Myeloma Growth (myeloma + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Tumor-associated macrophages infiltrate plasmacytomas and can serve as cell carriers for oncolytic measles virotherapy of disseminated myeloma,

Kah-Whye Peng
In multiple myeloma, some of the neoplastic plasma cells are diffusely dispersed among the normal bone marrow cells (bone marrow resident), whereas others are located in discrete, well-vascularized solid tumors (plasmacytomas) that may originate in bone or soft tissue. Interactions between bone marrow-resident myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are important determinants of myeloma pathogenesis. However, little is known of the factors sustaining myeloma growth and cell viability at the centers of expanding plasmacytomas, where there are no BMSCs. Histologic sections of 22 plasmacytomas from myeloma patients were examined after immunostaining. Abundant CD68+, CD163+, S100-negative macrophage infiltrates were identified in all tumors, accompanied by scattered collections of CD3+ T lymphocytes. The CD68+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) accounted for 2,12% of nucleated cells and were evenly distributed through the parenchyma. The TAM generally had dendritic morphology, and each dendrite was in close contact with multiple plasma cells. In some cases, the TAM were strikingly clustered around CD34+ blood vessels. To determine whether cells of the monocytic lineage might be exploitable as carriers for delivery of therapeutic agents to plasmacytomas, primary human CD14+ cells were infected with oncolytic measles virus and administered intravenously to mice bearing KAS6/1 human myeloma xenografts. The cell carriers localized to KAS6/1 tumors, where they transferred MV infection to myeloma cells and prolonged the survival of mice bearing disseminated human myeloma disease. Thus, TAM are a universal stromal component of the plasmacytomas of myeloma patients and may offer a promising new target for therapeutic exploitation. Am. J. Hematol. 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Myeloma cells exhibit an increase in proteasome activity and an enhanced response to proteasome inhibition in the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo

Claire M. Edwards
The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has a striking clinical benefit in patients with multiple myeloma. It is unknown whether the bone marrow microenvironment directly contributes to the dramatic response of myeloma cells to proteasome inhibition in vivo. We have used the well-characterized 5TGM1 murine model of myeloma to investigate myeloma growth within bone and response to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in vivo. Myeloma cells freshly isolated from the bone marrow of myeloma-bearing mice were found to have an increase in proteasome activity and an enhanced response to in vitro proteasome inhibition, as compared with pre-inoculation myeloma cells. Treatment of myeloma-bearing mice with bortezomib resulted in a greater reduction in tumor burden when the myeloma cells were located within the bone marrow when compared with extra-osseous sites. Our results demonstrate that myeloma cells exhibit an increase in proteasome activity and an enhanced response to bortezomib treatment when located within the bone marrow microenvironment in vivo. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Inhibitor of DASH proteases affects expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts and reduces myeloma growth and bone disease

Angela Pennisi
Summary Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV activity and/or structure homologues (DASH) are serine proteases implicated in tumourigenesis. We previously found that a DASH protease, fibroblast activation protein (FAP), was involved in osteoclast-induced myeloma growth. Here we further demonstrated expression of various adhesion molecules in osteoclasts cultured alone or cocultured with myeloma cells, and tested the effects of DASH inhibitor, PT-100, on myeloma cell growth, bone disease, osteoclast differentiation and activity, and expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts. PT-100 had no direct effects on viability of myeloma cells or mature osteoclasts, but significantly reduced survival of myeloma cells cocultured with osteoclasts. Real-time PCR array for 85 adhesion molecules revealed upregulation of 17 genes in osteoclasts after coculture with myeloma cells. Treatment of myeloma/osteoclast cocultures with PT-100 significantly downregulated 18 of 85 tested genes in osteoclasts, some of which are known to play roles in tumourigenesis and osteoclastogenesis. PT-100 also inhibited osteoclast differentiation and subsequent pit formation. Resorption activity of mature osteoclasts and differentiation of osteoblasts were not affected by PT-100. In primary myelomatous severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu mice PT-100 reduced osteoclast activity, bone resorption and tumour burden. These data demonstrated that DASH proteases are involved in myeloma bone disease and tumour growth. [source]

Functional significance of novel neurotrophin-1/B cell-stimulating factor-3 (cardiotrophin-like cytokine) for human myeloma cell growth and survival

Renate Burger
Summary., Cytokines of the gp130 family, particularly interleukin 6 (IL-6), play a central role in the growth and survival of malignant plasma cells. Recently, novel neurotrophin-1 (NNT-1)/B cell-stimulating factor-3 (BSF-3), also reported as cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), was identified as a cytokine belonging to the gp130 family. BSF-3, similar to IL-6, exerts regulatory effects on normal B cell functions, but its functional significance in haematological malignancies has not been defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects and signalling pathways that are induced by BSF-3 in malignant plasma cells. Recombinant human BSF-3 was found to have growth stimulatory activity on plasmacytoma cell lines and primary tumour cells. In addition, BSF-3 was able to protect from Dexamethasone (Dex)-induced apoptosis. BSF-3 stimulated cell growth could not be inhibited by neutralizing anti-IL-6 or anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies, but was abrogated by anti-gp130 antibodies. In INA-6.Tu11 cells, a subline of the IL-6-dependent human plasma cell line INA-6 expressing gp130 and the receptor for leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), stimulation with BSF-3 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). AG490, an inhibitor of Janus kinases, decreased BSF-3 induced cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. This correlated with a reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation levels, while p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was not affected. In conclusion, BSF-3 is a novel myeloma growth and survival factor with a potential role in the pathophysiology of the disease. [source]