Mothers' Reports (mother + report)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Sleeping with baby: an internet-based sampling of parental experiences, choices, perceptions, and interpretations in a western industrialized context

J. J. McKenna
Abstract Mothers and infants sleeping within proximity to each other (co-sleeping) represents normal, healthy, and expectable human behaviour, especially if mothers breastfeed. Yet, western health officials generally recommend against particularly one form of co-sleeping known as bedsharing. This study explores these issues and especially highlights parental accounts of their sleep practices, interpretations, and reflections based on detailed narratives or ,ethnohistories.' The sample involves a self-selected sub-group of over 200 mostly middle-class mothers from Canada, the United States, Australia, and Great Britain. Mothers report how and why they adopted co-sleeping practices, how satisfied they are (or were) with their decisions, and what benefits they think they or their infants derived from their co-sleeping practices. Also included in the reports are a surprisingly high number of parents who think they may have saved their infant's life by bedsharing, data heretofore never reported in the literature. The formulation of medical policies, we suggest, ultimately must be informed by a full understanding of how parents actually think about and subsequently structure their infant's sleep, what their goals and expectations are, and by an awareness of the emotional factors motivating parents to choose certain sleeping arrangements over others. The results reveal that many factors coalesce, often in unique ways, under unique circumstances, family by family, to determine where babies sleep and why. We conclude that sleeping arrangements are not solely determined by medically based recommendations, but also by the method of feeding, the particular needs of a particular infant, and the needs of mothers and fathers to get more sleep. While baby sleep locations and sleep patterns change in the first year of life, nighttime sleeping arrangements almost always reflect the nature of family values and the quality of social relationships at any given time. We conclude that these factors, alongside widely known independent SIDS risk factors, must also be acknowledged and respected if we are ever to achieve an effective and inclusive public health approach to the question of creating safe sleep environments for infants and children. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Impact of peanut allergy on quality of life, stress and anxiety in the family

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
R. M. King
Background:, Peanut allergy (PA) is known to impact on quality of life (QoL) of the sufferer, but little research has focused on all family members. We therefore sought to establish the impact of PA on QoL and reported anxiety of children with clinically confirmed PA, their parents and older siblings. Methods:, Forty-six families, who had a child with PA, completed QoL (PedsQLTM or WHOQOL-BREF), anxiety (SCAS or STAI) and perceived stress (PSS) scales. PA children completed a PA specific QoL questionnaire (Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2003;14:378). Parents and sibling also completed QoL proxy questionnaires for the PA child (PedsQLTM, Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2003;14:378). Results:, Mothers rated their own psychological (P < 0.01) and physical (P < 0.05) QoL significantly worse than fathers rated theirs, and had higher scores than fathers for anxiety (P < 0.05) and stress (P < 0.001). Children with PA had significantly poorer physical health-related QoL (P < 0.05), QoL within school (P < 0.01) and general QoL (P < 0.05) than their siblings did, and greater separation anxiety (P < 0.05). The majority of differences were between girls with PA and female siblings. Mothers felt that there was a greater impact on QoL for their PA child, compared with that reported by siblings, fathers or the PA children themselves (P < 0.01). Conclusions:, Mothers report that they have significantly poorer QoL and suffer more anxiety and stress than fathers do; this inter-parental difference may be an important feature of family stress caused by PA. Siblings have a similar view of how QoL affects the PA child as the PA child does, while mothers may possibly overestimate this impact. [source]

Association between depression and anxiety in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders and maternal mood symptoms

Carla A. Mazefsky
Abstract Research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and their relatives have high rates of depression and anxiety. However, relatively few studies have looked at both factors concurrently. This study examined the potential relationship between maternal mood symptoms and depression and anxiety in their children with ASD. Participants were 31 10- to 17-year-old children with an ASD diagnosis that was supported by gold-standard measures and their biological mothers. Mothers completed the Autism Comorbidity Interview to determine whether the child with ASD met criteria for any depressive or anxiety diagnoses and a questionnaire of their own current mood symptoms. As expected, many children with ASD met criteria for lifetime diagnoses of depressive (32%) and anxiety disorders (39%). Mothers' report of their own current mood symptoms revealed averages within the normal range, though there was significant variability. Approximately 75% of children with ASD could be correctly classified as having a depressive or anxiety disorder history or not based on maternal symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, phobic anxiety, depression, and anxiety. The results provide preliminary evidence that maternal mood symptoms may be related to depression and anxiety in their children with ASD. Although the design did not allow for testing of heritability per se, the familial transmission patterns were generally consistent with research in typical populations. While larger follow-up studies are needed, this research has implications for prevention and intervention efforts. [source]

Genetic and attachment influences on adolescents' regulation of autonomy and aggressiveness

Peter Zimmermann
Background:, Adolescence is a time when intense emotions are elicited within the parent,adolescent relationship, often when autonomy subjectively is endangered. As emotion dysregulation is one of the risk processes for the development of psychopathology, adolescence may be perceived as a highly sensitive period for maladjustment. Inter-individual differences in emotionality and emotion regulation have been shown to be influenced or moderated by molecular genetic differences in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and by attachment patterns. We investigated whether both the 5-HTT and attachment are associated with emotionality and emotion regulation in an observed adolescent,mother interaction and the personality traits aggressiveness and anxiety in adolescence. Methods:, Ninety-one adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized emotion-eliciting social task to assess emotionality and emotion regulation in relation to autonomy. Adolescents' aggressiveness and anxiety were assessed by mother report. Concurrent attachment quality was determined by an attachment interview. DNA samples were collected in order to assess the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Results:, While the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene was associated with a higher overall rate of autonomy behaviors, attachment security was related to more agreeable and less hostile autonomy. A significant interaction revealed a moderating effect of attachment security. Carriers of the short version of the 5-HTTLPR showed more agreeable autonomy when they had a secure attachment behavior strategy but showed more hostile autonomy when they were insecurely attached. Carriers of the short version of the 5-HTTLPR and insecurely attached adolescents were rated as more aggressive. Conclusions:, The study suggests a gene,attachment interaction in adolescents where the adolescent's attachment status moderates a genetically based higher negative reactivity in response to threats to autonomy in social interactions. [source]

Testing an Individual Systems Model of Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) and Antisocial Behavior Across Adolescence

Reid Griffith Fontaine
This study examined the bidirectional development of aggressive response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior across five time points in adolescence. Participants (n = 522) were asked to imagine themselves behaving aggressively while viewing videotaped ambiguous provocations and answered a set of RED questions following each aggressive retaliation (administered at Grades 8 and 11 [13 and 16 years, respectively]). Self- and mother reports of antisocial behavior were collected at Grades 7, 9/10, and 12 (12, 14/15, and 17 years, respectively). Using structural equation modeling, the study found a partial mediating effect at each hypothesized mediational path despite high stability of antisocial behavior across adolescence. Findings are consistent with an individual systems perspective by which adolescents' antisocial conduct influences how they evaluate aggressive interpersonal behaviors, which affects their future antisocial conduct. [source]

Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

Mona El-Sheikh
Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8- to 9-year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports. Increased marital conflict was associated with disruptions in the quantity and quality of children's sleep as well as subjective sleepiness, even after controlling for child age, ethnic group membership, socioeconomic status, sex, and body mass index. The results support the sensitization hypothesis in that exposure to marital conflict may influence an important facet of children's biological regulation, namely sleep. [source]

Prenatal predictors of infant temperament

Elizabeth A. Werner
Abstract Emerging data suggest that prenatal factors influence children's temperament. In 50 dyads, we examined fetal heart rate (FHR) activity and women's antenatal psychiatric illness as predictors of infant temperament at 4 months (response to novelty and the Infant Behavior Checklist). FHR change during maternal challenge was positively associated with observed infant motor reactivity to novelty (p,=,.02). The odds of being classified as high versus low motor among fetuses who had an increase in FHR during maternal stress was 11 times those who had a decrease in FHR (p,=,.0006). Antenatal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with an almost fourfold greater odds of having a high cry reactivity classification (p,=,.03). There also were modest associations between baseline FHR and maternal reports of infant temperament and between observed temperament and that based on mothers' reports. All of the infant results were found independent of the influence of women's postnatal anxiety. These data indicate that physiological markers of individual differences in infant temperament are identifiable in the fetal period, and possibly shaped by the prenatal environment. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 474-484, 2007. [source]

Symbolization and emotional engagement in mothers' reports of child care activities

Christopher Christian
Abstract This study examines differences in mothers' emotional connection to their children as represented in narratives concerning a range of everyday parenting activities and interactions. First time mothers were interviewed over a period of approximately the first two years of their children's lives, using a semi-structured Parenting Function Interview (PFI), developed for purposes of this research. The new computerized Referential Activity (RA) measure, the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), was applied to the interview transcripts. Significant differences in RA, representing differences in the symbolizing process and emotional engagement in particular parent,child activities, were found between mothers, and also according to child care topic. On average, mothers' RA was highest for topics of bathing, bedtime and pleasurable events, and lowest for angry and difficult moments. Themes of feeding were relatively low in RA for three of the four mothers, and reports of frightening events showed significantly higher RA than themes of anger for all mothers. Clinical implications of profiles of the mothers' emotional engagement in different topic areas are discussed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Emotional Costs of Parents' Conditional Regard: A Self-Determination Theory Analysis

Avi Assor
Parents' use of conditional regard as a socializing practice was hypothesized to predict their children's introjected internalization (indexed by a sense of internal compulsion), resentment toward parents, and ill-being. In Study 1, involving three generations, mothers' reports of their parents' having used conditional regard to promote academic achievement predicted (a) the mothers' poor well-being and controlling parenting attitudes, and (b) their collge-aged daughters' viewing them as having used conditional regard, thus showing both negative affective consequences from and intergenerational transmission of conditional regard. Study 2 expanded on the first by using four domains, including both genders, and examining mediating processes. College students' perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' having used conditional regard in four domains (emotion control, prosocial, academic, sport) were found to relate to introjected internalization, behavioral enactment, fluctuations in self-esteem, perceived parental disapproval, and resentment of parents. Introjection mediated the link from conditional regard to behavioral enactment. The results suggest that use of conditional regard as a socializing practice can promote enactment of the desired behaviors but does so with significant affective costs. [source]

He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother , Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality

Eva S. Lefkowitz
This study examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Fifty mother ,adolescent dyads reported on their conversations about sexual issues and participated in videotaped conversations about dating and sexuality in a laboratory setting. Gender differences (more mother , daughter than mother ,son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. Aspects of laboratory interactions, however, did distinguish mother, daughter and mother , son dyads, and related to self-report measures. Girls' reported sexuality communication frequency related to behavior in the laboratory setting. During mother , son conversations, one person usually took on the role of questioner, whereas the other did not. In contrast, there was evidence for mutuality of positive emotions for mother , daughter dyads, but not for mother , son dyads. [source]