Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Mothers

  • HIV-infect mother
  • adolescent mother
  • affected mother
  • african american mother
  • american mother
  • asian mother
  • biological mother
  • birth mother
  • black mother
  • breastfeeding mother
  • carrier mother
  • case mother
  • caucasian mother
  • child mother
  • chinese mother
  • comparison mother
  • control mother
  • depressed mother
  • diabetic mother
  • early mother
  • employed mother
  • expectant mother
  • first-time mother
  • foster mother
  • healthy mother
  • immigrant mother
  • infected mother
  • japanese mother
  • latina mother
  • lone mother
  • low-income mother
  • many mother
  • married mother
  • new mother
  • norwegian mother
  • older mother
  • other mother
  • own mother
  • patient mother
  • pregnant mother
  • primiparou mother
  • puerto rican mother
  • rican mother
  • seropositive mother
  • single mother
  • smoking mother
  • surrogate mother
  • teen mother
  • teenage mother
  • time mother
  • unmarried mother
  • white mother
  • young mother

  • Terms modified by Mothers

  • mother age
  • mother breast
  • mother care
  • mother cell
  • mother decision
  • mother education
  • mother experience
  • mother face
  • mother history
  • mother intention
  • mother interaction
  • mother knowledge
  • mother level
  • mother liquor
  • mother milk
  • mother nature
  • mother only
  • mother pair
  • mother perception
  • mother plant
  • mother rating
  • mother report
  • mother response
  • mother tongue
  • mother tree
  • mother views

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2009
    Interest in the twin deficits hypothesis fluctuates in tandem with the U.S. current account deficit. Surprisingly though, a statistically robust relationship between budget and trade deficits has been difficult to pin down. We argue that a big part of this difficulty is due to the failure to allow for structural breaks in the series when (either explicitly or implicitly) modeling their time series properties. We show that both series are break stationary (and conditionally heteroskedastic) and argue that while there is no common pattern in the long run, the short-run dynamics reveal a sizeable and fairly persistent positive relationship between budget deficit shocks and current account deficit shocks. (JEL F41, E6, H6) [source]


    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 2 2007
    This article examines the effect of child care subsidies on the standard work decision of single mothers. Results suggest that child care subsidy receipt is associated with about a 7 percentage point increase in the probability of working at a standard job. When the effect of subsidy receipt is allowed to differ between welfare recipients and nonrecipients, results indicate that subsidy receipt has a large and positive effect among welfare recipients, whereas the effect on nonrecipients is much smaller. These findings underscore the importance of child care subsidies in helping low-income parents, especially welfare recipients, gain standard employment. (JEL J13, I38) [source]


    Using data from the HILDA (Household Income and Labour Dynamics), this paper examines the implications of childcare costs on maternal employment status by distinguishing between full-time and part-time work. Our empirical approach uses an ordered probit model taking into account the endogeneity associated with both wages and childcare costs. Results indicate that childcare costs have a statistically insignificant effect on the decision to work either full time or part time. Moreover, the reported elasticities of part-time and full-time work with respect to childcare costs are relatively low. Finally, our results indicate that Australian mothers respond to an increase in wages by increasing both their full-time and part-time employment. Conversely, an increase in the number of young children (particularly under four years of age) and an increase in non-labour income reduce the likelihood of the mother is observed to be working. [source]

    Continuing Progressive Deterioration of the Environment in the Aral Sea Region: Disastrous Effects on Mother and Child Health

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2001
    O Ataniyazova
    Scientists, non-governmental experts (NGOs) and governmental officials from the Central Asian Republics and an international group of invited scientists and NGO representatives participated in a workshop on the disastrous health problems in the Aral Sea Region. Various serious problems were reported in more than 20 presentations. Particular emphasis was put on the way in which adverse environmental factors such as contaminated water and food have contributed to the deterioration of human health, particularly that of mothers and children. Conclusion: There is an urgent request that the international community assists local scientists to develop programmes to improve the health of the population in the Aral Sea Region. [source]

    Fetal size in mid- and late pregnancy is related to infant alertness: The generation R study

    Jens Henrichs
    Abstract The vulnerability for behavioral problems is partly shaped in fetal life. Numerous studies have related indicators of intrauterine growth, for example, birth weight and body size, to behavioral development. We investigated whether fetal size in mid- and late pregnancy is related to infant irritability and alertness. In a population-based birth cohort of 4,255 singleton full-term infants ultrasound measurements of fetal head and abdominal circumference in mid- and late pregnancy were performed. Infant irritability and alertness scores were obtained by the Mother and Baby Scales at 3 months and z -standardized. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed curvilinear associations (inverted J-shape) of measures of fetal size in both mid- and late pregnancy with infant alertness. Fetal size characteristics were not associated with infant irritability. These results suggest that alterations of intrauterine growth affecting infant alertness are already detectable from mid-pregnancy onwards. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 51: 119,130, 2009 [source]

    Extended Mother,Offspring Relationships in Crayfish: The Return Behaviour of Juvenile Procambarus Clarkii

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
    Laura Aquiloni
    Crayfish shows a relatively complex parental behaviour compared with other invertebrates, but the literature provides only anecdotal accounts of this phenomenon. In Procambarus clarkii, we described the ,return' behaviour of third-stage juveniles when offered four types of adults: biological mothers, foster mothers, non-brooding females and males. Then, we analysed the posture and behaviour of the adults to understand the role played by the putative mother in attracting the juveniles. Contrary to non-brooding individuals, both biological and foster mothers displayed a relatively rare locomotion, executed few cleaning and feeding acts, and never attempted to prey on juveniles. They often assumed a ,spoon-like telson posture' that seemed to facilitate offspring's approaches. Juveniles increased the frequency of tail-flips away in the presence of non-brooding adults; conversely, they accepted foster mothers, along with biological mothers, but not as fast as the latter. Taken together, these results suggest that mother,offspring relationships in P. clarkii are more refined than previously thought, being possibly a key factor enabling this species to thrive in harsh environmental conditions. [source]

    Mother,Child Relationships in France: Balancing Autonomy and Affiliation in Everyday Interactions

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2004
    French child-rearing beliefs share features of both individualist and collectivist cultural orientations and have appeared contradictory within this individualism,collectivism framework in previous research. For this study, 32 Parisian mothers of infants and young children were interviewed regarding four possible sources of variation in their relationships with their children: interpersonal distance, communicative accommodation, desirable and undesirable early behaviors, and long-term goals and values. Five themes are identified and a cultural model of Parisian parenting is elaborated, demonstrating how beliefs, practices, and goals are connected in mothers' minds. This study demonstrates that individualism and collectivism are orthogonal, multifaceted orientations, each containing dimensions, such as autonomy as separateness and group affiliation and belonging, that can coexist both harmoniously and in dynamic tension within individuals and within cultures. [source]

    Behavioural and neurobiological effects of colostrum ingestion in the newborn lamb associated with filial bonding

    David Val-Laillet
    Abstract In sheep, the onset of filial bonding relies on early intake of colostrum. The aim of our work was to describe in the newborn lamb housed with its mother the immediate post-ingestive effects of colostrum intake, in terms of behaviour and brain activity. In Experiment 1, lambs received five nasogastric infusions of colostrum, or saline, or sham intubations during the first 6 h after birth. Mother,young interactions were recorded before and after the first, third and fifth infusions. The activity of the dam and of the young, which diminished over time in all groups, was temporarily increased in both partners just after each intubation procedure. The number of high-pitched bleats was significantly lower in lambs that received colostrum than in the sham group, suggesting soothing or satiating properties of colostrum. In Experiment 2, newborn lambs received a single nasogastric infusion of colostrum or saline 4.5 h after birth, or were sham intubated. Neuronal activation was investigated 1.5 h later for maximum c-Fos activity. Infusion of colostrum and saline induced different patterns of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus as compared with the sham group. A specific oxytocinergic/vasopressinergic (OT/VSP) cell population in the paraventricular nucleus was activated following colostrum and saline infusion, but not sham intubation. Only colostrum induced the activation of the cortical amygdala and insular cortex, two structures involved in learning, associative processes, reward and emotion. We hypothesize that filial bonding may be triggered through colostrum-rewarded learning/calming processes and that the OT/VSP system may play a role. [source]

    Dieting among Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers: An Interpretive Study

    Jennifer Paff Ogle
    This interpretive study focused on mothers' and their adolescent daughters' diet-related thoughts and behaviors and explored the possibility that daughters model their mothers' patterns. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 mothers and their adolescent daughters. Grounded theory analysis revealed that mothers'diet-related experiences were complex, varying across the life span. Among daughters, three types of dieters emerged: nondieters; short-term, low-commitment dieters; and serious dieters. Both mothers and daughters distinguished between "going on a diet" and "watching what you eat." Mother and daughter dieting and watching patterns varied in terms of content, duration, and motive. Findings indicated that modeling effects alone cannot adequately explain diet-related patterns of mothers and their daughters. Intervening variables, such as a daughter's degree of identification with her mother or a mother's verbal reinforcement of a modeled attitude, may affect whether a child models a given maternal behavior. [source]

    Mother, Child, Race, Nation: The Visual Iconography of Rescue and the Politics of Transnational and Transracial Adoption

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2003
    Laura Briggs
    ,Third World' poverty and hunger conjures up certain conventionalised images: thin children, with or without their mothers. This paper explores the genealogy of such images in the mid-twentieth century, and shows how they mobilise ideologies of ,rescue' while pointing away from structural (political, military and economic) explanations for poverty, famine and other disasters. These images had a counterpart in practices of transnational and transracial adoption, which became the subject of debate in the USA during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, and were at least as much about symbolic debates over race as the fate of particular children. Together, these visual and familial practices made US foreign and domestic poverty policy intelligible as a debate over whether to save women and children. When they cast the USA as rescuer, they made it all but impossible to understand what US political, military or economic power had to do with creating the problem. [source]

    Mother, Martyr and Mary Magdalene: German Female Pamphleteers and their Self-images

    HISTORY, Issue 291 2003
    Ulrike Zitzlsperger
    Female pamphleteers who involved themselves in the German Reformation faced a double challenge: they had to argue why a lay person needed to enter into public debate and, still more controversially, why a woman should brave the consequences of going into print. In this article two noblewomen, Argula von Grumbach and Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and two middle-class Protestants, Katharina Schütz Zell and Ursula Weida, serve as case studies of how women with noticeably different backgrounds dealt with the challenge. The article focuses on the images they projected of themselves. While some of these images derived from traditional idealized and biblical female figures, others show a creative attempt to argue the case for long-term participation in public debate. The most striking concept within this second category is Katharina Schütz Zell's role as ,Kirchenmutter' (Churchmother). The impact of such an image becomes obvious when Katharina Schütz Zell is compared with the Nuremberg shoemaker-poet, Hans Sachs. An equally outspoken lay participant of the Reformation, his mounting disappointment with religious politics and the decline of his home town led him to withdraw into privacy. In contrast, Katharina Schütz Zell, whose remit was the more closely defined Strasbourg parish, remained actively involved until her death. [source]

    Infants' Response to Maternal Mirroring in the Still Face and Replay Tasks

    INFANCY, Issue 5 2009
    Ann E. Bigelow
    Infants' response to maternal mirroring was investigated in 4-month-old infants. Mother,infant dyads participated in the still face and replay tasks. Infants were grouped by those whose mothers did and did not mirror their behavior in the interactive phases of the tasks. In the still face task, infants with maternal mirroring showed more attention, smiling, and positive vocalizations across the phases, although both groups of infants demonstrated the still-face effect with attention and smiling. Infants' social bidding to the mother during the still-face phase correlated with mothers' mirroring behavior. In the replay task, infants with maternal mirroring demonstrated carryover effects with smiling; infants without maternal mirroring showed no awareness of change in their mothers' behavior. In both the still face and replay tasks, infants with maternal mirroring were more engaged with their mothers. Results suggest that maternal mirroring of infants' behavior affects infants' detection of, and response to, reciprocal interaction. [source]

    A Comparative Study of Arm-Restraint Methodology: Differential Effects of Mother and Stranger Restrainers on Infants' Distress Reactivity at 6 and 9 Months of Age

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2009
    Christin L. Porter
    This study examined both differential patterns and the stability of infants' (N = 70) distress reactivity across mother and stranger arm-restraint conditions when infants were 6 and 9 months of age. Reactivity measures included observational variables for the rise, intensity, and duration of infant distress as well as motor activities associated with escape behaviors. Correlation analyses revealed that infant behaviors during arm restraint were modestly stable across conditions and over time; however, mean comparisons also showed that infants' distress responses appear to be sensitive to protocol parameters (whether restrainer is mother or stranger). At 6 months of age, infants cried more during maternal restraint than with strangers and exhibited escape behaviors more frequently with mothers. Findings further indicate that infants' distress reactivity undergoes developmental alterations from 6 to 9 months of age, with infants crying more quickly, reaching peak intensity of distress faster, and displaying more distress at 9 months compared to 6 months. These changes in infants' reactivity were particularly accentuated during maternal compared to stranger restraint conditions at 9 months of age. [source]

    Mother,Infant Person- and Object-Directed Interactions in Latino Immigrant Families: A Comparative Approach

    INFANCY, Issue 4 2008
    Linda R. Cote
    Cultural variation in durations, relations, and contingencies of mother,infant person-and object-directed behaviors were examined for 121 nonmigrant Latino mother,infant dyads in South America, Latina immigrants from South America and their infants living in the United States, and European American mother,infant dyads. Nonmigrant Latina mothers and infants engaged in person-directed behaviors longer than Latino immigrant or European American mothers and infants. Mother and infant person-directed behaviors were positively related; mother and infant object-related behaviors were related for some cultural groups but not others. Nearly all mother and infant behaviors were mutually contingent. Mothers were more responsive to infants' behaviors than infants were to mothers. Some cultural differences in responsiveness emerged. Immigrant status has a differentiated role in mother,infant interactions. [source]

    Distinguishing Mother,Infant Interaction From Stranger,Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    INFANCY, Issue 2 2008
    Ann E. Bigelow
    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother,infant and stranger,infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers were asked to judge which was the mother,infant dyad in each pair. Observers' accuracy improved as infants aged and was above chance for both mother and infant tapes when infants were 6 months. Differences between mother,infant and stranger,infant dyadic communication patterns also emerged as the infants aged. At 6 months, mother,infant dyads had more symmetrical communication and less asymmetrical communication than stranger,infant dyads. [source]

    Short-Term Reliability and Continuity of Emotional Availability in Mother,Child Dyads Across Contexts of Observation

    INFANCY, Issue 1 2006
    Marc H. Bornstein
    Emotional availability (EA) is a prominent index of socioemotional adaptation in the parent,child dyad. Is EA affected by context? In this methodological study, 34 mothers and their 2-year-olds were observed in 2 different settings (home vs. laboratory) 1 week apart. Significant cross-context reliability and continuity in EA as measured with the Emotional Availability Scales emerged. Because EA is not affected by context, cross-context generalizations about EA status in the dyad may be warranted. This work further documents the adequate psychometric properties of emotional availability. [source]

    Two-Month-Old Infants' Sensitivity to Social Contingency in Mother,Infant and Stranger,Infant Interaction

    INFANCY, Issue 3 2006
    Ann E. Bigelow
    Two-month-old infants (N = 29) participated in face-to-face interactions with their mothers and with strangers. The contingent responsiveness for smiles and vocalizations, while attending to the partner, was assessed for each partner in both interactions. For smiles and for vocalizations, infants were less responsive to the stranger relative to the mother when the stranger's contingent responsiveness was either more contingent or less contingent than that of the mother. Results are supportive of the hypothesis that young infants develop sensitivities to levels of social contingency present in their maternal interactions, which influence their responsiveness to others. [source]

    Mother,child and father,child mutuality in two contexts: consequences for young children's peer relationships

    Eric W. Lindsey
    Abstract This study examines the role that context plays in links between relative balance, or mutuality in parent,child interaction and children's social competence. Sixty-three toddlers and their parents were observed in a laboratory play session and caregiving activity (i.e. eating snack). Mutuality was operationalised as the relative balance in (a) partners' compliance to initiations, and (b) partners' expression of positive emotion. Caregivers rated children's social competence with peers, and children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers was observed in their childcare arrangement. Contextual differences were observed in the manifestation of parent,child mutuality, with both mother,child and father,child dyads displaying higher mutual compliance scores in the play context than in the caregiving context. Father,child dyads also displayed higher levels of shared positive emotion during play than during the caregiving context. There were no differences in a way that parent,child mutuality during play and caregiving was associated with children's social competence with peers. Overall, the results suggest that parent,child mutuality is a quality of parent,child interaction that has consistent links to children's peer competence regardless of the context in which it occurs. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Young infants' vocalizations towards mother versus stranger: associations with the infant,mother relationship

    Susanne Völker
    Abstract Infants' differential vocal response (DVR) towards their mother and a female stranger at 3 months of age has been predominantly investigated as an index of early cognitive functioning. The present study explored the relationship between DVR and different infant and mother indicators of the developing relationship quality in a sample of 23 mother,infant dyads. Mother,infant interactions and stranger,infant interactions were videotaped during home visits when the infants were 3 months old. At the age of 12 months, infants' behaviour was assessed in the Ainsworth's strange situation. In both assessments, mothers noted the infants' behavioural states on 3 successive days. Results revealed a specific relation between DVR and the emotional atmosphere of the early mother,infant interaction. Particularly, DVR was less pronounced in favour of the mother when the mother displayed emotional expressions defined as rejection. DVR is discussed as an index that may indicate both infant emotional engagement and infant cognitive competencies. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mother versus stranger: a triadic situation of imitation at the end of the first year of life

    Emmanuel DevoucheArticle first published online: 26 NOV 200
    Abstract This study presents two experiments investigating 8- and 12-month-old infants' imitative behaviour. Seventy-two 8-month-olds and seventy-two 12-month-olds were observed in a triadic situation which included their mother and a stranger. Depending on the condition, either the mother or the stranger acted as the demonstrator and either stayed close or withdrew after the demonstration, during the response period. In addition to imitative acts, visual exploration and smiles addressed, respectively, to each partner were computed. Results showed that at both ages, neither the familiarity nor the position of the partner has an effect on the number of target gestures that are imitated. At 12 months, infants looked and smiled more at the stranger when he demonstrated target actions but no difference was found when the mother acted as demonstrator. Moreover, 12-month-old infants looked more at the demonstrating partner immediately after their first imitation. At 8 months, infants paid more attention to the stranger in all conditions except when the mother performed the target actions and moved away, a pattern that suggests a referencing to the mother. Results from the gaze and smile variables suggest that with age different motivations (social contact, exploration of objects) induce imitation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The influence of infant irritability on maternal sensitivity in a sample of very premature infants

    Petra Meier
    Abstract The relationship between maternal sensitivity and infant irritability was investigated in a short-term longitudinal study of 29 very preterm infants. Infant irritability was assessed at term with the Brazelton NBAS, the Mother and Baby Scales (MABS) and the Crying Pattern Questionnaire (CPQ). Maternal sensitivity was assessed by nurses' ratings in the neonatal care unit and at three months during mother,infant interaction observation. Cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that neonatal irritability did not influence sensitivity at 3 months nor did maternal sensitivity in the newborn period lead to reduced irritability at 3 months. Both irritability and maternal sensitivity showed moderate stability over time (r = 0.55 and r = 0.60, respectively). It is concluded that in early infancy maternal sensitivity shows little influence on infant irritability in very preterm infants. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mother,infant behavioral interactions in teenage and adult mothers during the first six months postpartum: Relations with infant development

    Andrée Pomerleau
    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent mothers' (high-risk group), at-risk adult mothers' (moderate-risk group), and no-risk adult mothers' (low-risk group) behavioral interactions at one and six months postpartum, and to examine the relationships between maternal behaviors and infant developmental scores on the Bayley scales. Results indicated that high-risk teenage mothers and moderate-risk adult mothers vocalized less and had lower contingency rating scores compared to low-risk adult mothers. Also, infants in the high-risk and moderate-risk groups obtained lower mental scores at six months compared to the low-risk group. Moderate stability across time was found for maternal vocalizations and infant scores on the mental scale. Maternal vocalizations and behavioral contingency rating scores at one month were associated with infants' six-month performance on the Bayley scales. Specific intervention strategies were discussed with the aim of targeting and improving early maternal behavioral patterns in at-risk groups. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Maternal self-efficacy beliefs, competence in parenting, and toddlers' behavior and developmental status

    Priscilla K. Coleman
    This study was designed to examine parenting self-efficacy beliefs as correlates of mothers' competence in parenting toddlers and as predictors of toddlers' behavior and development. Sixty-eight predominantly middle-class mother,toddler pairs participated in this study. Mothers completed questionnaires, toddlers were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II), and each dyad participated in the Crowell Procedure, which is designed to observe parent and toddler behaviors in a semistructured laboratory context. Although domain-general and domain-specific parenting self-efficacy beliefs were not associated with parenting competence, domain-specific beliefs were significantly related to toddlers' scores on the Mental Scale of the BSID-II and several behaviors observed during the Crowell Procedure (Affection Towards Mother, Avoidance of Mother, Compliance, Enthusiasm, and Negativity). Implications of the findings are discussed. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Maternal substance use and mother,infant feeding interactions

    Rina Das EidenArticle first published online: 2 JUL 200
    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of maternal polydrug cocaine use during pregnancy and associated risk factors such as maternal psychopathology and negative infant temperament on the quality of mother,infant feeding interactions at 2 months of infant age. Participants were 45 mother,infant dyads (19 cocaine-exposed and 26 nonexposed) who were recruited at birth and assessed again 2 months of infant age. Mother,infant interactions during feeding were videotaped and coded with regard to dyadic reciprocity, maternal noncontingency, and dyadic conflict. Results indicated that maternal cocaine use was associated with higher dyadic conflict. Moreover, cocaine-using mothers were also more likely to use marijuana and alcohol, and use of such substances was associated with lower dyadic reciprocity and higher maternal noncontingency during interactions. Results also suggested that one pathway to higher dyadic conflict during interactions among cocaine-using mothers was through the impact of cocaine on infant risk conditions like lower gestational age and negative temperament (e.g., higher distress to novelty). Interventions focusing on promoting the quality of mother,infant interactions in combination with substance abuse treatment may be especially promising for this population. ©2001 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Birth outcomes in women with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (MoBa)

    Cynthia M. Bulik PhD
    Abstract Objective We explored the impact of eating disorders on birth outcomes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Method Of 35,929 pregnant women, 35 reported broad anorexia nervosa (AN), 304 bulimia nervosa (BN), 1,812 binge eating disorder (BED), and 36 EDNOS-purging type (EDNOS-P) in the six months before or during pregnancy. The referent comprised 33,742 women with no eating disorder. Results Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was lower in AN and higher in BED than the referent. AN, BN, and BED mothers reported greater gestational weight gain, and smoking was elevated in all eating disorder groups. BED mothers had higher birth weight babies, lower risk of small for gestational age, and higher risk of large for gestational age and cesarean section than the referent. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain attenuated the effects. Conclusion BED influences birth outcomes either directly or via higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain. The absence of differences in AN and EDNOS-P may reflect small numbers and lesser severity in population samples. Adequate gestational weight gain in AN may mitigate against adverse birth outcomes. Detecting eating disorders in pregnancy could identify modifiable factors (e.g., high gestational weight gain, binge eating, and smoking) that influence birth outcomes. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Physical Aggression in the Family and Preschoolers' Use of the Mother as a Secure Base

    Germán Posada
    The quality of child,mother attachment relationships is context sensitive. Conflict and aggression in the marital relationship as well as aggressive discipline practices may diminish a child's confidence in her or his mother as a secure base. We investigated whether physical aggression against the mother, exposure of the child to it, and use of aggressive physical discipline practices were related to attachment security. Forty-five preschoolers and their mothers from a nonclinical, middle-class population were studied. Security scores were obtained from observers' descriptions of children's behavior at home. Mothers reported on marital conflict, physical aggression from their spouse, exposure of the child to aggression, and use of physical discipline practices. Findings indicate that marital conflict, physical aggression, exposure of the child, and use of physical discipline are significantly and negatively associated with security. Regression analyses show that physical aggression contributed unique information to the prediction of security, and that physical discipline did not mediate the associations between physical aggression and child security. Clinical implications of the findings presented are discussed. [source]


    Daniel F. Brossart
    The factor structure of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire (PAFS-Q) has been used in numerous studies, but the factor structure has not been examined since its development in 1984. This study examined the factor structure of the PAFS-Q. Findings suggest a six-factor solution with important differences from those reported when the PAFS-Q was developed. The main differences between this study and the original factor analysis are that this study found separate Mother and Father Intimacy factors instead of a single Intergenerational Intimacy factor and the original Spousal Fusion and Spousal Intimacy factors were not separate factors in the current study. Implications and future directions for research are also discussed. [source]

    Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents

    Lori Kowaleski-Jones
    This research considers how community resources affect adolescent risk-taking attitudes and problem behavior. Data from the 1990 United States Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Merged Mother,Child files are merged to form a sample of 860 adolescents age 14 to 18 in 1994. Among these high-risk adolescents, selected community resources have significant associations with adolescent outcomes. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk-taking attitudes and aggressive behavior, regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. Higher quality schools, as perceived by mothers, are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. [source]

    Mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in a Thai population: Role of virus characteristics and maternal humoral immune response,

    Chonticha Kittinunvorakoon
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate factors influencing mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand, where HIV-1 CRF01_AE, the major subtype in Southeast Asia, predominates. Samples from 84 HIV-1 infected, anti-retroviral treatment-naïve, non-breast feeding mothers, 28 who transmitted HIV-1 to their babies (transmitters) and 56 who did not (non-transmitters), were studied for maternal humoral immune response and virus characteristics. Maternal humoral immune response was measured by lymphocyte phenotyping; neutralizing antibodies to laboratory HIV-1 MN strain and two clinical isolates; peptide binding antibody to gp41 and V3 from strains CRF01_AE, B, and MN; autologous antibodies; and quasispecies diversity. Virus characteristics studied were viral load, co-receptor usage, and viral replication capacity. No significant difference between transmitters and non-transmitters was found for any parameter of maternal humoral immune response. However, viral load and viral replication capacity were significantly higher in transmitters versus non-transmitters and were not correlated with each other. This suggests that viral replication capacity may be a transmission factor independent of viral load, which is already well established as a risk factor for transmission of HIV-1. All except four viral isolates used the CCR5 co-receptor. This is one of few studies of vertical transmission in a population where HIV-1 CRF01_AE predominates. The data suggest that in this population the maternal humoral immune response was not important in preventing transmission at parturition, but that virus characteristics were key factors, and that viral replication capacity may contribute to birth-associated mother to child transmission of HIV-1. J. Med. Virol. 81:768,778, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Postpartum Smoking Relapse and Becoming a Mother

    Kathleen F. Gaffney
    Purpose: To propose an innovative, theoretically-derived conceptual framework for studies of postpartum smoking relapse including concepts of smoking abstinence self-efficacy and becoming a mother. Methods: Presentation of an existing research paradigm followed by evidence from intervention research and studies of factors associated with postpartum smoking behavior, leading to a new approach to postpartum smoking relapse. Findings: Effectiveness of current interventions to prevent relapse is limited. Variables associated with becoming a mother are missing from studies of postpartum smoking relapse. Conclusions: Context-specific variables that influence a woman's progression through the stages of becoming a mother might include protective or risk factors that should be incorporated into the design of postpartum smoking relapse studies. [source]