Mother's Education (mother + education)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]

Validity of single-item parental ratings of child oral health

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of single-item parental ratings of child oral heath. Methods. Data were collected during a study to assess the impacts of dental injury. Clinical examinations of children aged 11,14 years were undertaken that included measures of trauma, decay, treatment needs, and fluorosis. Children with trauma and a group of trauma-free children were followed-up. Parents were mailed a questionnaire along with a questionnaire for the child that contained a short form of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11,14 (CPQ11,14). Bivariate analyses examined associations between parents' ratings of their child's oral health, measures of dental disease, clinically defined treatment needs, and scores on the CPQ11,14. Logistic regression was used to see if the associations observed remained after controlling for access to dental care variables. Results. Complete data were collected from 370 children and their parents. Parental ratings showed significant associations with most of the clinical indicators used and CPQ11,14 scores. Similar results were obtained when the data were analysed for subgroups defined by household income and mother's education. These associations remained after controlling for access to dental services. Conclusion. The data suggest that single-item parental ratings of child oral health have adequate construct validity. [source]

Birthweight and stature, body mass index and fat distribution of 14-year-old Polish adolescents

S Kozie
Objectives: The relationships between intra-uterine growth retardation and stature, relative weight and fat distribution at adolescence have not been comprehensively established. The aim of this report is to assess the effect of low birthweight on stature, relative weight and fat distribution in 14-year-old boys and girls from Wroclaw, Poland. Methodology: Cross-sectional measurements of 1197 boys and 819 post-menarcheal girls aged 13.50,14.49 years were performed during medical examinations in 1997. Stature, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR) were used in the present study. A cut-off value of the 10th percentile of birthweight for particular gestational weeks was used in order to define subjects born small for gestational age (SGA) or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the effect of birthweight on anthropometric variables of 14-year-old adolescents, allowing for socioeconomic status (determined by the level of the mother's education). Results: Birthweight affected stature in boys and girls (P < 0.001), BMI in boys (P < 0.05) and WHR and WTR in girls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). At the age of 14 years, both SGA boys and girls were shorter than their AGA peers. The SGA boys had lower BMI, whereas SGA girls accumulated more centralized fat compared with their AGA counterparts. Conclusion: Fetal growth retardation has a long-lasting adverse effect on later physical growth. Polish SGA children do not catch up with their peers in terms of stature by adolescence. Moreover, central fat distribution, as observed among SGA girls, constitutes a significant risk for several adult degenerative diseases. [source]

Participation in a national, means-tested school voucher program

David E. Campbell
We use data from a sample of applicants to a national means-tested school voucher program and a national sample of the population eligible for the program to evaluate the factors leading families to use school vouchers. Our analysis divides the process of voucher usage into two distinct stages: initial application and subsequent take-up. Using a nested logit model, we find that some factors, like religious affiliation and religious service attendance, affect both stages. Others, like mother's education, affect only one (application). Still others, like ethnicity, have opposite effects at the two stages. Compared to Whites, minorities are more likely to apply for vouchers, but less likely to take them when given the opportunity. © 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [source]

Dynamic selection effects in means-tested, urban school voucher programs

William G. Howell
Much of the controversy surrounding school vouchers, and privatization schemes generally, stems from concerns about social stratification. This paper identifies the form and magnitude of selection effects in a means-tested New York City voucher program. It compares students who applied for vouchers, with the eligible population of public-school students; those who initially used vouchers, with those who declined them; and those who remained in private schools, with those who eventually returned to public schools. Differences along the lines of ethnicity, residential mobility, mother's education, and income are observed. In addition, specific aspects of a child's education,parental satisfaction, school uniform requirements, and larger class sizes,all increased the length of time voucher students remained in private schools. Throughout the program's life span, however, the largest and most consistent effects revolved around families' religious identity and practices. © 2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]


Ingrid Nielsen
This paper employs a household production function framework to examine the determinants of school attendance among migrant children using a unique dataset collected in China's Jiangsu province. The study finds that the main predictors of school attendance among migrant children in the sample were household income, mother's education, the length of residence of the child's mother in the city and whether both parents were working in the same city. [source]

International study of wheezing in infants: risk factors in affluent and non-affluent countries during the first year of life

Luis Garcia-Marcos
Garcia-Marcos L, Mallol J, Solé D, Brand PLP and EISL group. International study of wheezing in infants: risk factors in affluent and non-affluent countries during the first year of life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 878,888. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Risk factors for wheezing during the first year of life (a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide) are poorly known in non-affluent countries. We studied and compared risk factors in infants living in affluent and non-affluent areas of the world. A population-based study was carried out in random samples of infants from centres in Latin America (LA) and Europe (EU). Parents answered validated questionnaires referring to the first year of their infant's life during routine health visits. Wheezing was stratified into occasional (1,2 episodes, OW) and recurrent (3 + episodes, RW). Among the 28687 infants included, the most important independent risk factors for OW and RW (both in LA and in EU) were having a cold during the first 3 months of life [OR for RW 3.12 (2.60,3.78) and 3.15 (2.51,3.97); population attributable fraction (PAF) 25.0% and 23.7%]; and attending nursery school [OR for RW 2.50 (2.04,3.08) and 3.09 (2.04,4.67); PAF 7.4% and 20.3%]. Other risk factors were as follows: male gender, smoking during pregnancy, family history of asthma/rhinitis, and infant eczema. Breast feeding for >3 months protected from RW [OR 0.8 (0.71,0.89) in LA and 0.77 (0.63,0.93) in EU]. University studies of mother protected only in LA [OR for OW 0.85 (0.76,0.95) and for RW 0.80 (0.70,0.90)]. Although most risk factors for wheezing are common in LA and EU; their public health impact may be quite different. Avoiding nursery schools and smoking in pregnancy, breastfeeding babies >3 months, and improving mother's education would have a substantial impact in lowering its prevalence worldwide. [source]

Mortality throughout early childhood for Michigan children born with congenital anomalies, 1992-1998,

Katherine H. Berger
BACKGROUND Congenital anomalies are a leading cause of infant deaths, accounting for almost a fifth of all infant deaths. Few studies have researched the survival experience of infants born with congenital anomalies past the infant stage. METHODS Using birth and death files routinely linked to the Michigan Birth Defects Registry, we identified all singleton infants during calendar years 1992 through 1998 with reportable congenital anomalies for our study. A comparative file of children born without congenital anomalies during the same time period was developed using linked birth and death files. The mortality data were assessed by age at death (through age six) and race to determine mortality rates, relative risks, hazard ratios, and survival trends. RESULTS Throughout early childhood, children born with congenital anomalies had a high risk of mortality compared with all other children. The overall 7-year hazard ratio comparing children with congenital anomalies with all other children was 7.2. Overall mortality rates for black children were significantly higher than white children through the age of seven, irrespective of whether they had congenital anomalies. Among children with congenital anomalies, this disparity disappeared after adjusting for birth weight, sex, mother's age, mother's education, and number of organ systems affected. CONCLUSIONS Compared with children without congenital anomalies, children born with congenital anomalies had a higher risk of mortality well beyond the infant period. Racial disparities in mortality rates among children with congenital anomalies were due to confounding factors. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 67656,661, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Obesity and associated modifiable environmental factors in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program , Heart Health Promotion from Childhood

RoYA Kelishadi
Abstract Objective:,To evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian adolescents and their relationship with modifiable environmental factors. Methods:,The subjects of the present study were 1000 girls and 1000 boys, aged between 11 and 18 years selected by multistage random sampling, their parents (n = 2000) and their school staff (n = 500 subjects) in urban and rural areas of two provinces in Iran. Data concerning body mass index (BMI), nutrition and the physical activity of the subjects were analyzed by SPSSV10/Win software. Results:,The prevalence of 85th percentile , body mass index (BMI) < 95th percentile and BMI > 95th percentile in girls was significantly higher than boys (10.7 ± 1.1 and 2.9 ± 0.1%vs 7.4 ± 0.9 and 1.9 ± 0.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). The mean BMI value was significantly different between urban and rural areas (25.4 ± 5.2 vs 23.2 ± 7.1 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.05). A BMI> 85th percentile was more prevalent in families with an average income than in high-income families (9.3 ± 1.7 vs 7.2 ± 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.05) and in those with lower-educated mothers (9.2 ± 2.1 vs 11.5 ± 2.4 years of mothers education, respectively). The mean total energy intake was not different between overweight or obese and normal-weight subjects (1825 ± 90 vs 1815 ± 85 kCal, respectively; P > 0.05), but the percentage of energy derived from carbo­hydrates was significantly higher in the former group compared with the latter (69.4 vs 63.2%, respectively; P < 0.05). Regular extracurricular sports activities were significantly lower and the time spent watching tele­vision was significantly higher in overweight or obese than non-obese subjects (time spent watching telelvision: 300 ± 20 vs 240 ± 30 min/day, P < 0.05). A significant linear association was shown between the frequency of consumption of rice, bread, pasta, fast foods and fat/salty snacks and BMI (, = 0.05,0.06; P < 0.05). A significant correlation was shown between BMI percentiles and serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein,cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (Pearson's r = 0.38, ,0.32 and 0.47, respectively). Conclusions:,Enhanced efforts to prevent and control overweight from childhood is a critical national priority, even in developing countries. To be successful, social, cultural and economic influences should be considered. [source]