immunization. The responses were assessed by a proliferation assay, enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) (,-interferon), cytometric bead array (CBA) for secreted cytokines and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for cytokine gene expression. Results:, At the late testing time, an Id-specific response was detected in PBMC of five patients (ELISPOT, CBA, QRT-PCR) and in BMMC of four patients (CBA, QRT-PCR). A response in both compartments was noted only in three patients. The cytokines gene profile was consistent with a predominance of Th2 cells [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10]. Comparison of the Id-specific responses of PBMC during active immunization with those at the late follow-up showed that the frequency and magnitude of the responses had decreased significantly by time (proliferation/ELISPOT) (P < 0.02) and shifted at the gene level from a Th1 to a Th2 profile (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, Id-specific T cells may decline overtime and shift toward a Th2 response and may be found at a similar frequency of patients in blood and BM. [source]

    Absence of veno-occlussive disease in a cohort of multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with targeted busulfan dosage

    A. Clops
    Abstract:,Background:,Plasma concentrations of oral busulfan (BU) were measured in multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with a double alkylating conditioning protocol in order to individualise doses of BU based on individual pharmacokinetic parameters and to reduce toxicities related to BU exposure. Patients and methods:,Forty-four consecutive patients with MM participating in the co-operative Spanish protocol were prospectively evaluated. Conditioning regimen prior to autologous infusion consisted of BU followed by melphalan. BU pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for each patient after the first dose based on measured concentrations and subsequent doses were modified as necessary to achieve target exposure. Results:,Mean BU exposure (AUCss) (DS) before dosage modification range from 3192 to 12 180 ng h/mL. Twenty-six out of 44 (59%) patients required dose adjustment. None of the patients developed hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Grade , II oropharyngeal mucositis was observed in the majority of patients (95%) and the severity of mucositis increased with increasing average steady-state BU plasma concentration. There were four treatment-related deaths: two patients died from multiorgan failure and two of respiratory infections. Of the remaining 40 patients, 15 were in complete remission with negative immunofixation, 21 in partial remission and four in stable disease 3 months after ASCT. Conclusions:,The results of the present study show the variability in BU pharmacokinetic parameters and suggest the possible relationship between toxicities and BU exposure. Individualising BU dosage in MM patients undergoing ASCT we observed the absence of VOD. [source]

    Arsenic trioxide is effective in the treatment of multiple myeloma in SCID mice

    Philippe Rousselot
    Abstract: Objectives :,Pharmacological concentrations of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and organic arsenic melarsoprol induce apoptosis in malignant plasma cells. In an attempt to further document the interest of the arsenic in vivo, we treated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice transplanted with human myeloma cells by ATO or melarsoprol. Methods :,Fifty-two SCID mice were irradiated before intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of plasma cells from five myeloma patients. Engraftment was assessed by serial measurement of the human monoclonal immunoglobulin G (HuMIgG) concentration in mouse serum. Treatment with ATO (10 ,g/g i.p. 5 d a week), melarsoprol (30 ,g/g i.p. 5 d a week) or phosphate buffer saline was started when a sustained growth of the tumor cells was demonstrated. Results :,Seventeen mice developed the human tumor. A significant decrease in HuMIgG amounts was observed in three of five mice of the ATO group, including two that achieved an apparent complete remission persisting up to 5 months after ATO discontinuation. In these mice, no human plasma cells were detected in tissue samples collected postmortem. Soluble human interleukin-6 receptor amount, measured in mice sera as a surrogate marker of the plasma cell proliferation, varied in parallel with HuMIgG concentration. A significant difference in survival was observed between control and ATO treated mice (113 and 158 d, respectively; P = 0.01) whereas no difference could be evidenced in control and melarsoprol groups. Conclusion :,Present study confirms in vivo the in vitro effects of ATO on myeloma cells. Delayed relapses were observed suggesting that prolonged or maintenance therapy has to be considered in future clinical trials. Whether or not this will translate into clinically relevant effect of the drug in myeloma patients deserves further consideration. [source]

    Mobilisation of tumour cells along with CD34+ cells to peripheral blood in multiple myeloma

    Lene Meldgaard Knudsen
    Abstract:Background: Cells belonging to the malignant clone are found in the peripheral blood in myeloma patients. In order to minimise the content of tumour cells in the stem cell product it is crucial to perform stem cell harvest at a time when tumour cells in the peripheral blood are at a minimum. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the mobilisation kinetics of normal CD34+ cells and myeloma plasma cells during mobilisation with either G-CSF alone or high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDCy) plus G-CSF. Design and methods: Morning blood samples were drawn each day during mobilisation from start of G-CSF or HDCy and to the end of leukapheresis, and were analysed by flow cytometry for content of CD34+ cells and myeloma plasma cells (CD38+ + CD45,). Tumour cells were also estimated by a patient-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on the 5, nuclease TaqMan technology. Results: Flow cytometry data from 16 patients showed concomitant mobilisation of CD34+ cells and myeloma plasma cells. Seven patients were mobilised twice; first with G-CSF alone and then with HDCy plus G-CSF. There was no difference between the two mobilisation regimens regarding tumour cell mobilisation kinetics. Real-time PCR was performed in one patient and confirmed the mobilisation of tumour cells at the time when CD34+ blood cells were at a maximum. Conclusions: Tumour cells are mobilised to the peripheral blood at the same time as CD34+ cells in multiple myeloma patients after priming with both G-CSF alone and HDCy in combination with G-CSF. [source]

    Urinary N-telopeptide levels in multiple myeloma patients, correlation with Tc-99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy and other biochemical markers of disease activity

    M. G. Alexandrakis
    Abstract Urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) has been reported to be a sensitive and specific marker of bone resorption in multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, we measured the levels of NTx in 30 newly diagnosed MM patients and 25 controls. We examined its association with the overall score of skeletal involvement measured by Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy and other biochemical markers of bone disease (tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a), serum calcium and creatinine). We further studied the correlation of NTx with the stage of disease (according to Durie,Salmon criteria) and bone marrow infiltration by plasma cells. High levels of NTx, bone marrow infiltration, TNF-,, calcium and creatinine were noted at advanced stages of disease (p,<,0.05). NTx and TNF-a were found at significantly higher concentrations in patients with a high overall score (3 and 4) in Tc-99m-sestaMIBI in comparison to a low score (0, 1 and 2; p,<,0.05). Positive correlations were found between NTx and TNF-a, as well as between bone infiltration and TNF-a or calcium. In conclusion, NTx is a useful marker for the monitoring of bone resorption in MM and correlates with imaging findings on Tc-99m-sestaMIBI and other biochemical markers of disease activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Proliferative activity of plasma cells is the most relevant prognostic factor in elderly multiple myeloma patients

    R. Garca-Sanz
    Abstract Although multiple myeloma (MM) is predominantly a disease of the elderly, few studies have focused on the identification of prognostic factors in this group of patients. Four hundred twenty five MM patients >65 years were uniformly treated with chemotherapy (MP or VCMP/VBAD). Multivariate analysis identified 4 factors with independent unfavorable prognostic influence: high percentage of S-phase bone marrow plasma cells (>2.5%); elevated ,2 microglobulin (B2M) (>4 mg/L); age >80 years old; and LDH serum levels (above normal limit). The S-phase value was the most powerful independent prognostic factor to discriminate subgroups of patients with different prognosis. Thus, 3 main risk categories could be identified according to S-phase values: ,1%, 1,3% and >3%, with median survivals of 34, 22 and 12 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). Our study also proved the value for elderly patients of the recently developed International Score System (ISS) based on B2M and albumin. Furthermore, the number of S-phase cells helped to subdivide the ISS III Group identifying a subset of patients with very poor prognosis defined by an additional high S-phase, who displayed a median survival of only 8 months. These results demonstrate that elderly patients can be accurately classified according to prognosis, which may be particularly valuable when comparing the efficacy of new treatment strategies. Moreover, our results underline the high prognostic value of proliferative activity of PC, a parameter that should be considered in routine laboratory investigations of MM. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Detecting methylation patterns of p16, MGMT, DAPK and E-cadherin genes in multiple myeloma patients

    Summary Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell neoplasia characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. Besides known genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes are also known to effect MM pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that silences genes by adding methyl groups to cytosine-guanine dinucleotides at the promoter regions. In this study, the methylation status of four genes; p16, O6-methyl guanine DNA methyl transferase (MGMT), death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and E-cadherin (ECAD); at the time of diagnosis was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR). In the 20 cases studied; methylation of the promoter regions of p16, MGMT, DAPK and ECAD genes was detected in 10%, 40%, 10% and 45% of the cases, respectively. In 65% (13/20) of cases, at least one of the genes studied had promoter methylation; while 35% of cases (7/20) had methylated promoters of more than one gene. There was a significant correlation between promoter hypermethylation of MGMT and the presence of extramedullary involvement; but for the other genes no correlation was found regarding disease properties like age, disease stage, clinical course and the presence of lytic bone lesions. Determining the methylation profiles of genes in MM, could lead to a new understanding of the disease pathogenesis and guide the assessment of treatment options. [source]

    Multiple myeloma patients receiving large volume leukapheresis efficiently yield enough CD34+ cells to allow double transplants

    A.C. Zubair
    Abstract Current protocols for myeloma patients require more than one autologous transplant. We performed a retrospective study to determine the cost-effectiveness of large volume leukapheresis (LVL) compared with standard volume leukapheresis (SVL) collection when two transplants are required. We evaluated 87 patients who underwent a cumulative total of 260 LVL and SVL collections. The median product volume per collection was 356 ml for LVL, and this was significantly higher than the median product volume per collection for SVL (median 149.5 ml, P < 0.001). The median total CD34+ cell yield/kg was 6.4 106 for LVL and 5.2 106 for SVL. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.005). Because the target CD34+ cell dose for a single transplant was 3 106/kg at our institution, overall the LVL yields enough CD34+ cells that could allow for two transplants. Therefore, more patients in the LVL group were able to undergo a potential second transplant. Because of the reserved cells for a second transplant, LVL patients received significantly less CD34+ cell/kg per transplant than the patients in SVL group (P = <0.001). As a result, LVL group had statistically significant but clinically insignificant delay in neutrophil (P = <0.001) and platelet (P = 0.02) engraftments. Additionally, using LVL instead of SVL to collect ,6 106/kg CD34+ cells may potentially save $7,497 per patient. We therefore conclude that LVL is the method of choice for collection of multiple myeloma patients when two transplants are anticipated. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Enoxaparin or aspirin for the prevention of recurrent thromboembolism in newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with melphalan and prednisone plus thalidomide or lenalidomide


    An abnormal nonhyperdiploid karyotype is a significant adverse prognostic factor for multiple myeloma in the bortezomib era,

    Daryl Tan
    Multiple myeloma is clinically heterogeneous and risk stratification is vital for prognostication and informing treatment decisions. As bortezomib is able to overcome several high-risk features of myeloma, the validity of conventional risk-stratification and prognostication systems needs to be reevaluated. We study the survival data of 261 previously untreated myeloma patients managed at our institution, where bortezomib became available from 2004 for the treatment of relapse disease. Patient and disease characteristics, and survival data were evaluated overall, and with respect to bortezomib exposure. Overall, the international staging system (ISS), metaphase karyotyping and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were discerning of survival outcomes, where the median for the entire cohort was 5.2 years. However, when stratified by bortezomib exposure, only metaphase karyotyping was still discriminating of long-term prognosis. The presence of an abnormal nonhyperdiploid karyotype overrides all other clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting for a worse outcome on multivariate analysis (median survival 2.6 years, P = 0.001), suggesting that bortezomib used at relapse is better able to overcome adverse risk related to high tumor burden (as measured by the ISS) than adverse cytogenetics on conventional karyotyping. Metaphase karyotyping provides additional prognostic information on tumor kinetics where the presence of a normal diploid karyotype in the absence of any high-risk FISH markers correlated with superior survival and could act as a surrogate for lower plasma cell proliferation. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sequential evaluation of serum hepcidin in anemic myeloma patients: Study of correlations with myeloma treatment, disease variables, and anemia response,

    Eirini Katodritou
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tumor-associated macrophages infiltrate plasmacytomas and can serve as cell carriers for oncolytic measles virotherapy of disseminated myeloma,

    Kah-Whye Peng
    In multiple myeloma, some of the neoplastic plasma cells are diffusely dispersed among the normal bone marrow cells (bone marrow resident), whereas others are located in discrete, well-vascularized solid tumors (plasmacytomas) that may originate in bone or soft tissue. Interactions between bone marrow-resident myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are important determinants of myeloma pathogenesis. However, little is known of the factors sustaining myeloma growth and cell viability at the centers of expanding plasmacytomas, where there are no BMSCs. Histologic sections of 22 plasmacytomas from myeloma patients were examined after immunostaining. Abundant CD68+, CD163+, S100-negative macrophage infiltrates were identified in all tumors, accompanied by scattered collections of CD3+ T lymphocytes. The CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) accounted for 2,12% of nucleated cells and were evenly distributed through the parenchyma. The TAM generally had dendritic morphology, and each dendrite was in close contact with multiple plasma cells. In some cases, the TAM were strikingly clustered around CD34+ blood vessels. To determine whether cells of the monocytic lineage might be exploitable as carriers for delivery of therapeutic agents to plasmacytomas, primary human CD14+ cells were infected with oncolytic measles virus and administered intravenously to mice bearing KAS6/1 human myeloma xenografts. The cell carriers localized to KAS6/1 tumors, where they transferred MV infection to myeloma cells and prolonged the survival of mice bearing disseminated human myeloma disease. Thus, TAM are a universal stromal component of the plasmacytomas of myeloma patients and may offer a promising new target for therapeutic exploitation. Am. J. Hematol. 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents are associated with reduced survival in patients with multiple myeloma,

    Eirini Katodritou
    The impact of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) on cancer patients' survival has recently become a matter of extensive discussion. Studies in solid tumors demonstrated that ESA adversely affects survival. This issue has not been sufficiently studied in patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, which included 323 multiple myeloma patients followed in our Institution between 1988 and 2007, we demonstrated by using a proportional hazards model including multiple covariates (age, LDH, Hb, platelets, serum creatinine, ISS score, ,2 microglobulin, and ESA administration) that ESA administration is associated with reduced survival (hazards ratio: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.28,2.77). Anemia, which is considered a predictor for survival, platelets, serum creatinine, ISS score, and LDH, were not significant, whereas, age and ,2 microglobulin confirmed their predicting value in the multivariate analysis. With a median follow-up of 31 months (range 1,238), the median survival of patients in the ESA group was 31 months (95% CI: 25,37), whereas in the group without ESA administration it was 67 months (95% CI: 55,79) (P < 0.001). The median progression-free survival for patients in the ESA group was 14 months (95% CI: 12,16), and for the group without ESA it was 30 months (95% CI: 24,36) (P < 0.001). These results indicate that ESA may have a detrimental impact on MM patients' outcomes and, thus, in this context, they should be used with rigorous criteria. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Am. J. Hematol., 2008. [source]

    Community experience with bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma

    Adedayo A. Onitilo
    Abstract Community practice experience allows a nonselective care of patient using information derived from a more controlled clinical trial environment. We present our community experience with multiple myeloma patients with advanced age, long disease duration since diagnosis, advanced stage, multiple prior therapies including stem cell transplantation, co-morbidities, and other poor prognostic features, such as low albumin, high B-2 microglobulin, renal failure, and the presence of poor risk chromosomal abnormalities. Our response rates are comparable to those from clinical trials. Bortezomib is well tolerated in this population of multiple myeloma patients with the exception of infection adverse events that are generally mild grade 1,2. Am. J. Hematol., 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    short report: High levels of serum angiogenic growth factors in patients with AL amyloidosis: comparisons with normal individuals and multiple myeloma patients

    Efstathios Kastritis
    Summary Serum levels of five angiogenic cytokines were evaluated in 82 patients with primary systemic amyloidosis (AL). Angiopoietin-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and angiogenin were higher in AL patients than in controls (n = 35) and newly-diagnosed, symptomatic, myeloma patients (n = 35). Angiopoetin-1/Angiopoetin-2 ratio was lower in AL compared to controls but higher than in myeloma patients. Angiopoetin-2 correlated with cardiac dysfunction indices; however, none of the angiogenic growth factors was prognostically significant. The increased angiogenic cytokine levels observed in AL seem to represent either a toxic effect of amyloid fibrils or light chains, or a compensatory response to organ dysfunction. [source]

    TP53 deletion is not an adverse feature in multiple myeloma treated with total therapy 3

    John D. Shaughnessy
    Summary Contrary to Total Therapy (TT) 2 for multiple myeloma patients, FGFR3, translocation bore no adverse effects on outcome in TT3 with added bortezomib. Del TP53, another poor-risk feature in TT2 and present in 10% of 441 patients treated, was examined for its prognostic consequences in TT3. Not affecting rate or duration of complete response, TP53 haplo-insufficiency also did not compromise, in the 83% with genomically defined low-risk myeloma, survival or event-free survival. FGFR3+ and FGFR3, molecular subgroups fared worse in the presence of del TP53 when applying TT2 but not TT3. Thus, the prognostic implications of del TP53 were protocol-, genome-defined risk- and molecular subgroup-dependent. [source]

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma: poor prognosis linked to concomitant detection in random and focal lesion bone marrow samples and associated with high-risk gene expression profile

    Yiming Zhou
    Summary The clinical significance of cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) present in randomly sampled (RS) or focal lesion (FL) bone marrow sites was examined in 419 untreated myeloma patients. Among 290 patients with gene expression profiling (GEP) data generated from RS sites, GEP-defined high-risk was present in 52% of the RS+/FL+ group but in only 9% of the remainder (P < 0001). The RS+/FL+ constellation (18%) was an independent predictor of poor survival, also after adjusting for GEP-derived risk and TP53 status (Hazard ratio = 242, P = 0004). The prevalence of high-risk myeloma in the RS+/FL+ group may reflect a dissemination-prone condition not shared by the other three groups. [source]

    Bortezomib is associated with better health-related quality of life than high-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma: results from the APEX study

    Stephanie J. Lee
    Summary Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was prospectively measured during the phase III APEX trial of bortezomib versus dexamethasone in relapsed multiple myeloma patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire , Core (QLQ-C30) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group,Neurotoxicity (NTX) side-effects questionnaires were administered at baseline and every 6 weeks up to 42 weeks. Patients receiving bortezomib (13 mg/m2, days 1, 4, 8 and 11 for eight 3-week cycles, then days 1, 8, 15 and 22 for three 5-week cycles; n = 296) demonstrated significantly better mean Global Health Status over the study versus patients receiving dexamethasone (40 mg/d, days 1,4, 9,12, and 17,20 for four 5-week cycles, then days 1,4 only for five 4-week cycles; n = 302), plus significantly better physical health, role, cognitive, and emotional functioning scores, lower dyspnoea and sleep symptom scores, and better NTX questionnaire score, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Results were similar using available-data analyses. Sensitivity analyses suggested that improved HRQL with bortezomib is at least partially explained by improved survival. These results show that bortezomib was associated with significantly better multidimensional HRQL compared with dexamethasone, consistent with the better clinical outcomes seen with bortezomib. [source]

    Pathogenic ATM mutations occur rarely in a subset of multiple myeloma patients

    Belinda Austen
    Summary Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) patients have biallelic inactivation of the ATM gene and exhibit a 200-fold-increased frequency of lymphoid tumours. ATM mutations have been found in a number of adult lymphoid malignancies but there is no data on the occurrence of ATM mutations in multiple myeloma tumours. The purpose of our work was to investigate the occurrence of ATM mutations in multiple myeloma and to this end we screened 45 sporadic cases for ATM mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing. Pathogenic ATM mutations were identified in 2/45 of the myelomas compared with a published estimate of ATM mutant allele frequency in the UK population of 2/521 (P = 0033). One was the missense mutation 7181C>T which was then modelled in an expression system and the S2394L protein shown to have no ATM kinase activity. The second myeloma had the pathogenic ATM splice site mutation IVS40-1G>C leading to loss of exon 41. We also report a 48-year-old ataxia telangiectasia patient who developed multiple myeloma. Taken together our study suggests that ATM mutation may play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of multiple myelomas. [source]

    Galectin-1 supports the survival of CD45RA(,) primary myeloma cells in vitro

    Saeid Abroun
    Summary The survival and proliferation of human myeloma cells are considered to be heavily dependent on the microenvironment of bone marrow (BM). This study confirmed that galectin-1 (Gal-1) and SDF-1, were produced by bone marrow mononuclear cells of myeloma patients. The addition of Gal-1 and SDF-1, to a serum-free synthetic medium, maintained the viability of primary myeloma cells for 2 weeks similar to that before culture. While Gal-1 reduced the viable cell number in CD45RA(+) B cell lines, it maintained the viability of CD45(,) U266 and CD45RA(,)RO(+) ILKM3 myeloma cell lines in the synthetic medium. This was confirmed with the transfection of the PTPRC (CD45) RA, -RB, or -RO gene into CD45(,) U266 cells. The combination of Gal-1 and SDF-1, significantly induced phosphorylation of Akt and IkB, while the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly reduced in CD45RA(+) U266 and Raji cells but not CD45(,) or CD45RA(,) U266 cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that Gal-1 bound to CD45RA in CD45RA(+) Raji cells, and also physically interacted with ,1-integrin by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that Gal-1 has two different actions depending on its binding partner, and supports the survival of CD45RA(,) myeloma cells. [source]

    Lenalidomide (Revlimid), in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (RCD), is an effective and tolerated regimen for myeloma patients

    Gareth J. Morgan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Bortezomib reduces serum dickkopf-1 and receptor activator of nuclear factor- ,B ligand concentrations and normalises indices of bone remodelling in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma

    Evangelos Terpos
    Summary The effect of bortezomib on bone remodelling was evaluated in 34 relapsed myeloma patients. At baseline, patients had increased serum concentrations of dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor- ,B ligand (sRANKL), sRANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio, C-telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform-5b (TRACP-5b); bone-alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were reduced. Serum DKK-1 correlated with CTX and severe bone disease. Bortezomib administration significantly reduced serum DKK-1, sRANKL, CTX, and TRACP-5b after four cycles, and dramatically increased bone-alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, irrespective of treatment response. This is the first study showing that bortezomib reduces DKK-1 and RANKL serum levels, leading to the normalisation of bone remodelling in relapsed myeloma. [source]

    Multiple myeloma patients with CKS1B gene amplification have a shorter progression-free survival post-autologous stem cell transplantation

    Hong Chang
    Summary The prevalence and prognostic relevance of recurrent gains of CKS1B (cyclin kinase subunit 1B) gene at chromosome 1q21 region was investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation in a cohort of 99 multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated with intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. CKS1B amplification (3,8 CKS1B signals) was detected in 31of 99 (31%) patients and was associated with deletions of p53 (P = 0003) and 13q (P = 0039) but not with translocation t(11;14) or t(4;14). CKS1B amplification was associated with bone marrow plasmacytosis (P = 002), but there was no correlation with patient age, gender, disease stage, lytic bone lesions, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein or beta-2 microglobulin levels. Patients with CKS1B amplification had a significantly shorter progression-free survival than those without such amplification (185 vs. 257 months, P = 0035). Likewise, a shorter overall survival (448 months vs. not reached) was observed; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 020). Seven patients had paired bone marrows obtained at diagnosis and at relapse, the percentage of cells with CKS1B amplification and the level of amplification were significantly increased in the relapse marrows. In this cohort of patients, CKS1B was frequently amplified in MM and may represent genetic instability associated with disease progression. [source]

    Serum pleiotrophin levels are elevated in multiple myeloma patients and correlate with disease status

    Howard S. Yeh
    Summary Pleiotrophin (PTN), a tightly regulated angiogenic and mitogenic heparin-binding protein, is markedly elevated in a variety of aggressive solid tumours. The role of PTN in haematological malignancies, however, has not been previously evaluated. This study demonstrated that PTN serum levels were elevated in multiple myeloma (MM) patients when compared with healthy subjects (P < 00001). Serum levels of this protein significantly increased during progression of disease, and decreased during response to anti-MM therapy (P < 0001). These results suggest that serum PTN may be a new biomarker for monitoring the disease status and therapeutic response of MM patients. [source]