Moth Plutella Xylostella (moth + plutella_xylostella)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Moth Plutella Xylostella

  • diamondback moth plutella xylostella

  • Selected Abstracts

    High-altitude migration of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella to the U.K.: a study using radar, aerial netting, and ground trapping

    Jason W. Chapman
    Abstract 1. The high-altitude wind-borne migration of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in the U.K. in 2000 was investigated (a) by direct monitoring of insect flight by vertical-looking radar and by aerial netting, and (b) through evidence of temporal variation in P. xylostella abundance deduced from a network of light traps. 2. Migrating P. xylostella were identified by a unique combination of size and shape data derived from the continuously operating vertical-looking radar. 3. Radar-detected migratory overflights correlated significantly with associated peaks in abundance of P. xylostella estimated by catches in a U.K.-wide light trap network; however the correlation was stronger when light trap catches were lagged by 1 day. 4. The first notable catches of P. xylostella in the U.K. occurred in early May, and were accompanied by migrations over the radar from the east. 5. Radar data and back-tracking indicated that a major wind-borne migration of P. xylostella from The Netherlands to southern England took place in early May, and that this was responsible for the establishment of the U.K. population. 6. The origin of early-season P. xylostella occurring in Britain is discussed. [source]

    Effect of generalist insect herbivores on introduced Lepidium draba (Brassicaceae): implications for the enemy release hypothesis

    K. P. Puliafico
    Abstract The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) states that decreased regulation by natural enemies allows plants to increase in distribution, abundance and vigour following their introduction into an exotic range. Invasive plants rarely escape herbivory entirely, and for hoary cress [Lepidium draba L. (Brassicaceae)] it has been demonstrated that generalist insect abundance is greater in its introduced North American range than in the native European range. We assessed the role of increased generalist herbivory on hoary cress using representatives of four important herbivore niches commonly found in the introduced range. We experimentally examined the density dependent impact of these herbivores individually and in combination on hoary cress in a series of greenhouse experiments. We found that defoliation of the oligophagous diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep., Plutellidae) had the strongest and most consistent impact, while damage by the stem-mining weevil Ceutorhynchus americanus Buchanan (Col., Curculionidae) tended to have the highest per capita effect. Plant response to feeding by the oligophagous crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Col., Chrysomelidae) was minor despite obvious feeding damage, and the impact of the polyphagous tarnished plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Het., Miridae) was negligible. In multiple-species experiments, herbivore impacts were usually additive. In general, we found that hoary cress can tolerate high densities of oligophagous insect herbivory and effectively resisted attack by the polyphagous L. hesperus, but also the oligophagous C. americanus. Our results indicate that a combination of plant resistance and tolerance allows hoary cress to withstand increased generalist herbivore load in its introduced range, consistent with the predictions of the ERH. [source]

    Molecular analysis of pyrethroid resistance conferred by target insensitivity and increased metabolic detoxification in Plutella xylostella

    Shoji Sonoda
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The pyrethroid resistance of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) is conferred by increased gene expression of cytochrome P450 to detoxify the insecticide and/or through gene mutation of the sodium channel, which makes the individual insensitive to pyrethroids. However, no information is available about the correlation between the increased metabolic detoxification and the target insensitivity in pyrethroid resistance. RESULTS: Frequencies of pyrethroid-resistant alleles (L1014F, T929I and M918I) and two resistance-related mutations (A1101T and P1879S) at the sodium channel and expression levels of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6BG1 were examined individually using laboratory and field strains of P. xylostella. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis using the laboratory strains revealed that levels of larval expression of the resistant strain, homozygous for the pyrethroid-resistant alleles other than the M918I, are significantly higher than those of the susceptible strain. In the field strains, the expression levels in insects having the same resistant alleles as those of the resistant strains varied greatly among individuals. The expression levels were not significantly higher than those in the heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: Significant correlation between the target insensitivity and the increased metabolic detoxification in pyrethroid resistance of P. xylostella was observed in the laboratory but not in the field. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Altered actin polymerization of Plutella xylostella (L.) in response to ovarian calyx components of an endoparasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov)

    AbstractCotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a solitary braconid endoparasitoid wasp, parasitizes the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) by suppressing the host defense response, thereby resulting in successful parasitization. During parasitization, ovarian calyx fluid is also delivered into the haemocoel of the host along with the wasp egg. The effect of calyx fluid constituents on haemocyte-spreading behaviour of P. xylostella is analysed by measuring F-actin development in the haemocytes. For this purpose, the calyx fluid of C. plutellae is separated into ovarian protein and C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV). The ovarian protein consists of a wide range of molecular weight proteins, which are apparently different from those of CpBV. When nonparasitized P. xylostella haemocytes are incubated with either ovarian protein or CpBV for 1 or 2 h, haemocytes lose their responsiveness to a cytokine, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide, in a dose-dependent manner for each calyx component and fail to exhibit haemocyte-spreading behaviour. Some CpBV genes are expressed within 1 h of parasitization. The inhibition of haemocyte-spreading could be explained by measuring F-actin contents, in which parasitization by C. plutellae inhibits F-actin development in the haemocytes of P. xylostella. Either ovarian protein or CpBV could inhibit F-actin development in the nonparasitized haemocytes. In addition, co-incubation of ovarian protein and CpBV results in significant additive inhibition of both haemocyte-spreading and F-actin development in the haemocytes in response to cytokine. These results suggest that both components of C. plutellae calyx fluid function in a synergistic manner, leading to immunosuppression during the early stage of parasitization. [source]