Motile Sperm (motile + sperm)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Expression of proteasome subunit isoforms during spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

J. Ma
Abstract In this study, we sought to identify and characterize all the proteasome genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Earlier work led to the identification of two genes encoding ,4-type 20S proteasome subunit isoforms that are expressed exclusively in the male germline. Here we extend these results and show that six of the 20S proteasome subunits, and four of the 19S regulatory cap subunits, have gene duplications encoding male-specific isoforms. More detailed analyses of two of these male-specific subunits (Pros,3T and Pros,6T), using GFP-tagged reporter transgenes, revealed that they are predominantly localized to the nucleus at later stages of spermatogenesis and are present there in mature, motile sperm. These results suggest a possible role of a ,spermatogenesis-specific' proteasome in sperm differentiation and/or function. [source]

Semen quality in fertile US men in relation to geographical area and pesticide exposure

Shanna H. Swan
Summary We conducted the first US study to compare semen quality among study centres using standardized methods and strict quality control. We present data on semen quality in partners of 493 pregnant women recruited through prenatal clinics in four US cities during 1999,2001. Sperm concentration, semen volume and motility were determined at the centres and morphology was assessed at a central laboratory. While between-centre differences in sperm morphology and sample volume were small, sperm concentration and motility were significantly reduced in Columbia, MO (MO) relative to men in New York, NY, Minneapolis, MN and Los Angeles, CA; total number of motile sperm was 113 × 106 in MO and 162, 201 and 196 × 106 in CA, MN and NY respectively. Differences among centres remained significant in multivariate models that controlled for abstinence time, semen analysis time, age, race, smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease and recent fever (all p -values <0.01). We hypothesized that poorer sperm concentration and motility in MO men relative to other centres might be related to agricultural pesticides that are commonly used in the mid-west. We investigated this hypothesis by conducting a nested case,control study within the MO cohort. We selected 25 men in this cohort for whom all semen parameters (concentration, % normal morphology and % motile) were low as cases and an equal number of men for whom all semen parameters were within normal limits as controls. We measured metabolites of eight non-persistent, current-use pesticides in urine samples the men had provided at the time of semen collection. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in cases compared with controls for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine, and for the insecticide diazinon (2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol) (p -values for Wilcoxon rank test = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine and diazinon respectively). Men with higher levels of alachlor or diazinon were significantly more likely to be cases than men with low levels [odds ratios (OR) = 30.0, 16.7 for alachlor and diazinon respectively], as were men with atrazine over the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that agricultural chemicals may have contributed to the reduced semen quality seen in fertile men from mid-Missouri. [source]

Asthenozoospermia: Possible association with long-term exposure to an anti-epileptic drug of carbamazepine

Abstract Little attention has been paid to infertility in men with epilepsy and little information exists about the mechanisms by which anti-epileptic drugs affect spermatogenesis or sperm function. We report a case of a male infertility patient with asthenozoospermia during long-term treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. A 29-year-old man had continued treatment with anti-epileptic drugs under the diagnosis of epilepsy for 13 years. He and his wife had been examined and treated as an infertile couple for 3 years. The patient was found to have no motile sperm with a normal sperm count, while taking a dose of 400 mg/day of carbamazepine. On suspicion of an adverse effect of carbamazepine, he was switched to phenytoin monotherapy. One month after that, sperm motility was vastly improved (65%) and they conceived a child 5 months after that. One must be cautious in extrapolating from a case report, but these findings strongly suggest a direct effect of carbamazepine on spermatic function. [source]

Egg jelly influences sperm motility in the externally fertilizing frog, Crinia georgiana

Abstract Recent in vitro fertilization studies have revealed female and male × female interaction effects on the probability of fertilization. These findings suggest a mechanism of cryptic female choice via sperm,egg interactions. The egg jelly of anuran amphibians contains proteins that facilitate the chemoattraction and binding of sperm for fertilization. Here we show that egg jelly also influences the onset of motility and swimming velocity of motile sperm in the frog Crinia georgiana. Moreover, we found significant among female variation in the effects of egg jelly on sperm motility. We discuss this finding with respect to male and female effects on nonrandom fertilization observed in this species. [source]

Sexual colouration and sperm traits in guppies

T. E. Pitcher
The relationships among the area, hue, saturation and brightness of orange colouration and sperm traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. Males with greater areas of orange colouration had significantly larger sperm loads, more motile sperm and longer sperm relative to males with relatively little orange colouration. Males with greater areas of orange colouration did not possess more viable sperm than males with relatively little orange colouration. There was no evidence that any of the sperm traits were related to the hue, saturation or brightness of the orange colouration. These results are discussed in the context of the roles that direct and indirect selection might play in maintaining female preference for male guppies with large areas of orange colouration. [source]

Hypo-osmotic swelling test and unexplained repeat early pregnancy loss

Sudhindra M. Bhattacharya
Abstract Aim:, To study the relationship of various sperm characteristics and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS test) with repeat unexplained early pregnancy loss. Methods:, Semen samples from husbands of 74 couples with a history of repeat early pregnancy loss (group A) were analyzed according to World Health Organization criteria, and a HOS test was performed in each case. Semen samples from 65 husbands with proven fertility (group B) were also studied for comparison. Results:, No statistically significant differences were noted in the age of the husbands, sperm concentration, sperm morphology and percent motile sperm between groups A and B. The mean HOS test scores of the two groups were significantly different (group A: 60.4%; group B: 76.9%; P = 0.01 [normal value: >60%]). In group A, 33.8% of cases (25/74) and in group B, 12.3% of cases (8/65) showed low HOS test scores. Conclusion:, The sperm HOS test may be helpful to screen for any paternal factor associated with repeat embryonic or early fetal loss and in a resource-poor setting, and may be utilized in any clinical laboratory. [source]

Alterations in the testis of hormone sensitive lipase-deficient mice is associated with decreased sperm counts, sperm motility, and fertility

Louis Hermo
Abstract Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe, E.C. functions as a triglyceride and cholesteryl esterase, supplying fatty acids, and cholesterol to cells. Gene-targeted HSL-deficient (HSL,/,) mice reveal abnormal spermatids and are infertile at 24 weeks after birth. The purpose of this study was to follow the evolution of spermatid abnormalities as HSL,/, mice age, characterize sperm motility in older HSL,/, mice, and determine if mice expressing a human testicular HSL transgene (HSL,/,ttg) produce normal motile sperm. In situ hybridization indicated that HSL is expressed exclusively in steps 5,16 spermatids, but not in Sertoli cells. In HSL,/, mice, abnormalities were evident in step 16 spermatids at 5 weeks after birth, with defects progressively increasing in spermatids with age. The defects included multinucleation of spermatids, abnormal shapes and a reduction of elongating spermatids. In older HSL,/, mice, sperm counts appeared reduced by 42%, but this value was lower because samples were compromised by the presence of small degenerating germ cells in addition to sperm, both of which appeared of similar size and density. Sperm motility was dramatically reduced with only 11% classified as motile in HSL,/, mice compared to 76,78% of sperm in wild-type and HSL,/,ttg mice. Sperm morphology, counts, and motility were normal in HSL,/,ttg mice, as was their fertility. Collectively, the data indicate that HSL deficiency results in abnormal spermatid development with defects arising at 5 weeks of age and progressively increasing at later ages. HSL,/, mice also show a dramatic reduction in sperm counts and motility and are infertile. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 565,577, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Reproductive Development of Santa Inęs Rams During the First Year of Life: Body and Testis Growth, Testosterone Concentrations, Sperm Parameters, Age at Puberty and Seminal Plasma Proteins

CEA Souza
Contents We have investigated the reproductive development of the tropically adapted Santa Inęs ram, the most common hair sheep in Brazil. From 8 to 48 weeks of age, 16 animals were evaluated for body and testis growth, semen parameters, testosterone concentrations and seminal plasma proteins, using two-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Animals were weaned at 30 days and kept in feedlots thereafter, receiving hay, concentrate (18% of crude protein) and mineral supplement. Body weight increased from 12.3 ± 0.7 to 54.3 ± 1.6 kg between 8 and 48 weeks (p < 0.05), but changes in thoracic perimeter and scrotal circumference were non-significant after 36 weeks (p > 0.05). The percentage of motile sperm increased slowly until 23 weeks and more rapidly after that age, but significant changes in progressive motility occurred after 25 weeks. Presence of abnormal sperm related inversely to age. Most significant changes in sperm concentration occurred between 38 and 44 weeks (0.38 ± 0.05 to 1.14 ± 0.24 × 109 cells/ml, p < 0.05) and testosterone reached its highest concentrations at 42 weeks, decreasing afterwards. Rams reached puberty at 28.2 ± 0.8 weeks. The number of protein spots on seminal plasma gels was similar from 15 to 18 weeks (45 and 47 spots; p > 0.05), increased until 24 weeks (141 spots) and 28 weeks (170 spots; p < 0.05) and remained without significant (p > 0.05) changes from 28 to 48 weeks (186 ± 10 spots). Furthermore, the intensity of selected spots on 2D maps increased (p < 0.05) between 15 and 28 weeks, which preceded or coincided with the main developmental changes in sperm motility and percentage of defective sperm in the ejaculates. These results will support future studies designed to characterize specific seminal plasma proteins whose expression relate to the development of testis, epididymis and accessory sex glands. [source]

Effect of Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid on Motility, Membrane Integrity and Chromatin Status of Frozen-Thawed Canine Spermatozoa Within Six Hours of Storage at 37°C

K Eulenberger
Contents The aim of this study was to examine comprehensively the effect of ascorbic acid (Asc) on frozen-thawed canine semen. Pooled ejaculates (n = 10) were assessed for quality with a computer-assisted sperm analyser (CASA). After centrifugation, the semen was divided into four aliquots (A,D) of which three were diluted with Uppsala 1 extender (v/v) containing different concentrations of Asc (B: 6.8 mmol/l; C: 13 mmol/l; D: 27 mmol/l). One group without Asc served as control (A). Subsequently, dilution samples were treated and cryopreserved as described previously (Theriogenology 66, 2006, 173). After thawing, samples were stored at 37°C for 1, 3 and 6 h, then examined for quality (CASA, flow cytometry, sperm chromatin structure assay; SCSA). Staining for flow cytometry was performed with FITC-PNA and propidium iodide (Reproduction 128, 2004, 829). The SCSA was performed with both Tris-NACL-EDT buffer (TNE)- and Tris-fructose-citrate buffer (TFC). In the Asc-supplemented groups, percentages of progressively motile sperm (P) were significantly lower than in the control group (A 1 h: 56.6 ± 9.8, 6 h: 18 ± 4.5; B 1 h: 51.2 ± 11.8, 6 h: 13.6 ± 5; C 1 h: 41 ± 16.2, 6 h: 11.2 ± 6.1; D 1 h: 37 ± 15.2, 6 h: 8.6 ± 5; p < 0.01), whereas, the percentages of intact cells without acrosome reactions did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between TNE- and TFC-samples, for ,T, for SD of ,T or for comp ,T [comp ,T: TCF-A: 2.5 ± 1.7%, TNE-A: 3.4 ± 3.2%; TCF-D: 2.5 ± 2%, TNE-D: 3.3 ± 4.3%; p > 0.05]. However, samples diluted with both extenders correlated concerning ,T, but not comp ,T. We therefore recommend using TNE-buffer for SCSA with cryopreserved canine semen. In addition, the average ,T values did not differ significantly between the controls and all other groups (TNE-A: 380.2 ± 89.1; TNE-D: 338.1 ± 137.4; p > 0.05). It can be concluded that addition of Asc to cryoextender does not increase quality of frozen-thawed canine semen. [source]

Moderate Seasonality in Testis Function of Domestic Cat

S Blottner
Contents Adult male domestic cats are known to produce sperm throughout the year, although sexual activity is influenced by geographical location. In the northern hemisphere, feral domestic cats reproduce usually between January and July. Thus, seasonality in testicular activity might be suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate gametogene and endocrine activity of cat testis throughout the entire year. Testes and epididymides (n = 10,12 per month) were collected after castration. Spermatogenesis was quantified by assessment of testicular sperm per testis and by flow cytometric analysis of the cells with different DNA content. Sperm from cauda epididymis were evaluated according to motility and morphological integrity. Testicular testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Testis mass and sperm production varied moderately throughout the year. Significant seasonal variations were observed in the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle (p = 0.004) and the meiotic transformation (ratio of haploid : tetraploid cells; p = 0.021). Changes in testicular testosterone concentration were more pronounced and showed periods with high (spring) and significantly reduced testosterone levels (autumn). A marked seasonal alteration (p < 0.001) with a peak in March was assessed in the percentage of progressively motile sperm. The proportion of morphological intact sperm was also significantly higher in spring compared with winter time (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study suggests moderate seasonal changes in quantity of sperm, more pronounced annual variation in hormone production and a distinct seasonal influence on functional sperm parameters in domestic cat. [source]

A Digital Method of Sperm Immobilization Test: Comparison to the Conventional Method

Shinji Komori
Antisperm antibodies have been found in infertile patients and those causing immobilization of sperm are considered to be closely related to unexplained infertility. These antibodies are usually identified by a sperm immobilization test which involves counting motile sperm under microscope. This test is subjective as it relies on the judgement of the examiner with respect to sperm motility. In this study, we analyzed motile sperm by a digital method using Sperm Quality Analyzer. The results were compared with those obtained by the conventional method. We found that the two methods yielded identical results, with 14 of 66 samples tested being positive and 52 negative for sperm immobilizing antibodies. These results show that the digital method is objective and of value in the measurement of motile sperm in determination of sperm immobilizing antibodies. [source]

Influence of motility and vitality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection with ejaculated and testicular sperm

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 4 2005
T. Stalf
Summary The vitality of spermatozoa used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a crucial factor for fertilization, establishment and outcome of a pregnancy in assisted reproductive technique cycles. The sperm origin may also be a limiting factor, although little is known about this issue. It is known that the motility of injected spermatozoa and their origin from ejaculate or testicular biopsies are important predictors in terms of fertilization, pregnancy and birth rates. Oocytes of patients in 2593 cycles were retrieved in our in vitro fertilization programme and inseminated via ICSI. We used motile (group 1, n = 2317) or immotile ejaculated spermatozoa (group 2, n = 79), motile sperm retrieved from testicular biopsies (group 3, n = 62) and immotile spermatozoa from testicular biopsies (group 4, n = 135). Female age and number of oocytes retrieved did not differ significantly among the groups. The fertilization rates were as follows: 67.1% in group 1, 49.8% in group 2, 68.3% in group 3 and 47.8% in group 4. The pregnancy rates in cases where three embryos had been transferred amounted to 35.7% in group 1, 17.3% in group 2, 38.3% in group 3 and 20.5% in group 4. The embryo quality showed no differences between groups 1 and 3 (14.5), and between groups 2 (11.8) and 4 (10.8). The abortion rate was similar in groups 1,3, but increased in group 4 (26.6%, 27.3%, 31.6% and 55.5%). Irrespective of their origin, the fertilization potential of injected spermatozoa was found to be influenced by motility. The resulting pregnancy and birth rates, i.e. the potential of the resulting embryos to implant and to achieve viable pregnancies, seem to be additionally dependent on the sperm origin. This was well shown by declining rates when spermatozoa in a relatively early stage of maturity had been used. We see increasing evidence that the degree of sperm maturity has an important impact on the outcome of ICSI. In obstructive azoospermia, spermatozoa retrieved from the epididymis should be used rather than testicular biopsy spermatozoa, or testicular sperm should be preincubated in culture medium before ICSI. [source]

Freezing equine semen: the effect of combinations of semen extenders and glycerol on post-thaw motility

J Scherzer
Objective We evaluated combinations of two commercial semen extenders and three concentrations of glycerol to determine the combination that yielded the highest post-thaw sperm motility. Design A randomised 2 × 3 block design was used. Procedure Semen was collected from four stallions (6 collections per stallion). The sample was diluted with either a dried skim-milk glucose extender (EZ Mixin Original Formula) or a chemically defined, milk-free diluent (INRA 96), and each was used in combination with 2%, 3% or 4% glycerol in standard commercial freezing medium. Sperm motility was assessed by microscopy in fresh and post-thaw semen. Results There was a significant difference between the two extenders in the motility of spermatozoa after cryopreservation (48.9% for INRA 96; 38.6% for EZ Mixin OF; P < 0.0001). Glycerol at 4% in freezing medium yielded the highest post-thaw motility, significantly better than 2% (P < 0.05). Three of four stallions had significantly higher post-thaw motility using INRA 96 relative to EZ Mixin OF (P < 0.01), and two of four stallions had significantly higher post-thaw motility using 4% glycerol (P < 0.05). The combination of INRA 96 and 4% glycerol in freezing medium gave the highest average post-thaw motility of 51.5%. Conclusion In this study, INRA 96 combined with 4% glycerol yielded an average recovery of progressively motile sperm consistently above the 35% target. [source]

Determining the success of vasectomy

OBJECTIVES To examine patient compliance, significance of rare nonmotile sperm (RNMS) and to determine the timing and number of semen analyses required to confirm sterility. PATIENTS AND METHODS From November 2001 to November 2004, 436 consecutive primary vasectomies were performed by one surgeon. All patients were instructed to submit two initial semen specimens for analysis (2 and 3 months after vasectomy) and additional samples (at 1-month intervals) if sperm were identified on the initial and subsequent analyses. RESULTS A quarter of the patients submitted no semen specimens and only 21% followed the full instructions to provide two consecutive negative semen analyses. Three-quarters of the patients provided a semen specimen at 8 weeks after vasectomy; of these, 75% were azoospermic and 25% contained sperm. At 12 weeks after vasectomy half the patients provided a semen specimen; of these, 91% were azoospermic and 9% contained sperm. Of the 83 patients with semen containing sperm at 8 weeks, 80 had RNMS and three had rare motile sperm (one of whom subsequently proved to have vasectomy failure). Of the 80 patients with RNMS, at 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 11 months, 65, four, three, four, two, one and one, respectively were azoospermic. CONCLUSIONS The present results indicate that many patients are not compliant with the protocol after vasectomy. Provided patients have been adequately counselled, we think that one negative semen analysis at 3 months or one with RNMS at 2 months may be adequate to determine the success of vasectomy. This should reduce the number of semen analyses, including reducing the number of men who must undergo repeat testing, without sacrificing the accuracy of determining paternity. Simplifying the follow-up after vasectomy is important; not only would it be cost-effective but it may also improve patient compliance. [source]