Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of MU

  • genus mu

  • Terms modified by MU

  • mu domesticu
  • mu musculus domesticu
  • mu opioid receptor
  • mu us sandy land

  • Selected Abstracts

    Occurrence of seizures in association with work-related stress in young male army recruits

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2008
    Shlomo Moshe
    Summary Purpose: To examine the risk of undergoing an epileptic seizure as a function of differing levels of occupational stress (physical and mental) in new military recruits with no previous history of epilepsy or with epilepsy in remission for over 2 years. Methods: The medical records of over 300,000 18-year-old men recruited to the Israeli army between mid-eighties and mid-nineties were used to assemble a cohort, which was followed for a period of 30 months. The severity of epilepsy at recruitment was determined according to four categories, 0 (no history of seizures) and 1,3 (history of seizures with different relapse-free periods, with or without treatment). The soldiers were subdivided according to their occupational categories to: combat units (CU), maintenance units (MU), and administrative units (AU). Results: The annual incidence rates per 100,000 in category 0 were 317, 298, and 401 in AU, MU, and CU, respectively. The incidence of seizures in category 0 was higher (relative risk [RR]= 1.29, CI = 1.03,1.62) in CU compared to AU and MU. No differences were found for seizure recurrence among various occupational groups. Conclusion: The increased risk of seizures in CU compared to AU and MU may indicate contribution of service conditions in CU, like physical and mental stress. The equivalent rates of seizure relapse, regardless of the type of occupation, suggests the need for minimal occupational restrictions for epilepsy patients who have been free of seizures for long periods. [source]

    Routine use of Xeomin® in patients previously treated with Botox®: long term results

    D. Dressler
    Background and purpose:, Based upon large and carefully performed studies Xeomin® was first registered in 2005. However, its real potential can only be assessed, when it is used outside of study design restrictions, in an independent setting, in off-label indications and during continued use. Methods and results:, Two hundred and sixty-three patients (91 with dystonia, 84 with spasticity, 17 with hemifacial spasm and re-innervation synkinesias, 64 with hyperhidrosis, 7 with hypersalivation), who were previously treated with Botox® for at least 1 year under stable conditions, were converted in a blinded fashion to Xeomin® using a 1:1 conversion ratio and identical treatment parameters. Therapeutic outcome and adverse effects were monitored by neurological examination and structuralised interviews. In 223 patients (all except those with axillary hyperhidrosis) Xeomin® was used continuously throughout a 3 year period. Altogether 1050 injection series were performed. Patients with dystonia received 261.5 ± 141.0 MU Botox®/Xeomin®, patients with spasticity 450.5 ± 177.1 MU, patients with hemifacial spasm and reinnervation synkinesias 44.7 ± 19.5 MU and patients with hyperhidrosis 286.9 ± 141.6 MU. The maximum botulinum toxin dose applied was 840 MU. There were no subjective or objective differences between Botox® and Xeomin® treatments with respect to onset latency, maximum and duration of their therapeutic effects and their adverse effect profiles. Long-term use did not reveal additional safety relevant aspects. None of the patients lost therapeutic efficacy during the observation period. Conclusions:, Xeomin® can be used safely in doses of up to 840 MU. Even when applied in high doses it did not produce secondary therapy failure. There were no diffusion differences between Botox® and Xeomin®. Using a conversion ratio of 1:1 Xeomin® and Botox® can easily be exchanged in a continued treatment. [source]

    A randomized 4-arm multicenter study of interferon alfa,2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C not responding to interferon alone

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Giorgio Saracco
    To determine whether a higher dosage of interferon (IFN) associated with ribavirin and/or prolonged time of administration may improve therapeutic efficacy, we conducted a 4-arm randomized trial on patients with chronic hepatitis C not responding to one or more previous treatment courses with IFN monotherapy. Group 1 (n = 139) received 3 million units (MU) IFN-,2b 3 times a week (t.i.w.) plus ribavirin 1,000 mg/d for 12 months; group 2 (n = 162) received 5 MU t.i.w. plus ribavirin for 12 months; group 3 (n = 142) received 3 MU t.i.w. plus ribavirin for 6 months; and group 4 (n = 151) received 5 MU t.i.w. plus ribavirin for 6 months. The primary end point was hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA clearance at the end of 6-month follow-up. HCV-RNA was negative in 15% of group 1, 23% of group 2, 11% of group 3, 16% of group 4 (group 2 vs. group 3, P = .04). Among patients with genotypes 1 and 4, sustained response was significantly higher in group 2 vs. group 3 (18% vs. 7%, P = .03; group 1 = 9%, group 4 = 12%, P = not significant [NS]). In patients with genotypes 2 and 3, sustained virologic response was not affected by the different regimens (group 1 = 32%, group 2 = 30%, group 3 = 30%, group 4 = 35%, P = NS). In conclusion, about 23% of nonresponders to IFN monotherapy may achieve a sustained response if re-treated by 5 MU t.i.w. IFN plus ribavirin 1,000 mg/d for 1 year. Patients with genotype 1 should receive a high dosage of IFN plus ribavirin for 12 months, whereas therapy for patients with genotype 2 or 3 should be less aggressive. [source]

    Erythema dyschromicum perstans and hepatitis C virus infection

    George J. Kontochristopoulos MD
    A 48-year-old woman with a 10-month history of widespread, hyperpigmented, slightly pruritic macules, with a red border, involving the trunk and the proximal limbs (Fig. 1) was referred to our outpatient department. The oral mucosa, palms, soles, scalp, and nails were normal. Figure 1. Multiple hyperpigmented macules with an active border on the trunk Laboratory tests showed elevated liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 68 IU/L (normal value, <,40 IU/L); aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 41 IU/L (normal value, <,40 IU/L)], the presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) and HCV RNA (Amplicor Roche). In addition, cryoglobulinemia type III (IgM,,,, IgG,,,) was detected with a high cryocrit value, and there was detectable C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and a low titer of antinuclear antibodies (1 : 80). A percutaneous liver biopsy showed changes compatible with mild chronic hepatitis (grade, 6; stage, 0). The possible source of infection was unknown, as the patient had no history of parenteral transmission (e.g. blood transfusions, intravenous illicit drug use). A skin biopsy specimen from the active border of a lesion showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, and hydropic degeneration of the basal cell layer, with the formation of colloid bodies in the epidermis. A moderate perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with melanophages and free melanin granules was observed in the upper dermis (Fig. 2). Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections with the TORDJT-22 IgG1 mouse monoclonal antibody to HCV (Biogenex, Son Ramon, USA), which is specific for the nonstructural region of HCV (NS3-NSH, C100 antigen) using the avidin,biotin,peroxidase complex (ABC) as well as the alkaline phosphatase antialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) methods, failed to detect HCV in the lesion of erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) (Nakopoulou L, Manolaki N, Lazaris A et al. Tissue immunodetection of C100 hepatitis C virus antigen in major thalassemic patients. Hepato-Gastroenterol 1999; 46: 2515,2520). Direct immunofluorescence showed IgG, IgM, IgA, and fibrinogen deposits on colloid bodies. EDP was diagnosed on the basis of these clinical and laboratory findings. Figure 2. Hydropic degeneration of the basal cell layer with colloid bodies in the epidermis. Moderate perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with melanophages and free melanin granules in the upper dermis (hematoxylin and eosin, ×,200) The patient was treated with interferon-,2b (Intron-A, Schering Plough Athens, Greece), 3 MU thrice weekly subcutaneously for 12 months, with additional topical steroid application. There was no response to this treatment with new lesions appearing in previously unaffected areas of the trunk and extremities. HCV RNA remained persistently positive. Thus, a modified regimen with interferon-,2b, 6 MU thrice weekly for 6 months, was tried. At the end of the treatment course, the eruption of EDP had greatly improved. Liver enzymes were normal (ALT, 22 IU/L; AST, 24 IU/L) and HCV RNA had become negative. Four months later, however, cutaneous lesions reappeared and hepatitis C relapsed. At this time point, combination therapy of interferon-,2b, 3 MU thrice weekly, with ribavirin, 1000 mg daily, was given. Six months later, liver enzymes were normal (ALT, 42 IU/L; AST, 39 IU/L), HCV RNA was negative, and the lesions of EDP had resolved. [source]

    Hepatitis C: Retreatment and treatment of patients with renal failure

    Wan-Cheng Chow
    This paper addresses two difficult issues in the treatment of hepatitis C: patients who fail to achieve a sustained response after the first course of treatment, and those who simultaneously suffer from chronic renal failure. With the recent improvements in firstline treatment, retreatment is mainly applicable to those who have previously received 6-month of interferon monotherapy at 3 MU thrice weekly. For those who had an end-of-treatment response but relapsed, there is a choice between interferon monotherapy at increased dose and/or duration of treatment, or a 6-month course of combination therapy. Retreatment of non-responders is generally unsuccessful, but some patients may respond to interferon-alpha 3 MU and ribavirin 1.0,1.2 g/day. For patients with chronic renal failure and hepatitis C, combination treatment is not possible because ribavirin is contraindicated. Interferon given at a dose of 1.5 MU thrice weekly was reported to be fairly well tolerated by patients who were on dialysis and resulted in end-of-treatment and sustained biochemical and virological response in some cases. Interferon given in the usual doses may be associated with severe adverse effects in patients with renal failure, and can precipitate allograft rejection in patients who have undergone renal transplantation. [source]

    Functional properties and regional differences of human masseter motor units related to three-dimensional bite force

    T. OGAWA
    summary, The aim of this study was to estimate numerically the properties of masseter motor units (MUs) in relation to bite force magnitude and direction three-dimensionally and to confirm the hypothesis that the properties differ between different parts of the muscle by means of simultaneous recording of MU activity along with the MU location and three-dimensional (3D) bite force. The MU activity of the right masseter of four healthy men was recorded using a monopolar needle electrode in combination with a surface reference electrode. The location of the needle electrode was estimated stereotactically with the aid of magnetic resonance images and a reference plate. The magnitude and direction of the bite force was recorded with a custom-made 3D bite force transducer. The recorded bite force was displayed on a signal processor, which enabled the participant to adjust the direction and magnitude of the force. The activities of 65 masseter MUs were recorded. Each MU had specific ranges of bite force magnitude and direction (firing range: FR) and an optimum direction for recruitment (minimum firing threshold: MFT). There was a significant negative correlation between MFT and FR width. There were functional differences in MU properties between the superficial and deep masseter and between the superficial layer and deep layer in the superficial masseter. These results indicate that the contribution of human masseter motor units to bite force production is heterogeneous within the muscle. [source]

    Improved physical stability of amorphous state through acid base interactions

    Chitra Telang
    Abstract To investigate role of specific interactions in aiding formation and stabilization of amorphous state in ternary and binary dispersions of a weakly acidic drug. Indomethacin (IMC), meglumine (MU), and polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP) were the model drug, base, and polymer, respectively. Dispersions were prepared using solvent evaporation. Physical mixtures were cryogenically coground. XRPD, PLM, DSC, TGA, and FTIR were used for characterization. MU has a high crystallization tendency and is characterized by a low Tg (17°C). IMC crystallization was inhibited in ternary dispersion with MU compared to IMC/PVP alone. An amorphous state formed readily even in coground mixtures. Spectroscopic data are indicative of an IMC,MU amorphous salt and supports solid-state proton transfer. IMC,MU salt displays a low Tg,,,50°C, but is more physically stable than IMC, which in molecular mixtures with MU, resisted crystallization even when present in stoichiometric excess of base. This is likely due to a disrupted local structure of amorphous IMC due to specific interactions. IMC showed improved physical stability on incorporating MU in polymer, in spite of low Tg of the base indicating that chemical interactions play a dominant role in physical stabilization. Salt formation could be induced thermally and mechanically. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:2149,2159, 2009 [source]

    Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin vs interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected patients

    M. Crespo
    Summary., Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is associated with low response rates and high incidence of side effects. One hundred twenty-one hepatitis C virus (HCV),HIV-coinfected patients were randomized to receive interferon alpha-2b (3 MU thrice weekly; n = 61) or peginterferon alpha-2b (1.5 ,g/kg/week; n = 60), plus ribavirin (800 mg daily), for 24 (genotype 2 or 3) or 48 weeks (genotype 1 or 4). We assessed early virological response at 4, 8 and 12 weeks to predict sustained virological response (SVR). Safety assessment included frequent blood lactate measurement and relative quantitation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In intention-to-treat analysis, the SVR rate was higher in the peginterferon group (55%vs 26%; P = 0.002). The difference for HCV genotypes 1 and 4 was 45%vs 14% (P = 0.009) and 50%vs 27% (P = 0.387), respectively, and for genotype 2 or 3, 71%vs 43% (P = 0.12) Viral response at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment was highly predictive of SVR. Among genotype 3 patients, 17 of 20 (85%) whose HCV RNA was already undetectable at 4 weeks had an SVR after 24 weeks of treatment. Hyperlactataemia occurred in 22 patients and was clinically significant in six, two of whom died. mtDNA decreased significantly 4,12 weeks after the start of treatment in patients developing clinically significant hyperlactataemia. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin was more effective than interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in HIV-coinfected patients. Frequent monitoring of virological response may be very helpful to optimize treatment compliance, to tailor treatment duration and to minimize side effects. [source]

    Treatment of hepatitis D

    G. A. Niro
    Summary., Delta virus related chronic hepatitis is difficult to treat. The response to , -interferon (IFN), which still represents the only therapy for chronic hepatitis D, varies widely and occurs at different times from the beginning of treatment. The rate of response is proportional to the dose of IFN, with 9 million units (MU) three times a week being more effective than 3 MU thrice weekly. Sustained responses are unusual and are accompanied by the clearance of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), seroconversion to anti-HBs and improvement of liver histology. Although disease of a short-standing may respond better to therapy, clear predictors of response are still unidentified. Besides IFN, other therapeutic approaches such as immunosuppressive drugs, acyclovir, ribavirin and thymosin, have been unhelpful. Available evidence does not support the use of deoxynucleotide analogues. Famciclovir has no effect on disease activity and hepatitis D virus (HDV)-RNA levels. Twelve- or 24-month lamivudine treatment does not significantly affect biochemical, virological or histological parameters. Pegylated-IFN could represent a reasonable therapeutic option in the long-term treatment required for chronic hepatitis D. Antisense oligonucleotides and prenylation inhibitors hold promise as therapeutic agents of the future. Liver transplantation provides a valid option for end-stage HDV liver disease; the risk of re-infection is lower for HDV than for HBV under long-term administration of hyperimmune serum against HBsAg. Molecularly tailored drugs capable of interfering with crucial viral replicative processes of HDV appear to be the best prospect in the treatment of hepatitis D. [source]

    Mutations in the NS5A and E2-PePHD region of hepatitis C virus type 1b and correlation with the response to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin

    C.-H. Hung
    summary. Nonstructural 5A (NS5A) and the second envelope (E2) proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to block interferon (IFN)-induced RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and may therefore interfere with the response to IFN therapy, but controversy still exists regarding the relevance of this. This study aimed to assess whether mutations in these regions correlated with the response to combination therapy, IFN and ribavirin. Pretreatment parameters were analysed in 57 HCV-1b patients who had received IFN- ,2b (3 or 5 MU three times weekly) and ribavirin (800,1200 mg per day) for 24 weeks. The amino acid sequences of the NS5A and PKR-eIF2, phosphorylation homology domain (E2-PePHD) were deduced from the corresponding coding sequence, which were determinated by direct sequencing of the HCV genome amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Twenty (36%) patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR). The mean number of amino acid substitutions in the NS5A,PKR binding domain (2209,2274), interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) (2209,2248), and E2-PePHD sequence (659,670) in patients with and without SVR were 4.53 ± 3.31 vs 2.83 ± 1.78 (P = 0.094), 2.45 ± 2.74 vs 1.03 ± 1.32 (P = 0.042) and 0.25 ± 0.70 vs 0.03 ± 0.17 (P = 0.109), respectively. Patients with a mutant-type (, 4) NS5A,ISDR had a higher rate of SVR (six of nine, 67%) than those with wild-type (five of 22, 23%) (P = 0.038). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis of the factors (age, gender, viral load, cirrhosis rate, IFN dosage and amino acid substitutions) revealed that the mutation in NS5A,ISDR (, 4 vs < 4) was the only independent variable of treatment outcome. Our study showed that NS5A,ISDR mutations were correlated with the SVR to combination therapy in chronic HCV-1b patients in Taiwan. [source]

    Diode laser hair removal does not interfere with botulinum toxin A treatment against axillary hyperhidrosis

    Anna Paul MD
    Abstract Background and Objective The possible interference of combined laser hair removal and Botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) injections in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis has not previously been explored. In order to examine this potential interference, we assessed the effect of BoNT/A on axillary hyperhidrosis with and without concomitant diode laser axillary hair removal. Study Design/Materials and Methods In a prospective, double blind, randomized cross over trial, nine patients suffering from primary axillary hyperhidrosis were laser-treated on one randomly assigned axilla. One week later, both axillas were injected intradermally with BoNT/A (100,MU per axilla). During the same session, the previously untreated axilla was lasered. Axillary sweat rates (in g/5,minutes.) were determined by gravimetry and compared at rest, during mental exercise, and during physical exercise. Additionally, subjective outcome measures were assessed by a visual analogue scale, Dermatology Life Quality Index, and Global Clinical Impression score. Results No differences were found regarding the effect of BoNT/A on previously laser-treated and laser co-treated sides over time course for any of the outcome parameters. Sweat production was reduced 3 weeks after BoNT/A treatment by 93.5% at rest, 96.5% during mental exercise, and 67% during physical exercise. Conclusions Concomitant laser hair removal does not interfere with BoNT/A treatment on axillary hyperhidrosis. Lasers Surg. Med. 42:211,214, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Randomized trial of three different regimens for 24 weeks for re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients who failed to respond to interferon-, monotherapy in Taiwan

    Wan-Long Chuang
    Abstract: With the favorable result of interferon (IFN),ribavirin combination therapy for 24 weeks among naive Taiwanese chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, the optimal regimens of re-treatment for CHC patients who failed initial IFN monotherapy is not well-established. The study evaluated the effectiveness of re-treatment for 24 weeks with 3 different regimens and predictors for sustained virological response (SVR). Methods: Total 120 Taiwanese CHC patients (81 males, 70 relapsers, mean age: 48.6 years) who failed initial IFN monotherapy were enrolled. They were assigned randomly (with a ratio of 1:1:2) to receive one of the three regimens for re-treatment for 24 weeks; group A: IFN 6 million units (MU) monotherapy (N=30), group B: combination therapy with ribavirin and IFN 3 MU (N=30) or group C: combination therapy with ribavirin and IFN 6 MU (N=60). The intention-to-treat rate of sustained virological response (SVR) was 38.3%. The SVR rate in group C (53.3%) was significantly higher than group A (16.7%, P<0.005) and group B (30%, P<0.05). Drop-out rates were similar between the three groups. Patients achieving SVR had significant improvement histologically. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype non-1b infection, lower pretreatment HCV RNA levels, combined with ribavirin and with higher IFN dose, and relapsers were independent predictors for SVR. Conclusion: We concluded that more than one-third Taiwanese CHC patients achieved SVR after 24 weeks re-treatment and combination therapy, especially with higher dose of IFN, yielded higher efficacy. [source]

    Efficacy of a short-term ribavirin plus interferon alpha combination therapy followed by interferon alpha alone in previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized multicenter trial

    Thomas Berg
    Abstract:Background: Combination therapy with interferon alpha (IFN,) plus ribavirin has been shown to improve the sustained response rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C but there is little information regarding the lengths of time for this therapeutic regimen. In this study we therefore tried to evaluate whether the analysis of different virological parameters could provide new clues with respect to the early determination of the efficacy of this form of combination therapy. Furthermore, we also examined whether short-term induction combination therapy followed by IFN, alone is more effective than monotherapy in mounting an initial as well as a sustained virological response. Methods: 185 patients with histologically proven chronic hepatitis C (mean age 42 years (range 19,65 years); 110 males, 75 females) were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive, over the first 12 weeks, either interferon alpha 2a 6 million units (MU) three times weekly plus ribavirin 14 mg/kg per day (n=93) or the same dose of IFN, alone (n=92). Patients with a virological response (serum HCV RNA undetectable) after 12 weeks were subsequently treated with 3 MU IFN, alone thrice weekly for a further 40 weeks. Otherwise, treatment was discontinued. After the end of treatment, patients were followed up for 24 weeks. Results: Patient characteristics at baseline were not significantly different in the two treatment groups. An initial virological response at week 12 was seen in 61 (66%) patients receiving IFN, plus ribavirin and in 44 (48%) being treated with IFN, alone (p=0.015) and this improvement in the response rate was mainly restricted to HCV genotype 1-infected patients (58% vs. 38%). In contrast, end-of-treatment (week 52) and sustained virological response rates were similar in both groups (37% vs. 29% and 26% vs. 17% [p=0.1], respectively). Interestingly, patients with HCV genotype 3, however, clearly benefited from short-term combination therapy. Thus, sustained virological response rates in these patients significantly increased from 25% (IFN, monotherapy) to 59% (combination therapy) (p=0.05). Conclusions: Short-term combined therapy for 12 weeks is more effective than the monotherapy with respect to the induction of an initial virological response but this effect applies only to genotype 1-infected patients. However, there is no significant difference between both therapeutic schedules with regard to the induction of sustained response. Although HCV genotype 3-infected patients seem to benefit from this short-term combined therapy, prolonged combined therapy may be necessary in HCV genotype 1-infected patients. [source]

    A pilot study of recombinant interferon beta-1a for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C

    François Habersetzer
    Abstract:Aims: Interferon alpha monotherapy induces a sustained response in less than 20% of patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Interferon beta represents a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of recombinant interferon beta-1a administered subcutaneously. Methods: Twenty-one drug-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with recombinant interferon beta-1a administered, subcutaneously, for 24 weeks using two different regimens: 9 MU, three times per week (n=11) and 12 MU, three times per week (n=10). Results: At the end of the treatment period, nine (43%) patients had a biochemical and virological response (i.e. normal ALT and absence of hepatitis C virus RNA by PCR). Four of these patients were in the 9 MU group and five in the 12 MU group. A biochemical and virological sustained response occurred in four (19%) patients, all in the 9 MU dose group. The 4 patients with a sustained response maintained their response during a follow-up period of 33 to 58 months. Side effects were mild and 19 (90%) patients completed the treatment period. Conclusions: The results of this pilot study indicate that interferon beta-1a administered subcutaneously is an effective therapy for some patients with chronic hepatitis C, and suggest that interferon beta-1a deserves further evaluations in larger trials especially in combination with ribavirin. [source]

    A prospective study of interferon therapy modified by pre-treatment viral load in cirrhotic patients

    Yasushi Shiratori
    Abstract:Background/Aims: The relative role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and subtype as predictors of the efficacy of interferon therapy has been clarified in patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effectiveness of interferon therapy in cirrhotic patients is still unclear. Methods: To resolve this issue, we undertook a multicenter, randomized, and prospective study of 114 cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The patients were selected to undergo two different periods (6 or 12 months) of IFN therapy according to viral load. Patients with "low" viral load (,105.8 copies/ml serum) were randomly divided into three groups, receiving 6 or 9 million units (MU) interferon three times a week for 6 months (total dose: 468 or 702 MU), or of a modified regimen using 6MU of IFN over 6 months (total dose 564 MU), while patients with "high" viral load (,106.3 copies/ml serum) were also randomly divided into two groups of 6 or 9 MU of IFN three times a week for 12 months (total dose: 936 or 1404 MU). Results: HCV-RNA negativity rate at the completion of treatment with 6 or 9 MU IFN was 65% in patients with "low" viral load, in contrast to 14% in patients with "high" viral load. Sustained virological response was found in 40% of patients with "low" viral load irrespective of the three different regimens, in contrast to only 1 out of 35 patients (3%) with "high" viral load. Viral eradication was found in approximately 50% of patients having a low virus load (,104.3 copies/ml) and with HCV subtype 2a. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that pretreatment viral load was a significant factor contributing to efficacy of IFN therapy. Conclusions: Sustained response was scarcely achieved in cirrhotic patients with high viral loads even after a 12-month course of intensive IFN therapy. This result indicates that there is a certain cut-off level of HCV RNA load which can not be eradicated. [source]

    Interferon-, plus ribavirin for 12 months increases the sustained response rates in chronic hepatitis C relapsers

    J. A. Moreno-Monteagudo
    Background: The effectiveness and tolerability of combination therapy for 12 months have not been evaluated sufficiently in chronic hepatitis C relapsers to interferon. Aims: To evaluate the sustained response to interferon plus ribavirin for 12 months in chronic hepatitis C relapsers. Methods: We included 55 chronic hepatitis C relapsers in a 12-month treatment protocol with interferon (3 MU thrice weekly) plus ribavirin (1,1.2 g/day). The effectiveness was evaluated using serum aminotransferase and hepatitis C virus RNA levels, alanine aminotransferase normalization and viraemia clearance after 12 months, defining the end-of-treatment response, and 6 months after completion of therapy, defining the sustained response. Adverse effects were recorded. Results: End-of-treatment response and sustained response were achieved in 47 (85%) and 37 (67%) patients, respectively; there were 10 (21%) relapsers after combination therapy. Predictive factors of sustained response included the genotype (non-1 95% vs. 1 48%; P < 0.001), lower viraemia (503 917 ± 553 230 vs. 901 393 ± 548 267 copies/mL; P < 0.005), higher alanine aminotransferase levels (137 ± 75 vs. 103 ± 41 IU/L; P < 0.05) and a lower ,-glutamyl transpeptidase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (0.30 ± 0.23 vs. 0.49 ± 0.39; P < 0.05). Tolerance to therapy was good, with no withdrawals. Conclusions: Interferon plus ribavirin treatment for 12 months in chronic hepatitis C relapsers yields high sustained response rates and is well tolerated. The sustained response is related to a non-1 genotype, lower baseline viraemia, higher alanine aminotransferase level and a lower ,-glutamyl transpeptidase/alanine aminotransferase ratio. [source]

    Excitatory synaptic potentials in spastic human motoneurons have a short rise-time

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 1 2005
    Nina L. Suresh PhD
    Abstract This study assessed whether changes in size or time-course of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in motoneurons innervating spastic muscle could induce a greater synaptic response, and thereby contribute to reflex hyperexcitability. We compared motor unit (MU) firing patterns elicited by tendon taps applied to both spastic and contralateral (nonspastic) biceps brachii muscle in hemiparetic stroke subjects. Based on recordings of 115 MUs, significantly shortened EPSP rise times were present on the spastic side, but with no significant differences in estimated EPSP amplitude. These changes may contribute to hyperexcitable reflex responses at short latency, but the EPSP amplitude changes appear insufficient to account for global differences in reflex excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2005 [source]

    Motoneurons: A preferred firing range across vertebrate species?

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 5 2002
    T. George Hornby PhD
    Abstract The term "preferred firing range" describes a pattern of human motor unit (MU) unitary discharge during a voluntary contraction in which the profile of the spike-frequency of the MU's compound action potential is dissociated from the profile of the presumed depolarizing pressure exerted on the unit's spinal motoneuron (MN). Such a dissociation has recently been attributed by inference to the presence of a plateau potential (PP) in the active MN. This inference is supported by the qualitative similarities between the firing pattern of human MUs during selected types of relatively brief muscle contraction and that of intracellularly stimulated, PP-generating cat MNs in a decerebrate preparation, and turtle MNs in an in vitro slice of spinal cord. There are also similarities between the stimulus-response behavior of intracellularly stimulated turtle MNs and human MUs during the elaboration of a slowly rising voluntary contraction. This review emphasizes that there are a variety of open issues concerning the PP. Nonetheless, a rapidly growing body of comparative vertebrate evidence supports the idea that the PP and other forms of non-linear MN behavior play a major role in the regulation of muscle force, from the lamprey to the human. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 25: 000,000, 2002 [source]

    Adherence to recommendations for primary prevention of atopic disease in neonatology clinical practice

    Annalisa Passariello
    Passariello A, Terrin G, Baldassarre ME, Bisceglia M, Ruotolo S, Berni Canani R. Adherence to recommendations for primary prevention of atopic disease in neonatology clinical practice. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 889,891. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S The prevalence and severity of atopic manifestations in children are increasing in western countries in the last decades. Specific nutritional intervention may prevent or delay the onset of atopic diseases in infants at high risk of developing allergy. These nutritional interventions should be applied early in the perinatal period to have a chance of success. Thus, we assessed adherence to the dietary management recommendations of the Committee on Nutrition and Section on Allergy and Immunology of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the prevention of atopic diseases in neonatal age through an audit study. Questionnaire was administered to the chiefs of 30 maternity units (MU) with more than 1500 live births/yr to report the policy applied in their MU. Twenty-two MU returned the questionnaire. Identification of high-risk newborns was routinely performed only in 7/22 MU (31.8%). High-risk newborns were identified by the presence of at least two or one first-degree relative (parent or sibling) with documented allergic disease by 18.2% and 45.5% of MU, respectively. Specific maternal dietary restrictions during lactation were adopted in 7/22 MU (31.8%). Extensively or partially hydrolyzed formula was prescribed for bottle-fed high-risk infants in 22.7% of MU. Only 2/22 MU have a policy in complete agreement with the nutritional intervention proposed by the AAP. Our study suggest a poor adherence to dietary recommendations for primary prevention of atopic disease in neonatology clinical practice. Further efforts should be planned to improve the knowledge and the application of these preventive strategies. [source]

    Synthesis of enzymatically active human ,- l -iduronidase in Arabidopsis cgl (complex glycan-deficient) seeds

    Willa L. Downing
    Summary As an initial step to develop plants as systems to produce enzymes for the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders, Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col-0) plants were transformed with a construct to express human ,- l -iduronidase (IDUA; EC in seeds using the promoter and other regulatory sequences of the Phaseolus vulgaris arcelin 5-I gene. IDUA protein was easily detected on Western blots of extracts from the T2 seeds, and extracts contained IDUA activity as high as 2.9 nmol 4-methylumbelliferone (4 MU)/min/mg total soluble protein (TSP), corresponding to approximately 0.06 µg IDUA/mg TSP. The purified protein reacted with an antibody specific for xylose-containing plant complex glycans, indicating its transit through the Golgi complex. In an attempt to avoid maturation of the N-linked glycans of IDUA, the same IDUA transgene was introduced into the Arabidopsis cgl background, which is deficient in the activity of N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase I (EC, the first enzyme in the pathway of complex glycan biosynthesis. IDUA activity and protein levels were significantly higher in transgenic cgl vs. wild-type seeds (e.g. maximum levels were 820 nmol 4 MU/min/mg TSP, or 18 µg IDUA/mg TSP). Affinity-purified IDUA derived from cgl mutant seeds showed a markedly reduced reaction with the antibody specific for plant complex glycans, despite transit of the protein to the apoplast. Furthermore, gel mobility changes indicated that a greater proportion of its N-linked glycans were susceptible to digestion by Streptomyces endoglycosidase H, as compared to IDUA derived from seeds of wild-type Arabidopsis plants. The combined results indicate that IDUA produced in cgl mutant seeds contains glycans primarily in the high-mannose form. This work clearly supports the viability of using plants for the production of human therapeutics with high-mannose glycans. [source]

    CA-125 change after chemotherapy in prediction of treatment outcome among advanced mucinous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancers,

    CANCER, Issue 7 2009
    A Gynecologic Oncology Group study
    Abstract BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding unique clinical or laboratory features associated with advanced clear cell (CC) and mucinous (MU) epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), particularly the relationship between CA-125 antigen levels and prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective review of 7 previously reported Gynecologic Oncology Group phase 3 trials in patients with stage III/IV EOC was conducted. A variety of clinical parameters were examined, including the impact of baseline and changes in the CA-125 level after treatment of CC and MU EOC on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Clinical outcomes among patients with advanced CC and MU EOC were significantly worse when compared with other cell types (median PFS, 9.7 vs 7.0 vs 16.7 months, respectively, P < .001; median OS, 19.4 vs 11.3 vs 40.5 months, respectively, P < .001). Suboptimal debulking was associated with significantly decreased PFS and OS among both. Although baseline CA-125 values were lower in CC (median, 154 ,/mL) and MU (100 ,/mL), compared with other cell types (275 ,/mL), this level did not appear to influence outcome among these 2 specific subtypes of EOC. However, an elevated level of CA-125 at the end of chemotherapy was significantly associated with decreased PFS and OS (P < .01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical debulking status is the most important variable at prechemotherapy predictive of prognosis among advanced CC and MU EOC patients. Changes in the CA-125 levels at the end treatment as compared with baseline can serve as valid indicators of PFS and OS, and likely the degree of inherent chemosensitivity. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Innate immune responses to Mycobacterium ulcerans via toll-like receptors and dectin-1 in human keratinocytes

    Hye-Mi Lee
    Summary Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an environmental pathogen, causes Buruli ulcer, a severe skin disease. We hypothesized that epidermal keratinocytes might not be a simple barrier, but play a role during MU infection through pattern-recognition receptors expressed in keratinocytes. We found that keratinocyte Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 and Dectin-1 actively participate in the innate immune response to MU, which includes the internalization of bacteria, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of chemokines and LL-37. Human keratinocytes constitutively expressed TLRs 2 and 4 and induced Dectin-1 in response to MU. Exposing keratinocytes to MU resulted in rapid ROS production, which in turn contributed to the mRNA and protein expression of LL-37. In addition, TLR2, Dectin-1 and, to an extent, TLR4 are essential for the MU-mediated expression of CXCL8, CCL2 and LL-37 in keratinocytes. Furthermore, confocal analysis showed that the Dectin-1 is necessary for keratinocytes to internalize bacilli. Importantly, blockade of ROS and LL-37 significantly increased the intracellular MU growth in keratinocytes, suggesting an important role of these mediators for cutaneous innate immune responses. Our results demonstrate that TLR2, TLR4 and Dectin-1 actively sense, internalize and respond in an innate way to MU in human epidermal keratinocytes. [source]

    Current therapeutic approaches in childhood chronic hepatitis B infection: A multicenter study

    Abstract Background and Aim:, The aim of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of three different regimens in childhood chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Methods:, A total of 182 children with CHB infection were prospectively allocated to three random groups. Sixty-two patients in the first group received high-dose interferon (IFN)-, 2b (10 MU/m2) thrice/weekly alone for 6 months. In the second (n = 60) and third groups (n = 60), IFN-, was used for 6 months (5 MU/m2) thrice/weekly in combination with lamivudine (LAM) (4 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg/day) for 12 months. Lamivudine was started simultaneously with IFN in the second group, while it was started 2 months prior to IFN injections in the third group. Results:, The initial mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values for the first, second and third groups were 109 ± 93 IU/L, 101 ± 64 IU/L and 92 ± 42 IU/L, respectively (P > 0.05). At the end of the therapy, ALT values decreased to 82 ± 111 IU/L, 38 ± 41 IU/L and 29 ± 16 IU/L in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The mean ALT value of the first group was significantly different to the second and third groups (P = 0.046 and P = 0.002, respectively) at the end of the therapy and these differences were found to be sustained after 18 months. However, results in the second and third groups were similar (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in HBeAg clearance and anti-HBe seroconversion at the initial stage, 12 months and 18 months between the three groups (P > 0.05). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA clearance in the first group was different from the second and third groups, while the second and third groups had similar HBV DNA clearance ratios at 12 and 18 months. No significant difference was found in the complete response (normalization of ALT, clearance of HBV DNA and seroconversion of anti HBe) ratios of all groups (at 12 months: 28.8, 45.5, 35.8% and at 18 months 33.3, 49 and 34% in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P > 0.05). Conclusions:, Although the ALT normalization and HBV DNA clearance ratios of IFN plus LAM combination groups were better than the high-dose IFN-, monotherapy group, no significant difference was found in the complete response ratios of all three groups. [source]

    Interferon-alpha therapy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Bunyamin Dikici
    AbstractBackground: Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) represents the most frequent hemorrhagic diathesis in childhood. Up to 30% of patients with ITP are regarded as refractory to standard therapy. The rare mortality from acute ITP in childhood is almost exclusively due to intracranial hemorrhage. This complication occurs in less than 1% of ITP patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ,-interferon (IFN-,) in eight patients whom did not respond to conventional therapy. Method: In spite of conventional therapies, the patient whose platelet count could not be increased to 50`109/L were accepted as refractory ITP. Eight of these patients whose platelet count lower than 20`109/L were included in the prospective cohort study. Interferon alpha 2b 5 MU/m2 was administered subcutaneously three times a week, totalling 12 times in a month. According to the platelet count on the 28th day of therapy, we grouped the patients into three categories. After 60 days, the survey was re-evaluated according to the platelet count. Results: The mean age of children was 3.5±2.5 (ranged between 3.5 and 9) years. Six of them were boys and two were girls. There was no response in one patient, partial response in one, and good response in six patients on the 28th day of therapy. The maximum rise in platelet count was observed from 7 to 14 days after the initiation of interferon. The median platelet count which was 15±5`109/L before therapy, raised to 60±12`109/L after therapy. However, on the 60th day of therapy, there were only two patients who had a platelet count over 100`109/L. Conclusion: In our study, we did not observe the long-term benefit of IFN-, therapy in refractor ITP in childhood. However, in good responding patients, platelet levels were increased in a short time. Alpha-interferon may be alternative therapy for patients whom had a platelet count below 20`109/L and not responding to standard therapy, or for patients whom immunosuppressive therapy is contraindicated. [source]

    Interferon-, treatment in children and young adults with chronic hepatitis B: a long-term follow-up study in Taiwan

    Hong-Yuan Hsu
    Abstract Background/Aims: The short- and long-term benefits of interferon (IFN)-, therapy in young patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) acquiring infection perinatally or during early childhood have been questioned. Methods: Twenty-one Taiwanese hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients aged 1.8,21.8 years (median 14.0 years) with alanine aminotransferase (ALT)>80 IU/L at entry were enrolled for IFN-, therapy. They received IFN-, therapy with a dose of 3 MU/m2/day three times a week for 24 weeks. A control group included untreated 21 CHB patients closely matched for gender, age, duration of ALT >80 IU/L and HBeAg status. All 42 patients were prospectively followed for 6.5,12.5 years after the end of therapy. Results: The cumulative rate of virological response [anti-HBe seroconversion and serum hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA <105 copies/ml] was not different between the IFN-treated patients and control patients at 1 year (41 vs 44%) and at 6 years (88 vs 89%) after stopping treatment. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen loss occurred in two (9.5%) treated patients and in one (4.8%) control patient. Patients with a successful treatment response (anti-HBe seroconversion, HBV-DNA <102 copies/ml and ALT normalization at 1 year after stopping treatment) were younger than those without a successful response (P=0.03). A lower pretreatment serum HBV-DNA level (<2 × 108 copies/ml) is not only a significant factor to predict successful treatment response (P=0.008) but also has a beneficial effect on the long-term cumulative rate of virological response in IFN-treated patients (P=0.021), but not in control patients. Genotype difference or emergence of a precore stop codon mutant before treatment was not predictive for HBeAg clearance. Conclusion: For young CHB patients in Taiwan with infection occurring perinatally or in early childhood, the real advantage of IFN-, therapy was not observed. IFN-, therapy showed a beneficial effect on short- and long-term virological outcomes only in those with a lower pretreatment serum HBV-DNA level. [source]

    Reply to Johnson E. Needle Electromyography MUS 2009; 40(4)

    MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 4 2009
    Devon I. Rubin MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Presence of a Micropapillary Pattern in Mucinous Carcinomas of the Breast and its Impact on the Clinical Behavior

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Tanuja Shet MD
    Abstract:, Infiltrating micropapillary carcinomas (IMPC) of breast are highly angioinvasive tumors with poor prognosis. This study is based on the observation that a similar micropapillary pattern is also observed in mucinous carcinomas of breast. About 102 mucinous carcinomas were evaluated for the presence and impact of this micropapillary pattern on the clinical behavior. Of these, 68 were mucinous carcinomas with a micropapillary pattern (MUMPC), 20 had MUMPC mixed with an infiltrating duct carcinoma component, two were solid variants of papillary carcinoma with mucin (SVPCMU), five had collision of the MUMPC and SVPCMU patterns and seven were mucinous carcinomas with signet ring cells (MUS). The factors negatively affecting overall survival (OAS) and disease-free survival (DFS) included the histological type of mucinous carcinoma, nodal metastases, an irregular tumor border, <50% mucin and an IMPC type of local recurrence or metastases. In the multivariate analysis, the histologic type of mucinous carcinoma and an irregular tumor border were most significant for OAS and DFS. Thus, 86% of mucinous carcinomas in this study were mucinous variants of the angioinvasive infiltrating micropapillary carcinomas. These tumors can produce IMPC type of metastases and thus should be treated aggressively. [source]

    Long-term outcomes of patients who failed to attend following midurethral sling surgery , A comparative study and analysis of risk factors for non-attendance

    Kobi STAV
    Background and aims:, To assess long-term subjective cure and subjective complication rates of women who underwent midurethral sling (MUS) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in those who failed to attend (FTA) versus those who attended for postoperative follow-up. Predictive factors for non-attendance were identified. Methods:, A total of 1225 consecutive women with urodynamic SUI had a synthetic MUS at our institution between 1999 and 2007. Patients were interviewed via phone call with a structured questionnaire. Comparison between FTA and non-FTA patients was performed and multivariate analysis was utilised to identify risk factors for non-attendance. Results:, Univariate analysis revealed that the FTA rate was lower in patients who underwent concomitant prolapse surgery (29% vs. 84%, P < 0.001), FTA patients were younger (mean age 56 vs. 67 years, P < 0.001) and more depressed (14% vs. 4%, P < 0.05). At a mean follow-up of 50 ± 24 months, the subjective cure rate was similar between the two groups (84% vs. 86%, NS). The incidence of overactive bladder symptoms was significantly higher in the non-FTA patients (34% vs. 6%P < 0.001). Isolated sling procedure (OR = 2.71, P < 0.01) and age <50 years (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05) were significant predictors for failed attendance. Conclusions:, Our results indicate that the subjective cure rate is similar between non-FTA and FTA patients subsequent to a MUS procedure. However, the rate of overactive bladder symptoms is higher in the non-FTA patients. Isolated MUS procedure and younger age are significant risk factors of failure to attend in the longer term. [source]

    Changes in the contractile properties of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after one month of treadmill training

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2008
    M. Pogrzebna
    Abstract Aim:, The influence of 4 weeks treadmill training on the contractile properties of motor units (MUs) in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle was investigated. Methods:, A population of 18 Wistar rats was divided into two groups: trained on a treadmill (n = 7, locomotion speed 27 cm s,1, 1 km daily, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks) and control (n = 11). The contractile properties of isolated MUs were studied. Functional isolation of units was achieved by electrical stimulation of filaments of the ventral roots. A total of 299 MUs were investigated (142 in the control group and 157 in the trained group). They were divided into fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant to fatigue (FR) and slow (S). Their proportions and parameters of contractions were analysed. Results:, Following training, the number of FF units decreased and the number of FR units increased. The distribution of the fatigue index changed within these two types of fast units. The twitch and tetanus forces increased considerably in fast MUs, mainly in those of the FF type. The contraction and relaxation times shortened in the FR and S MUs. The steep part of the force,frequency curves shifted towards higher stimulation frequencies in FR and S units, while in FF units the shift was in the opposite direction. Conclusion:, The significant change in the proportions of fast MUs following training indicates FF to FR transformation. The various effects of training seen in the different MU types help explain the rationale behind mixed training. [source]

    Changes in contractile properties of motor units of the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after spinal cord transection

    Jan Celichowski
    The effects of complete transection of the spinal cord at the level of Th9/10 on contractile properties of the motor units (MUs) in the rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle were investigated. Our results indicate that 1 month after injury the contraction time (time-to-peak) and half-relaxation time were prolonged and the maximal tetanic force in most of the MUs in the MG muscle of spinal rats was reduced. The resistance to fatigue also decreased in most of the MUs in the MG of spinal animals. Moreover, the post-tetanic potentiation of twitches in MUs diminished after spinal cord transection. Criteria for the division of MUs into three types, namely slow (S), fast fatigue resistant (FR) and fast fatigable (FF), applied in intact animals, could not be directly used in spinal animals owing to changes in contractile properties of MUs. The ,sag' phenomenon observed in unfused tetani of fast units in intact animals essentially disappeared in spinal rats and it was only detected in few units, at low frequencies of stimulation only. Therefore, the MUs in spinal rats were classified as fast or slow on the basis of an adjusted borderline of 20 ms, instead of 18 ms as in intact animals, owing to a slightly longer contraction time of those fast motor units with the ,sag'. We conclude that all basic contractile properties of rat motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle are significantly changed 1 month after complete spinal cord transection, with the majority of motor units being more fatigable and slower than those of intact rats. [source]