Moss Species (moss + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Accumulation of DNA damage in Antarctic mosses: correlations with ultraviolet-B radiation, temperature and turf water content vary among species

Abstract The susceptibility of three East Antarctic moss species to UV-B radiation was examined by measuring accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers under natural sunlight during the austral summer season of 2002/03. The 2002/03 season was characterized by unusually low springtime ozone depletion and as such our results likely underestimate the DNA damage possible in a more typical UV-B radiation season. Despite this all three species accumulated significant DNA photoproducts. We also found a positive association between photoproduct accumulation and incident UV-B radiation in the two cosmopolitan species, Bryum pseudotriquetrum and Ceratodon purpureus, with more DNA damage in samples collected early in the season compared with later in the summer. For B. pseudotriquetrum, negative associations were also observed between photoproduct accumulation and both turf water content and the 10-day mean air temperature. Photoproduct accumulation in the endemic species Schistidium antarctici was similarly high across the season and no significant association with environmental variables was found. Our results are consistent with the two cosmopolitan species having somewhat higher UV-B-screening capabilities and possibly more efficient mechanisms for repairing DNA damage than the endemic S. antarctici. [source]

Evaluation of 10 plant barcodes in Bryophyta (Mosses)

Abstract DNA barcoding is a molecular tool that uses a standardized DNA region to identify species. Our preliminary study reported here is the first attempt to specifically focus on universality and attributes of candidate barcodes across a wide systematic range of mosses. We tested eight previously proposed plant barcoding regions (atpF-atpH, ITS2, matK, psbK-psbI, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA) and two popular phylogenetic markers (rps4 and trnL-trnF of cpDNA) in 49 moss species and 9 liverwort species, representing half of the orders in moss lineages. The ITS2, rbcL, rpoC1, rps4, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF regions showed good universality, and therefore the efficacy of these loci as DNA barcodes was further evaluated in 36 mosses and 2 liverworts, each of which included two to three individuals per taxa. The five loci, viz. rbcL, rpoC1, rps4, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF, were easy to amplify and sequence and showed significant inter-specific genetic variability, making them potentially useful DNA barcodes for mosses. The best performing single loci were the rbcL and rpoC1 coding regions. Several loci showed equivalent performance and combinations of them did not greatly increase their discrimination capacity. In addition, phylogenies generated from each of the separate regions and multi-locus combinations by using best-fit and Kimura 2-parameter models were compared, but no significant difference was found. [source]

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems

J. Hall Cushman
Abstract Question: How do two shrubs with contrasting life-history characteristics influence abundance of dominant plant taxa, species richness and aboveground biomass of grasses and forbs, litter accumulation, nitrogen pools and mineralization rates? How are these shrubs , and thus their effects on populations, communities and ecosystems , distributed spatially across the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern California. Methods: In each of 4 years, we compared vegetation, leaf litter and soil nitrogen under canopies of two native shrubs ,Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis, with those in adjacent open dunes. Results: At the population level, density and cover of the native forb Claytonia perfoliata and the exotic grass Bromus diandrus were higher under shrubs than in shrub-free areas, whereas they were lower under shrubs for the exotic grass Vulpia bromoides. In contrast, cover of three native moss species was highest under Ericameria and equally low under Lupinus and shrub-free areas. At community level, species richness and aboveground biomass of herbaceous dicots was lower beneath shrubs, whereas no pattern emerged for grasses. At ecosystem level, areas beneath shrubs accumulated more leaf litter and had larger pools of soil ammonium and nitrate. Rates of nitrate mineralization were higher under Lupinus, followed by Ericameria and then open dune. At landscape level, the two shrubs , and their distinctive vegetation and soils , frequently had uniform spatial distributions, and the distance separating neighbouring shrubs increased as their combined sizes increased. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that both shrubs serve as ecosystem engineers in this coastal dune, having influences at multiple levels of biological organization. Our data also suggest that intraspecific competition influenced the spatial distributions of these shrubs and thus altered the distribution of their effects throughout the landscape. [source]

Is the combination of topsoil replacement and inoculation with plant material an effective tool for the restoration of threatened sandy grassland?

Carsten Eichberg
Abstract Question: Is it possible to restore dry calcareous inland sand ecosystems with their characteristic plant community structure within a 4-yr period by means of combined abiotic,biotic techniques (topsoil replacement, inoculation with raked/mown plant material from target areas)? Location: Upper Rhine valley, Germany. Methods: Two 4-year experiments were carried out on former arable land, each in the proximity of a reference area bearing a similar complex of threatened sandy grasslands (experiment 1: fine-scale; experiment 2: landscape scale). In both experiments we used nutrient-poor deep-sand substrate (abiotic approach), raked/mown inoculation material from target areas and grazing as management tool (biotic and management approach). The vegetation of the restoration and donor areas was sampled once a year and analysed by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination and target-species ratios. Mixed linear models were calculated to determine effects of grazing (experiment 1) and year (both experiments). Results: NMDS revealed a continuous development of the restored sites towards the corresponding donor sites. Similarly, target-species ratios of the restored sites tended towards the ratios of the donor sites. To date, grazing effects have mainly been structural: reduction of a carpet-forming pleurocarpous moss species and of litter. In addition, cover of target species in relation to total plant cover was significantly enhanced by grazing in the last two study years. Conclusions: The combination of nutrient-poor substrate, inoculation with raked/mown plant material and grazing proved to be a very effective restoration method for dry base-rich sand ecosystems. After 4 yr the restored plant communities serve as well-developed parts of a habitat network. [source]