Myeloid Neoplasms (myeloid + neoplasm)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Elevated tryptase levels selectively cluster in myeloid neoplasms: a novel diagnostic approach and screen marker in clinical haematology

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 10 2009
W. R. Sperr
Abstract Background, Recent data suggest that tryptase, a mast cell enzyme, is expressed in neoplastic cells in myeloid leukaemias. In several of these patients, increased serum tryptase levels are detectable. Materials and methods, We have determined serum tryptase levels in 914 patients with haematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative disorders (n = 156), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 241), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, n = 317), systemic mastocytosis (SM, n = 81), non-Hodgkin,s lymphoma (n = 59) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 26). Moreover, tryptase was measured in 136 patients with non-neoplastic haematological disorders, 102 with non-haematological disorders and 164 healthy subjects. Results, In healthy subjects, the median serum tryptase was 52 ng mL,1. Elevated serum tryptase levels were found to cluster in myeloid neoplasm, whereas almost all patients with lymphoid neoplasms exhibited normal tryptase. Among myeloid neoplasms, elevated tryptase levels (> 15 ng mL,1) were recorded in > 90% of patients with SM, 38% with AML, 34% with CML and 25% with MDS. The highest tryptase levels, often > 1000 ng mL,1, were found in advanced SM and core-binding-factor leukaemias. In most patients with non-neoplastic haematological disorders and non-haematological disorders analysed in our study, tryptase levels were normal, the exception being a few patients with end-stage kidney disease and helminth infections, in whom a slightly elevated tryptase was found. Conclusions, In summary, tryptase is a new diagnostic marker of myeloid neoplasms and a useful test in clinical haematology. [source]


Disseminated extramedullary myeloid tumor of the gallbladder without involvement of the bone marrow

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Angela N. Bartley
Abstract Extramedullary myeloid tumors (myeloid sarcomas) are rare neoplasms that are composed of myeloid precursors. They usually arise concurrently with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, or other myeloproliferative disorders. They may also indicate relapsing disease in a patient with a prior history of leukemia or myeloproliferative disorder. We present our findings of a 63-year-old female diagnosed with extramedullary myeloid tumor first presenting in the gallbladder. She subsequently developed respiratory failure; pre- and postmortem bone marrow studies were negative for leukemia by morphology, flow cytometry, and karyotypic analysis. However, the myeloid neoplasm was disseminated throughout most of her remaining organs. Immunohistochemical stains of the cells indicated a neoplasm of myelomonocytic derivation (CD4, CD43, CD45, CD68, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme positive). To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extramedullary myeloid neoplasm of the gallbladder with disseminated disease without involvement of the bone marrow. Am. J. Hematol., 2006. Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Elevated tryptase levels selectively cluster in myeloid neoplasms: a novel diagnostic approach and screen marker in clinical haematology

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 10 2009
W. R. Sperr
Abstract Background, Recent data suggest that tryptase, a mast cell enzyme, is expressed in neoplastic cells in myeloid leukaemias. In several of these patients, increased serum tryptase levels are detectable. Materials and methods, We have determined serum tryptase levels in 914 patients with haematological malignancies, including myeloproliferative disorders (n = 156), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 241), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML, n = 317), systemic mastocytosis (SM, n = 81), non-Hodgkin,s lymphoma (n = 59) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 26). Moreover, tryptase was measured in 136 patients with non-neoplastic haematological disorders, 102 with non-haematological disorders and 164 healthy subjects. Results, In healthy subjects, the median serum tryptase was 52 ng mL,1. Elevated serum tryptase levels were found to cluster in myeloid neoplasm, whereas almost all patients with lymphoid neoplasms exhibited normal tryptase. Among myeloid neoplasms, elevated tryptase levels (> 15 ng mL,1) were recorded in > 90% of patients with SM, 38% with AML, 34% with CML and 25% with MDS. The highest tryptase levels, often > 1000 ng mL,1, were found in advanced SM and core-binding-factor leukaemias. In most patients with non-neoplastic haematological disorders and non-haematological disorders analysed in our study, tryptase levels were normal, the exception being a few patients with end-stage kidney disease and helminth infections, in whom a slightly elevated tryptase was found. Conclusions, In summary, tryptase is a new diagnostic marker of myeloid neoplasms and a useful test in clinical haematology. [source]


Mixed-lineage eosinophil/basophil crisis in MDS: a rare form of progression

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 6 2008
F. Wimazal
ABSTRACT Background, Basophilic crisis and eosinophilia are well recognized features of advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia. In other myeloid neoplasms, however, transformation with marked basophilia and eosinophilia is considered unusual. Design, We examined the long-term follow-up of 322 patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to define the frequency of basophilic, eosinophilic and mixed lineage (basophilic and eosinophilic) transformation. Results, Of all patients, only one developed mixed lineage crisis (, 20% basophils and , 20% eosinophils). In this patient, who initially suffered from chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia, basophils increased to 48% and eosinophils up to 31% at the time of progression. Mixed lineage crisis was not accompanied by an increase in blast cells or organomegaly. The presence of BCR/ABL and other relevant fusion gene products (FIP1L1/PDGFRA, AML1/ETO, PML/RAR,, CBF,/MYH11) were excluded by PCR. Myelomastocytic transformation/myelomastocytic leukaemia and primary mast cell disease were excluded by histology, KIT mutation analysis, electron microscopy and immunophenotyping. Basophils were thus found to be CD123+, CD203c+, BB1+, KIT- cells, and to express a functional IgE-receptor. Among the other patients with MDS examined, 4(12%) were found to have marked basophilia (, 20%) and 7(21%) were found to have massive eosinophilia ( , 20%), whereas mixed-lineage crisis was detected in none of them. Conclusions, Mixed basophil/eosinophil crisis may develop in patients with MDS but is an extremely rare event. [source]


Conventional cytogenetics in myelofibrosis: literature review and discussion

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Kebede Hussein
Abstract The clinical phenotype of myelofibrosis (MF) is recognized either de novo (primary) or in the setting of polycythemia vera (post-PV) or essential thrombocythemia (post-ET). Approximately one-third of patients with primary MF (PMF) present with cytogenetic abnormalities; the most frequent are del(20q), del(13q), trisomy 8 and 9, and abnormalities of chromosome 1 including duplication 1q. Other less frequent lesions include ,7/del(7q), del(5q), del(12p), +21 and der(6)t(1;6)(q21;p21.3). In general, cytogenetic abnormalities are qualitatively similar among PMF, post-ET MF and post-PV MF although their individual frequencies may differ. Based on prognostic effect, cytogenetic findings in MF are classified as either ,favorable' or ,unfavorable'. The former include normal karyotype or isolated del(20q) or del(13q) and the latter all other abnormalities. Unfavorable cytogenetic profile in both PMF and post-PV/ET MF confers an independent adverse effect on survival; it is also associated with higher JAK2V617F mutational frequency. In addition to their prognostic value, cytogenetic studies in MF ensure diagnostic exclusion of other myeloid neoplasms that are sometimes associated with bone marrow fibrosis (e.g. BCR-ABL1 -positive or PDGFRB -rearranged) and also assist in specific treatment selection (e.g. lenalidomide therapy is active in MF associated with del(5q). [source]


Chromosome 8p11.2 translocations: Prevalence, FISH analysis for FGFR1 and MYST3, and clinicopathologic correlates in a consecutive cohort of 13 cases from a single institution,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Mrinal M. Patnaik
Chromosome 8p11.2 translocations result in diverse oncogenic fusion genes involving FGFR1 or MYST3. Among 24,262 unique patient cytogenetic studies performed at the Mayo Clinic, 8p11.2 translocations were identified in 14 cases (,0.06%). FISH analysis was performed in 13 patients (12 had myeloid neoplasms) and revealed abnormalities of MYST3 (n = 4) or FGFR1 (n = 4) in eight patients. MYST3 abnormalities were associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), M4 in three and M6 in one. Three of the four FGFR1 -rearranged cases were associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms but none, including the two with sole 8p11.2, displayed the typical phenotype for stem cell leukemia/lymphoma (SCLL) and only one had eosinophilia; the fourth case had AML-M4. FISH did not reveal FGFR1 involvement in the one patient with SCLL. We conclude that neither the SCLL phenotype nor blood eosinophilia is a consistent feature of FGFR1 -associated 8p11.2 translocations; conversely, FISH might not always reveal FGFR1 involvement in typical SCLL. Am. J. Hematol. 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Host immunity affects survival in myelodysplastic syndromes: Independent prognostic value of the absolute lymphocyte count,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
Nisha L. Jacobs
The prognostic significance of the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been carefully examined in lymphoid malignancies, but the importance of the baseline ALC in chronic myeloid neoplasms is less clear. In a recent analysis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with deletion of chromosome 5q, we observed that an ALC < 1.2 109 cells/L at diagnosis is independently associated with poorer survival. Clinicopathological data from 503 patients with non-del(5q) MDS evaluated at Mayo Clinic between 1996 and 2007 were reviewed to determine the prognostic impact of ALC at diagnosis in non-del(5q) MDS. Patients with MDS and an ALC at diagnosis ,1.2 109 (N = 248) experienced a superior overall survival (OS) compared with patients with an ALC < 1.2 109/L (N = 255, median OS of 26.6 months versus 18.5 months, P < 0.001, respectively). ALC at diagnosis was an independent predictor for OS when compared with the International Prognostic Scoring System and the WHO-based Prognostic Scoring System. This study suggests that ALC at diagnosis is a prognostic factor for OS in MDS, and argues in favor of further studies to assess the role of host immunity in MDS clinical outcomes. Am. J. Hematol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]