Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (multiwalled + carbon_nanotube)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Selected Abstracts

Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on Al2O3 supported Ni catalysts in a fluidized-bed

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
Jun Liu
Abstract Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized on Al2O3 supported Ni catalysts from C2H2 and C2H4 feedstocks in a fluidized bed. The influence of the ratio of superficial gas velocity to the minimum fluidization velocity (U/Umf), feedstock type, the ratio of carbon in the total quantity of gas fed to the reactor, reaction temperature, the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the feed gas, and nickel loading were all investigated. Significantly, the pressure drop across the fluidized-bed increased as the reaction time increased for all experiments, due to the deposition of MWNTs on the catalyst particles. This resulted in substantial changes to the depth and structure of the fluidized bed as the reaction proceeded, significantly altering the bed hydrodynamics. TEM images of the bed materials showed that MWNTs, metal catalysts, and alumina supports were predominant in the product mixture, with some coiled carbon nanotubes as a by-product. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]

Monitoring oxidation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by Raman spectroscopy

Sebastian Osswald
Abstract Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were oxidized in air and acids while varying the treatment time and/or temperature. The goal of this approach was to create the highest density of carboxyl groups with moderate sample loss, which is necessary for nanocomposite applications. In situ Raman experiments allowed real-time observation of the structural changes in MWCNTs upon oxidation. The ratio of the Raman intensities of the D and G bands was used to estimate the concentration of defects. It was found that while an oxidation for 6 h in H2SO4/HNO3 provided the strongest effect, a ,flash oxidation' in air (15 min at 550 °C) also leads to an efficient functionalization in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrophoretic mobility analysis were used to study the oxidized nanotubes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of 4-Hexylresorcinol in Pharmaceutical Products Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Based Electrodes

Roohollah, Torabi Kachoosangi
Abstract A sensitive electroanalytical method is presented for the determination of 4-hexylresorcinol using adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdsSV) at a multiwalled carbon nanotube modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (MWCNT-BPPGE). This method is also extended to the use of a MWCNT modified screen-printed electrode (MWCNT-SPE), thereby demonstrating that this approach can easily be incorporated into a facile and inexpensive electrochemical sensor. [source]

A Waveguide-Like Effect Observed in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

Shengyong Xu
Abstract The delay time of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses is measured in multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles and copper wires, with a length of up to 3,cm, as compared with that in standard coaxial cables of the same lengths. Under certain configurations, when the Cu core of a coaxial cable is replaced with a MWCNT bundle of the same length, the measured delay time of a pulsed signal is shortened. The difference between the delay time measured for a device with a Cu core and that of a device with a MWCNT bundle of the same length increases with the length of the samples. The results imply that, compared with Cu wires, MWCNT bundles may be more efficient in guiding the transmission of high-frequency signals along their longitudinal axis, showing a waveguide-like effect. [source]

Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors

Shang-lin Gao
Abstract A simple approach to deposit multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) networks onto glass fiber surfaces achieving semiconductive MWNT,glass fibers is reported, along with application of fiber/polymer interphases as in-situ multifunctional sensors. This approach demonstrates for the first time that the techniques of conducting electrical resistance measurements could be applicable to glass fibers for in situ sensing of strain and damage; the techniques were previously limited to conductive and semiconductive materials. The electrical properties of the single MWNT,glass fiber and the "unidirectional" fiber/epoxy composite show linear or nonlinear stress/strain, temperature, and relative humidity dependencies, which are capable of detecting piezoresistive effects as well as the local glass transition temperature. The unidirectional composites containing MWNT,glass fibers exhibit ultrahigh anisotropic electrical properties and an ultralow electrical percolation threshold. Based on this approach, the glass fiber,the most widely used reinforcement in composites globally,along with the surface electrical conductivity of MWNTs will stimulate and realize a broad range of multifunctional applications. [source]

Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube via surface reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and as lubricant additives

Xiaowei Pei
Abstract Polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid composite which possess a hard backbone of MWCNT and a soft shell of brush-like polystyrene (PSt) were synthesized. The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agents were successfully immobilized onto the surface of MWCNT first, and PSt chains were subsequently grafted from sidewall of MWCNT via RAFT polymerization. Chemical structure of resulting product and the quantities of grafted polymer were determined by Fourier transform infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicate that the nanotubes were coated with a polymer layer. Furthermore, the functionalized MWCNT as additives was added to base lubricant and the tribological property of resultant MWCNT lubricant was investigated with four-ball machines. The results indicate that the functionalization led to an improvement in the dispersion of MWCNT and as additives it amended the tribological property of base lubricant. The mechanism of the significant improvements on the tribological properties of the functionalized MWCNT as additives was discussed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 3014,3023, 2008 [source]

Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube/polypyrrole core,shell nanocomposites via in situ inverse microemulsion

Yijun Yu
Abstract We demonstrate here a feasible approach to the preparation of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/polypyrrole (PPy) core,shell nanowires by in situ inverse microemulsion. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the carbon nanotubes were uniformly coated with a PPy layer with a thickness of several to several tens of nanometers, depending on the MWNT content. Fourier transform infrared spectra suggested that there was strong interaction between the ,-bonded surface of the carbon nanotubes and the conjugated structure of the PPy shell layer. The thermal stability and electrical conductivity of the MWNT/PPy composites were examined with thermogravimetric analysis and a conventional four-probe method. In comparison with pure PPy, the decomposition temperature of the MWNT/PPy (1 wt % MWNT) composites increased from 305 to 335 °C, and the electrical conductivity of the MWNT/PPy (1 wt % MWNT) composites increased by 1 order of magnitude. The current,voltage curves of the MWNT/PPy nanocomposites followed Ohm's law, reflecting the metallic character of the MWNT/PPy nanocomposites. The cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed that PPy/MWNT composites showed an enhancement in the specific charge capacity with respect to that of pure PPy. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 6105,6115, 2005 [source]

Isothermal crystallization behavior of polyamide 6,6/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

Shi-Ya Lin
The good dispersion of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) in polyamide 6,6 (PA 6,6) matrix was prepared by solution mixing techniques. The crystalline structure and crystallization behaviors of PA 6,6 and PA 6,6/f-MWCNT nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarized optical microscopy (POM) analysis. DSC isothermal results revealed that the overall isothermal crystallization rates of PA 6,6 increased as well as the activation energy of PA 6,6 extensively decreased by adding f-MWCNT into PA 6,6, suggesting that the addition of f-MWCNT probably induces the heterogeneous nucleation. The effect of f-MWCNT on the chain arrangement for the crystallization of PA 6,6/f-MWCNT nanocomposites was also discussed. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Carbon nanotube clusters as universal bacterial adsorbents and magnetic separation agents

Hyung-Mo Moon
Abstract The magnetic susceptibility and high bacterial affinity of carbon nanotube (CNT) clusters highlight their great potential as a magnetic bio-separation agent. This article reports the CNT clusters' capability as "universal" bacterial adsorbents and magnetic separation agents by designing and testing a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) cluster-based process for bacterial capturing and separation. The reaction system consisted of large clusters of MWNTs for bacterial capture and an external magnet for bio-separation. The designed system was tested and optimized using Escherichia coli as a model bacterium, and further generalized by testing the process with other representative strains of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. For all strains tested, bacterial adsorption to MWNT clusters occurred spontaneously, and the estimated MWNT clusters' adsorption capacities were nearly the same regardless of the types of strains. The bacteria-bound MWNT clusters also responded almost instantaneously to the magnetic field by a rare-earth magnet (0.68 Tesla), and completely separated from the bulk aqueous phase and retained in the system. The results clearly demonstrate their excellent potential as highly effective "universal" bacterial adsorbents for the spontaneous adsorption of any types of bacteria to the clusters and as paramagnetic complexes for the rapid and highly effective magnetic separations. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

Behavior of Ni-Doped MgMoO4 Single-Phase Catalysts for Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Bundles

Y. Li
Abstract A significant effect is found when various ratios of CH4/H2 and CH4/N2 are used for the synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) bundles on nickel-doped MgMoO4 (Ni/Mo/MgO) as a catalyst. The absorption of hydrogen makes the nickel,molybdenum nanoparticles highly dispersed on the porous MgO, and the synergism of nickel,molybdenum has the effect that sufficient carbon atoms are rapidly dissolved in the molten nickel-molybdenum nanoparticles, leading to a high yield of MWNTs. The phase transformations of the catalysts and the formation mechanism of the MWNT bundles on Ni/Mo/MgO catalyst are also presented. [source]

Simultaneous Determination of Trace Zinc(II) and Cadmium(II) by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a MWCNTs,NaDBS Modified Stannum Film Electrode

Qing Tian
Abstract A multiwalled carbon nanotubes,sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (MWCNTs,NaDBS) modified stannum film electrode was employed for the determination of cadmium(II) and zinc(II). The Sn/MWCNTs-NaDBS film electrode was prepared by applying MWCNTs,NaDBS suspension to the surface of the GCE, while the Sn film was plated in situ simultaneously with the target metal ions. Under optimal conditions, linear calibration curves were obtained in a range of 5.0 ,100.0,,g L,1 with detection limits of 0.9,,g L,1 for zinc(II) and 0.8,,g L,1 for cadmium(II), respectively. This film electrode was successfully applied to the determination of Zn(II) and Cd(II) in tap water sample. [source]

Electroanalysis of Bisphenol A at a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-gold Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

Xinman Tu
Abstract A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-gold nanoparticles (GNPs) hybrid film, which was prepared based on the electrostatic interaction between positively charged cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and negatively charged MWCNTs and GNPs. The MWCNT-GNPs/GCE exhibited an enhanced electroactivity for BPA oxidation versus unmodified GCE and MWCNTs/GCE. The experimental parameters, including the amounts of modified MWCNTs and GNPs, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate and accumulation time, were examined and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetric anodic peak current of BPA was linear with the BPA concentration from 2.0×10,8 to 2×10,5 mol L,1, with a limit of detection of 7.5,nmol L,1. The proposed procedure was applied to determine BPA leached from real plastic samples with satisfactory results. [source]

Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Encased in Ruthenium Oxide Film as a Hybrid Material for Neurotransmitters Sensor

Chien-Chieh Ti
Abstract A hybrid film (MWCNTs-RuOx,nH2O) which contains multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) along with the incorporation of ruthenium oxide (RuOx,nH2O) has been synthesized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold (Au), indium tin oxide (ITO) and screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) by potentiostatic methods. The presence of MWCNTs in the hybrid film enhances surface coverage concentration (,) of RuOx,nH2O to ,2100%. The surface morphology of the hybrid film deposited on ITO has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These two techniques reveal that the RuOx,nH2O incorporated on MWCNTs. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study too reveals the incorporation of MWCNTs and RuOx,nH2O. The MWCNTs-RuOx,nH2O hybrid film exhibits promising enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the biochemical compounds such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. The electrocatalytic responses of these analytes at RuOx,nH2O, MWCNTs and MWCNTs-RuOx,nH2O hybrid films have been measured using cyclic voltammetry. The obtained sensitivity values from electrocatalysis studies of analytes for MWCNTs-RuOx,nH2O hybrid film are higher than the RuOx,nH2O and MWCNTs films. Finally, the flow injection analysis has been used for the amperometric studies of analytes at MWCNTs-RuOx,nH2O hybrid film modified SPCEs. [source]

Redox Couple of DNA on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrode

Hongxia Luo
Abstract It has been envisioned that carbon nanotubes could promote electron-transfer reactions when used as electrode materials in electrochemical cells. In the present study, calf thymus DNA was electrochemically oxidized at an electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The potentials for DNA oxidation at pH,7.0 were found to be 0.71 and 0.81,V versus SCE, corresponding to the oxidation of guanine and adenine residues, respectively. An initial oxidation of adenine was observed in the first scan, which was followed by a quasi-reversible redox process of the oxidation product in the subsequent scans. [source]

Improved Voltammetric Response of L -Tyrosine on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes-Ionic Liquid Composite Coated Glassy Electrodes in the Presence of Cupric Ion

Liqin Liu
Abstract L -Tyrosine can exhibit a small anodic peak on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). At pH,5.5 its peak potential is 0.70,V (vs. SCE). When an ionic liquid (i.e., 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [omim][PF6]) is introduced on the MWCNT coat, the peak becomes bigger. Furthermore, in the presence of Cu2+ ion the anodic peak of L -tyrosine increases further due to the formation of Cu2+ - L -tyrosine complex, while the peak potential keeps unchanged. Therefore, a sensitive voltammetry based on the oxidation of Cu2+ - L -tyrosine complex on MWCNTs-[omim][PF6] composite coated electrode is developed for L -tyrosine. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current is linear to L -tyrosine concentration in the range of 1×10,8,5×10,6 M, and the detection limit is 8×10,9 M. The modified electrode shows good reproducibility and stability. In addition, the voltammetric behavior of other amino acids is explored. It is found that among them tryptophan (Trp) and histidine (His) can also produce sensitive anodic peak under same experimental conditions, and their detection limits are 4×10,9 M and 4×10,6 M, respectively. [source]

Comparison of the Electrochemical Reactivity of Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrodes with Different Types of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

Xueling Li
Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in electrochemical studies. It is reported that CNTs with different source and dispersed in different agents [1] yield significant difference of electrochemical reactivity. Here we report on the electrochemical performance of CNTs paste electrodes (CNTPEs) prepared by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with different diameters, lengths and functional groups. The resulting electrodes exhibit remarkable different electrochemical reactivity towards redox molecules such as NADH and K3[Fe(CN)6]. It is found that CNTPEs prepared by MWNTs with 20,30,nm diameter show highest catalysis to NADH oxidation, while CNTPEs prepared by MWNTs with carboxylate groups have best electron-transfer rate (The peak-peak separation (,Ep) is +0.108,V for MWNTs with carboxylate groups, +0.155,V for normal MWNTs, and +0.174,V for short MWNTs) but weak catalysis towards oxidation of NADH owing to the hydrophilicity of carboxylate groups. The electrochemical reactivity depends on the lengths of CNTs to some extent. The ,long' CNTs perform better in our study (The oxidation signals of NADH appear below +0.39,V for ,long' CNTs and above +0.46,V for the ,short' one totally). Readers may get some directions from this article while choose CNTs for electrochemical study. [source]

Some Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Electrode and Its Application on Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

Dan Zheng
Abstract A sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) electrode (SDS/MWNTs) was successfully constructed in this study. The electrochemical property of the SDS/MWNTs electrode has been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Nyquist plots suggest that the immersion time of SDS affects the resistances of the MWNTs electrodes. The thickness of adsorbed SDS on MWNTs surface is estimated to be 1.23,nm, which is close to the value of SDS monolayer. CV results demonstrate a 5-fold enhanced response for dopamine (DA) at the SDS/MWNTs electrode compared to the bare MWNTs one. DPV results illustrate that DA can be selectively determined in the presence of high concentration ascorbic acid (AA) with a linear range from 20,,M to 0.20,mM and a sensitivity of 0.024,,A ,M,1 at the SDS/MWNTs electrode. [source]

Study on Glucose Biofuel Cells Using an Electrochemical Noise Device

Yueming Tan
Abstract An electrochemical noise (ECN) device was utilized for the first time to study and characterize a glucose/O2 membraneless biofuel cell (BFC) and a monopolar glucose BFC. In the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC, ferrocene (Fc) and glucose oxidase (GOD) were immobilized on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Au electrode with a gelatin film at the anode; and laccase (Lac) and an electron mediator, 2,2,-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS), were immobilized on a MWCNTs/Au electrode with polypyrrole at the cathode. This BFC was performed in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air, with a maximum power density of 8,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 0.29,V, and a short-circuit current density of 85,,A/cm2, respectively. The cell current at the load of 100,k, retained 78.9% of the initial value after continuous discharging for 15,h in a stirred acetate buffer solution (pH,5.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose in air. The performance decrease of the BFC resulted mainly from the leakage of the ABTS mediator immobilized at the cathode, as revealed by the two-channel quartz crystal microbalance technique. In addition, a monopolar glucose BFC was performed with the same anode as that in the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC in a stirred phosphate buffer solution (pH,7.0) containing 40,mmol/L glucose, and a carbon cathode in Nafion-membrane-isolated acidic KMnO4, with a maximum power density of 115,,W/cm2, an open-circuit cell voltage of 1.24,V, and a short-circuit current density of 202,,A/cm2, respectively, which are superior to those of the glucose/O2 membraneless BFC. A modification of the anode with MWCNTs for the monopolar glucose BFC increased the maximum power density by a factor of 1.8. The ECN device is highly recommended as a convenient, real-time and sensitive technique for BFC studies. [source]

Voltammetric Reduction of a 4-Nitroimidazole Derivative on a Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

P. Jara-Ulloa
Abstract We report the electrochemical behavior of a 4-nitroimidazole derivative, 1-methyl-4-nitro-2-hydroxymethylimidazole (4-NImMeOH), on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). As dispersing agents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and water were used. The electrochemical response of the resulting electrodes was evaluated using linear sweep, cyclic and square-wave voltammetry (LSV, CV and SWV). Several parameters such as medium pH, nature and concentration of the CNTs dispersion and accumulation time were tested. The optimal conditions determined for obtain better response were: pH,2, dispersion concentration=4,mg/mL of CNT in water, accumulation time=7,min. The MWCNT-modified GCE exhibited attractive electrochemical properties producing enhanced currents with a significant reduction in the overpotential and good signal-to-noise characteristics, in comparison with the bare GCE. The modified electrode is highly repeatable for consecutive measurements, reaching a variation coefficient of 2.9% for ten consecutive runs. [source]

Biosensor Based on Self-Assembling Glucose Oxidase and Dendrimer-Encapsulated Pt Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes for Glucose Detection

Lihuan Xu
Abstract A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) and dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was described. Anionic GOx was immobilized on the negatively charged CNTs surface by alternatively assembling a cationic Pt-DENs layer and an anionic GOx layer. Transmission electron microscopy images and ,-potentials proved the formation of layer-by-layer nanostructures on carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. LbL technique provided a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of GOx and prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of CNTs and Pt-DENs toward H2O2 and special three-dimensional structure of the enzyme electrode resulted in good characteristics such as a low detection limit of 2.5,,M, a wide linear range of 5,,M,0.65,mM, a short response time (within 5,s), and high sensitivity (30.64,,A mM,1,cm,2) and stability (80% remains after 30 days). [source]

Carbon nanotube disposable detectors in microchip capillary electrophoresis for water-soluble vitamin determination: Analytical possibilities in pharmaceutical quality control

Agustín G. Crevillén
Abstract In this work, the synergy of one mature example from "lab-on-chip" domain, such as CE microchips with emerging miniaturized carbon nanotube detectors in analytical science, is presented. Two different carbon electrodes (glassy carbon electrode (GCE) 3,mm diameter, and screen-printed electrode (SPE) 0.3,mm×2.5,mm) were modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their electrochemical behavior was evaluated as detectors in CE microchip using water-soluble vitamins (pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, and folic acid) in pharmaceutical preparations as representative examples. The SPE modified with MWCNT was the best electrode for the vitamin analysis in terms of analytical performance. In addition, accurate determination of the three vitamins in four different pharmaceuticals was obtained (systematic error less than 9%) in only 400,s using a protocol that combined the sample analysis and the methodological calibration. [source]

Enhanced separation of purine and pyrimidine bases using carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes as additive in capillary zone electrophoresis

Xin Xiong
Abstract This paper describes the enhanced separation of adenine (A), hypoxanthine (HX), 8-azaadenine (8-AA), thymine (T), cytosine (C), uracil (U) and guanine (G) by CZE dispersing carboxylic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) into the running buffer. The effect of important factors such as c-MWNT nanoparticle concentration, the acidity and concentration of running buffer, and separation voltage were investigated to acquire the optimum conditions. The seven purine and pyrimidine bases could be well separated within 16,min in a 35,cm effective length fused-silica capillary at a separation voltage of +8.0,kV in a 23,mM tetraborate buffer (pH,9.2) containing 8.0×10,5,g/mL c-MWNTs. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were of 2,250,,g/mL for A (R2,=,0.995), 3,200,,g/mL for U (R2,=,0.990) and G (R2,=,0.992), 3,250,,g/mL for T (R2,=,0.998), 2,200,,g/mL for C (R2,=,0.985) and 4,200,,g/mL for HX (R2,=,0.988) and 8-AA (R2,=,0.990). The detection limits were 0.9,,g/mL for A (S/N,=,3), 2.4,,g/mL for U, 2.0,,g/mL for T, 1.5,,g/mL for C, 2.5,,g/mL for G and 3.0,,g/mL for HX and 8-AA. The proposed method was successfully applied for determining five purine and pyrimidine bases in yeast RNA. [source]

A Reusable Interface Constructed by 3-Aminophenylboronic Acid-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Cell Capture, Release, and Cytosensing

Xue Zhong
Abstract A newly developed electrochemical cell sensor for the determination of K562 leukemia cells using 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA)-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films is demonstrated. The films are generated by the covalent coupling between the NH2 groups in APBA and the COOH group in the acid-oxidized MWCNTs. As a result of the sugar-specific affinity interactions, the K562 leukemia cells are firmly bound to the APBA-functionalized MWCNTs film via boronic acid groups. Compared to electropolymerized APBA films, the presence of MWCNTs not only provides abundant boronic acid domains for cell capture, their high electrical conductivity also makes the film suitable for electrochemical sensing applications. The resulting modified electrodes are tested as cell detection sensors. This work presents a promising platform for effective cell capture and constructing reusable cytosensors. [source]

Long-Cycle Electrochemical Behavior of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Stainless Steel in Li Ion Batteries

Charan Masarapu
Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered to be excellent candidates for high performance electrode materials in Li ion batteries. The nanometer-sized pore structures of CNTs can provide the hosting sites for storing large numbers of Li ions. A short diffusion distance for the Li ions may bring about a high discharge rate. The long-cycle performance of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) directly synthesized on stainless-steel foil as an anode material in lithium battery is demonstrated. An increase in the specific capacity with an increase in the cycle number is observed. Starting at a value of 132,mA hg,1 in the first cycle at a current rate of 1,C, the specific capacity increased about 250% to a value of 460,mA hg,1 after 1,200 cycles. This is an unusual but a welcoming behavior for battery applications. It is found that the morphology of the MWNTs with structural and surface defects and the stainless-steel substrate play an important role in enhancing the capacity during the cycling process. [source]

Directed Self-Assembly of Gradient Concentric Carbon Nanotube Rings,

Suck Won Hong
Abstract Hundreds of gradient concentric rings of linear conjugated polymer, (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4- phenylenevinylene], i.e., MEH-PPV) with remarkable regularity over large areas were produced by controlled "stick-slip" motions of the contact line in a confined geometry consisting of a sphere on a flat substrate (i.e., sphere-on-flat geometry). Subsequently, MEH-PPV rings were exploited as a template to direct the formation of gradient concentric rings of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with controlled density. This method is simple, cost effective, and robust, combining two consecutive self-assembly processes, namely, evaporation-induced self-assembly of polymers in a sphere-on-flat geometry, followed by subsequent directed self-assembly of MWNTs on the polymer-templated surfaces. [source]

In Situ Growth of Mesoporous SnO2 on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: A Novel Composite with Porous-Tube Structure as Anode for Lithium Batteries,

Z. Wen
Abstract A novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite, namely mesoporous tin dioxide (SnO2) overlaying on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared by a simple method that included in situ growth of mesoporous SnO2 on the surface of MWCNTs through hydrothermal method utilizing Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agents. Nitrogen adsorption,desorption, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis techniques were used to characterize the samples. It was observed that a thin layer tetragonal SnO2 with a disordered porous was embedded on the surface of MWCNTs, which resulted in the formation of a novel mesoporous-nanotube hybrid composite. On the base of TEM analysis of products from controlled experiment, a possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the mesoporous-nanotube structure. The electrochemical properties of the samples as anode materials for lithium batteries were studied by cyclic voltammograms and Galvanostatic method. Results showed that the mesoporous-tube hybrid composites displayed higher capacity and better cycle performance in comparison with the mesoporous tin dioxide. It was concluded that such a large improvement of electrochemical performance within the hybrid composites may in general be related to mesoporous-tube structure that possess properties such as one-dimensional hollow structure, high-strength with flexibility, excellent electric conductivity and large surface area. [source]

Strong Carbon-Nanotube,Polymer Bonding by Microwave Irradiation,

Y. Wang
Abstract The vigorous response of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to microwave irradiation, leading to the release of a large amount of heat, is used to locally melt a plastic matrix adjacent to the nanotubes within a period of seconds. This results in the intercalation of the MWNTs into the polymer matrix at room temperature without any physical damage to the polymer. The so-called "microwave welding" approach creates a new paradigm for the formation of very strong MWNT,polymer bonds without the use of any adhesive, and represents a significant step forward for the fabrication of functional nanotube composites. Here, we demonstrate the implications of the anisotropic alignment of MWNTs in polymers, patterned conductors/resistors for soft electronics, and high-strength composites, where the MWNTs are ,soldered' to flexible polymer substrates. [source]

Poly(,-caprolactone)-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and Their Biodegradation Properties,

H.-L. Zeng
Abstract Biodegradable poly(,-caprolactone) (PCL) has been covalently grafted onto the surfaces of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by the "grafting from" approach based on in-situ ring-opening polymerization of ,-caprolactone. The grafted PCL content can be controlled easily by adjusting the feed ratio of monomer to MWNT-supported macroinitiators (MWNT-OH). The resulting products have been characterized with Fourier-transform IR (FTIR), NMR, and Raman spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After PCL was coated onto MWNT surfaces, core/shell structures with nanotubes as the "hard" core and the hairy polymer layer as the "soft" shell are formed, especially for MWNTs coated with a high density of polymer chains. Such a polymer shell promises good solubility/dispersibility of the MWNT,PCL nanohybrids in low-boiling-point organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. Biodegradation experiments have shown that the PCL grafted onto MWNTs can be completely enzymatically degraded within 4,days in a phosphate buffer solution in the presence of pseudomonas (PS) lipase, and the carbon nanotubes retain their tubelike morphologies, as observed by SEM and TEM. The results present possible applications for these biocompatible PCL-functionalized CNTs in bionanomaterials, biomedicine, and artificial bones. [source]

The Use of Terahertz Spectroscopy as a Sensitive Probe in Discriminating the Electronic Properties of Structurally Similar Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 38-39 2009
Edward P. J. Parrott
Terahertz spectroscopy is used to definitively distinguish between two multiwalled carbon nanotubes (see figure), which have commercial applications in a number of advanced materials. Other techniques do not provide a sensitive discrimination of the measured properties. This observation is rationalized by considering the dielectric nature of the materials and the relationship of this to their structural differences. [source]

Gas Sensors: Room-Temperature Gas Sensing Based on Electron Transfer between Discrete Tin Oxide Nanocrystals and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Mater.

Hybrid nanostructures consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) uniformly coated with SnO2 nanocrystals can be used as a novel gas sensing platform, exhibiting high sensitivity to low-concentration gases (NO2, H2, and CO) at room temperature, report Junhong Chen and co-workers on p. 2487. The hybrid nanomaterial provides a new opportunity to engineer sensing devices through electronic transfer between the nanocrystals and the CNT. [source]