Multidisciplinary Collaboration (multidisciplinary + collaboration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Amiodarone for Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery: Development of Clinical Practice Guidelines at a University Hospital

Pharm D., Ujjaini Khanderia M.S.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) usually develops within the first 72 h following cardiac surgery, and is often self-limiting. Within 48 h of acute onset of symptoms, approximately 50% of patients spontaneously convert to normal sinus rhythm. Thus, the relative risks and benefits of therapy must be carefully considered. The etiology of AF following cardiac surgery is similar to that in non-surgical patients except that pericardial inflammation and increased adrenergic tone play an increasingly important role. Further, AF after surgery may be associated with transient risk factors that resolve as the patient moves out from surgery, and the condition is less likely to recur compared to AF arising in other circumstances. Immediate heart rate control is important in preventing ischemia, tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy, and left ventricular dilatation. At our institution, amiodarone is frequently used as a first-line drug for treating AF after cardiac surgery. Inconsistent prescribing practices, variable dosage regimens, and a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate use of amiodarone prompted the need for developing practice guidelines. Multidisciplinary collaboration between the departments of cardiac surgery, pharmacy, and anesthesiology led to the development of a protocol for postoperative AF. We review the clinical evidence from published trials and discuss our guidelines, defining amiodarone use for AF in the cardiac surgery setting. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

EBUS-TBNA: an opportunity for clinicians, cytopathologists and patients to gain from multidisciplinary collaboration

A. Herbert
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Nonoperative imaging techniques in suspected biliary tract obstruction

HPB, Issue 6 2006
Frances Tse
Abstract Evaluation of suspected biliary tract obstruction is a common clinical problem. Clinical data such as history, physical examination, and laboratory tests can accurately identify up to 90% of patients whose jaundice is caused by extrahepatic obstruction. However, complete assessment of extrahepatic obstruction often requires the use of various imaging modalities to confirm the presence, level, and cause of obstruction, and to aid in treatment plan. In the present summary, the literature on competing technologies including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiopancreatography (PTC), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), helical CT (hCT) and helical CT cholangiography (hCTC) with regards to diagnostic performance characteristics, technical success, safety, and cost-effectiveness is reviewed. Patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to choledocholithiasis or pancreaticobiliary malignancies are the primary focus of this review. Algorithms for the management of suspected obstructive jaundice are put forward based on current evidence. Published data suggest an increasing role for EUS and other noninvasive imaging techniques such as MRCP, and hCT following an initial transabdominal ultrasound in the assessment of patients with suspected biliary obstruction to select candidates for surgery or therapeutic ERCP. The management of patients with a suspected pancreaticobiliary condition ultimately is dependent on local expertise, availability, cost, and the multidisciplinary collaboration between radiologists, surgeons, and gastroenterologists. [source]

Staffing in acute hospital wards: part 1.

The relationship between number of nurses, ward organizational environment
This paper is one of two that explores relationships between nursing staff resources, ward organizational practice and nurses' perceptions of ward environments. Here we examine relationships between staff numbers, care organization and nursing practice. A subsequent paper examines the effects of grade mix and staff stability. The data were collected in the mid-1990s from a nationally representative sample of 100 acute hospital wards and 825 nurses. Our analyses provide important insights for managers seeking to achieve the strategic aims set out in Working Together, and subsequent National Health Service (NHS) policy placing emphasis on making the best use of nurses, focussing on mobilising their knowledge, skills and talents within the context of extended work roles. Findings show that number of nurses is associated not only with ward organizational systems but also with a range of care processes and staff outcomes which hitherto have been linked only to ward organizational systems. The latter have been identified as providing different opportunities for developing multidisciplinary working and nurses' autonomy but the central importance of having an adequate number of staff to achieve these aims has been largely overlooked in research. Having fewer nurses was associated with both hierarchical ward organizational structures and hierarchical attitudes to care provision, denoting lower standards of nursing practice. A larger nursing complement was significantly associated with devolved organizational structures but no link was established between more staff and higher standards of nursing practice. When there were more staff there was a positive association with nurses' perceptions of multidisciplinary collaboration, their ability to cope with workload and job satisfaction. Employing an adequate number of nurses to provide care is clearly beneficial for nurses themselves. Patients are also likely to benefit from a lower incidence of ,hierarchical practice' associated with having a low nurse/bed ratio within a ward. [source]

Lower genital tract lesions requiring surgical intervention in girls: Perspective from a developing country

Sebastian O Ekenze
Aim: To determine the spectrum, outcome of treatment and the challenges of managing surgical lesions of lower genital tract in girls in a low-resource setting. Method: Retrospective study of 87 girls aged 13-years and younger, with lower genital tract lesions managed between February 2002 and January 2007 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Clinical charts were reviewed to determine the types, management, outcome of treatment and management difficulties. Results: The median age at presentation was 1 year (range 2 days,13 years). Congenital lesions comprised 67.8% and acquired lesions 32.2%. The lesions included: masculinised external genitalia (24), vestibular fistula from anorectal malformation (23), post-circumcision labial fusion (12), post-circumcision vulval cyst (6), low vaginal malformations (6), labial adhesion (5), cloacal malformation (3), bifid clitoris (3) urethral prolapse (3), and acquired rectovaginal fistula (2). Seventy-eight (89.7%) had operative treatment. Procedure related complications occurred in 19 cases (24.4%) and consisted of surgical wound infection (13 cases), labial adhesion (4 cases) and urinary retention (2 cases). There was no mortality. Overall, 14 (16.1%) abandoned treatment at one stage or another. Challenges encountered in management were inadequate diagnostic facilities, poor multidisciplinary collaboration and poor patient follow up. Conclusion: There is a wide spectrum of lower genital lesion among girls in our setting. Treatment of these lesions may be challenging, but the outcome in most cases is good. High incidence of post-circumcision complications and poor treatment compliance may require more efforts at public enlightenment. [source]

A novel study design to investigate the early-life origins of asthma in children (SAGE study)

ALLERGY, Issue 8 2009
A. L. Kozyrskyj
This is a description of the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE), a novel birth cohort created from provincial healthcare administrative records. It is a general population-based cohort, composed of children at high and low risk for asthma, living in urban and rural environments in Manitoba, Canada. The SAGE study captures the complete longitudinal healthcare records of children born in 1995 and contains detailed information on early-life exposures, such as antibiotic utilization and immunization, in relationship to the development of asthma. Nested within the birth cohort is a case-control study, which was created to collect information on home environmental exposures from detailed surveys and home dust sampling, to confirm asthma status in children and use this data to validate healthcare database measures of asthma, to determine differences in immune system responsiveness to innate and adaptive immune stimuli in asthma, to genotype children for genes likely associated with the development of asthma and to study the epigenetic regulation of pre-established protective vs allergic immune responses. The SAGE study is a multidisciplinary collaboration of researchers from pediatric allergy, population health, immunology, and genetic and environmental epidemiology. As such, it serves as a fertile, interdisciplinary training ground for graduate students, and postdoctoral and clinician fellows. [source]

Unique Characteristics of Emergency Care Research: Scope, Populations, and Infrastructure

D. Mark Courtney MD
Abstract The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program and the 2006 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report on the future of emergency care highlight the need for coordinated emergency care research (ECR) to improve the outcomes of acutely ill or injured patients. In response, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) and the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) sponsored the Emergency Care Research Network (ECRN) Conference in Washington, DC, on May 28, 2008. The conference objectives were to identify the unique nature of ECR and the infrastructure needed to support ECR networks and to understand the optimal role of emergency medicine (EM) and other acute care specialties in research networks. Prior to the conference, participants responded to questions addressing the relevant issues that would form the basis of breakout session discussions; two of these breakout questions are summarized in this report: 1) what makes EM research unique? and 2) what are the critical components needed to establish and maintain networked ECR? Emergency care research was defined as "the systematic examination of patient care that is expected to be continuously available to diverse populations presenting with undifferentiated symptoms of acute illness, or acutely decompensated chronic illness, and whose outcomes depend on timely diagnosis and treatment." The chain of ECR may extend beyond the physical emergency department (ED) in both place and time and integrate prehospital care, as well as short- and long-term outcome determination. ECR may extend beyond individual patients and have as the focus of investigation the actual system of emergency care delivery itself and its effects on the community with respect to access to care, use of resources, and cost. Infrastructure determinants of research network success identified by conference participants included multidisciplinary collaboration, accurate long-term outcome determination, novel information technology, intellectual infrastructure, and wider network relationships that extend beyond the ED. [source]

Educational and Research Advances Stemming from the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference in Knowledge Translation

Eddy S. Lang MD
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:865,869 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract The 2007 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine" yielded a number of initiatives in both education and research that directly reflected the conference's published objectives and recommendations. One research initiative, CONCERT, is a national consortium of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) investigators who set forth an effort designed to optimize COPD care through the identification of gaps between research and practice in diagnosis and management of the chronic and acute care aspects of this disease. In addition to CONCERT, educational programs designed to identify barriers to evidence implementation and to develop solutions to achieve uptake through multidisciplinary collaboration have emerged that reflect the impact of the consensus conference. This article describes these initiatives and highlights the potential for future innovative opportunities. [source]

Development of guidelines for the safe prescribing, dispensing and administration of cancer chemotherapy

Abstract Aim: The issue of medication safety is highly significant when anti-cancer therapy is used due to the high potential for harm from these agents and the disease context in which they are being used. This article reports on the development of multidisciplinary consensus guidelines for the safe prescribing, dispensing and administration of cancer chemotherapy undertaken by a working group of the Clinical Oncological Society of Australia (COSA). Methods: A working group of pharmacists, nurses and medical oncologists was convened from the COSA membership. A draft set of guidelines was proposed and circulated to the COSA council and the wider membership of COSA for comment. The final version of the guidelines was then distributed to 25 key stakeholders in Australia for feedback and endorsement. Results: An initial draft was developed based on existing standards, evidence from the literature and consensus opinion of the group. It was agreed that published case studies would be used as evidence for a particular statement where related processes had resulted in patient harm. The group defined 13 areas where a guidance statement was applicable to all professional disciplines and three individual sections based on the processes and the professionals involved in the provision of cancer therapy. Conclusion: The guidelines development represents a multidisciplinary collaboration to standardize the complex process of providing chemotherapy for cancer and to enhance patient safety. These are consensus guidelines based on the best available evidence and expert opinion of professionals working in cancer care. They should be seen as a point of reference for practitioners providing chemotherapy services. [source]

The Clinical Oncological Society of Australia (COSA) guidelines for the safe prescribing, dispensing and administration of cancer chemotherapy

Abstract The issue of medication safety is highly significant when anti-cancer therapy is used as a treatment modality due to the high potential for harm from these agents and the disease context in which they are being used. These guidelines provide recommendations on the safe prescribing, dispensing and administration of chemotherapy and related agents used in the treatment of cancer. The guidelines represent a multidisciplinary collaboration to standardise the complex process of providing chemotherapy for cancer and to enhance patient safety. These are consensus guidelines based on the best available evidence and expert opinion of professionals working in cancer care. The aim of these guidelines is to assist in the prevention of medication errors and to improve patient safety with respect to the treatment of cancer. This guidance is intended for a multi-disciplinary audience and will have most relevance for medical, nursing and pharmacy staff involved in the complex processes of delivering chemotherapy and associated treatment. The scope of the guidelines includes; all patients and age groups receiving chemotherapy and targeted therapy for the treatment of cancer and cancer therapy administered by any route in both the hospital and home setting. These guidelines should be seen as point of reference for practitioners providing cancer chemotherapy services. [source]

Nutritional status in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of biochemical markers

Victoria Hall Moran
Abstract Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for many industrialized countries and is associated with significant medical, nutritional, social and economic risk for mothers and their infants. Despite this, relatively little is known about the nutritional status of this population. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the current evidence relating to the biochemical markers of nutritional status of pregnant adolescents living in industrialized countries. Six papers were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the majority of which were conducted in the United States. The studies were of variable quality and most failed to control for potential confounders which may have strongly influenced the findings. Due to limited research, conclusions cannot be drawn about the zinc and calcium status of pregnant adolescents, and data on folate and vitamin B12 status appeared conflicting. There was some consensus among studies, however, to suggest that indicators of anaemia and iron status were compromised in pregnant adolescents, particularly during the third trimester of pregnancy. Chronological age did not appear to influence nutritional status, although there was some evidence to suggest that increasing gynaecologic age may positively influence plasma ferritin levels. Current research is limited by sampling and measurement bias, and research is urgently required to address these limitations. Further consideration should also be made of the influence of the role of socio-economic support on pregnant adolescents' nutritional status. The achievement of improved nutrition in pregnancy among adolescents requires multidisciplinary collaborations of adolescent healthcare providers, academics, professional organizations, policymakers, industry and service users. Only once this is achieved can adolescent nutrition, and adolescent nutrition in pregnancy, be significantly and sustainably optimized. [source]