Month Study Period (month + study_period)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interictal Psychoses in Comparison with Schizophrenia,A Prospective Study

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2007
Yukari Tadokoro
Summary Purpose: To prospectively investigate the incidence of interictal psychoses of epilepsy patients, and make a comparison between those with interictal psychoses and patients with schizophrenia in respect to their responses to antipsychotic drugs, as well as psychotic states. Methods: We undertook a two-part prospective investigation. In Part I, the psychotic episodes of 619 epilepsy patients were investigated, while 182 patients with psychotic syndromes were followed in Part II, of whom 59 were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 13 with epilepsy with interictal psychoses. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used for efficacy assessment. Results: The average annual incidence of interictal psychosis was 0.42% during the 56-month study period. A significant difference was found between patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses in respect to results on the negative subscale of the PANSS at the initial examination (mean scores of 18.1 and 13.2, respectively, p = 0.004). The response rates one year later for these groups were 27.1% and 53.8%, respectively, which showed a trend of better response to the antipsychotic medication by the epilepsy group (p = 0.098). Initial and maximum doses of antipsychotic drugs used for epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses were significantly lower than those used for patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.008 and p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: Schizophrenia and epileptic psychosis showed different symptom profiles. On average, epilepsy patients with interictal psychoses achieved higher remission rates with lower doses of antipsychotic drugs as compared to patients with schizophrenia in the present 1-year follow-up study. [source]

Effects of 11-month interventions on oral cleanliness among the long-term hospitalised elderly

Petteri Peltola
Objectives:, This trial studied the effects of interventions on the oral cleanliness of the long-term hospitalised elderly. Background:, Oral cleanliness is mostly poor in long-term facilities. While many agree on the importance of oral hygiene education for nursing personnel, little information and agreement exists on how to organise this education in geriatric institutions. Materials and methods:, This is a longitudinal study with interventions. After a baseline clinical examination, the patient wards were divided into three groups (A, B and C) and the type of intervention was randomly assigned. In group A, dental hygienists provided oral hygiene measures for the subjects once every 3 weeks. In group B, the nursing staff first received hands-on instructions after which they assumed responsibility for the subjects' daily oral hygiene. Group C served as a control. Denture hygiene and dental hygiene were recorded at baseline and in the end of the 11-month study period. In total, 130 subjects completed the interventions; their mean age was 82.9 years. Results:, The best outcome in both denture and dental hygiene occurred when nursing staff at the wards took care of hygiene (group B). The increase in the proportion of those with good denture hygiene was the most prominent in group B (from 11% to 56%). The proportion of subjects with poor overall dental hygiene decreased from 61% at baseline to 57% in the end, for group B from 80% to 48%. Conclusions:, Organised oral health education of the nursing staff should receive more attention. [source]

Clinical safety surveillance study of the safety and efficacy of long-term home treatment with ReFacto® utilizing a computer-aided diary: a Nordic multicentre study

HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 1 2009
Summary., A Nordic multicentre, open-label, non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study was carried out during a period of 24 months evaluating safety and efficacy of ReFacto as prophylactic or on-demand replacement therapy in patients with haemophilia A treated by self-medication. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled and studied for safety; efficacy was evaluated in 39 patients who received ReFacto for 24 months and recorded sufficient diary data on a hand-held computer. The compliance of using the device was good in small children, variable in adults and poor in teenagers. The fact that the overall compliance was low constituted a limitation of the number of patients with reliable diary data. Overall safety was rated as excellent or good by the clinicians for all patients at all visits and overall efficacy at 24 months evaluated to be excellent (74%) or good (26%). It was noticed that ,50% of patients/parents reported no absences from school or work owing to bleeding episodes during the study period. Among patients on regular prophylaxis, 6 of the 30 patients (20%) receiving ReFacto experienced no bleeding episodes. A median of four bleeding episodes occurred during the 24-month study period, and 93% of the episodes were resolved with ,2 ReFacto infusions. In the 7 on-demand patients, there was a median of 18 bleeding episodes, 87% of which resolved with ,2 ReFacto infusions. Interestingly, 42% of the ReFacto infusions taken by the patients classified to the on-demand group were registered as prophylactic treatment. In conclusion, ReFacto demonstrated good safety and efficacy in prophylaxis as well as treatment of bleeding episodes. [source]

Determination of regional net radiation and soil heat flux over a heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau

Yaoming Ma
Abstract This paper explores the potential for documenting regional fields of surface energy fluxes over the Tibetan plateau using published algorithms and previously calibrated empirical formulae with data from NOAA-14 AVHRR and atmospheric data collected during the GAME-Tibet field experiment. Comparison with observations at three field sites suggests errors in the resulting estimates are less than 10% in the clear sky conditions necessary for application of this approach. Because of the need for clear skies, it was only possible to calculate the desired regional fields for one satellite scene during the 5 month study period. Maps of surface energy fluxes, and frequency analyses of these maps, are presented for this scene. The need for an alternative, more consistently applicable, satellite-based method to map surface energy fields is highlighted. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effectiveness of the Electronic Medical Record in Improving the Management of Hypertension

James W. Kinn MD
Clinical studies suggest that hypertension is often undiagnosed, undertreated, and poorly controlled. In 1997, the authors developed a comprehensive electronic medical record that interfaces with physicians during each outpatient visit and provides real-time feedback about patient care management, including the management of hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this interactive electronic medical record results in better detection and control of hypertension. During a 12-month study period, consecutive outpatients (n=1076) were seen for routine follow-up; patient care documentation relied solely on the electronic medical record. Quality indicators for hypertension included: 1) documentation of the diagnosis of hypertension; 2) use of blood pressure-lowering drugs; and 3) successful blood pressure lowering to ,140/90 mm Hg. The authors compared the hypertension management of these patients to a control group of similar patients (n=723) with medical records consisting solely of traditional "pen and paper" charts. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including the prevalence of hypertension (73 % vs. 70%; p=NS). However, the electronic medical record resulted in higher documentation rates of hypertension (90% vs. 77%; p<0.001), greater use of antihypertensive therapy (94% vs. 90%; p<0.01), and more successful blood pressure lowering to ,140/90 mm Hg (54% vs. 28%; p<0.001). In conclusion, the electronic medical record with real-time feedback improves the physician's ability to detect, treat, and control hypertension. [source]

Implementing a Tobacco Assisted Referral Program in Dental Practices

Sally J. Little RDH
Abstract Objectives: The objectives of this study are to design and implement a system-level tobacco-control intervention in a large prepaid dental group practice and assess effects on staff performance measures and patient satisfaction. Methods: We matched 14 dental facilities on size, socioeconomic status, smoking rate, and periodontal status, and then randomly assigned them to intervention or usual-care control. We trained intervention staff in an "Assisted Referral" team approach for assessing tobacco use, providing tailored advice and brief counseling, and encouraging smokers to talk by telephone with a specially trained tobacco counselor. Patients could call from the office or ask that the counselor call them later. Telephone counselors helped patients explore motivations and barriers for quitting; review available cessation-support strategies, programs, and medications; and identify next steps. Results: During the 14-month study period, 66,516 members had annual- or new-patient examinations. Both intervention and control sites had high rates of tobacco assessment (97 percent) and advice (93 percent). Intervention patients were more likely than controls (69 percent versus 3 percent, P < 0.01) to receive additional chair-side tobacco counseling and assistance, and 11 percent agreed to receive additional telephone counseling. Intervention patients were more satisfied than controls with the dental team's tobacco-control efforts (P < 0.03). Referral rates varied substantially for different staff. Conclusions: The Assisted Referral approach was successfully integrated into routine dental care, was well received by patients, and resulted in increased patient satisfaction. Because free telephone-based tobacco counseling is now available nationwide, the approach may be a practical strategy for most dental-care settings. [source]

Psychopathology in Patients with ICDs over Time: Results of a Prospective Study

Introduction:The effects of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and ICD shocks on psychological state have previously been studied. However, it is still unclear how health-related quality-of-life changes over time using standardized assessments. We sought to characterize the effects of ICDs and ICD shocks on psychological outcomes. Methods:Three hundred-eight patients receiving ICDs were prospectively identified. Baseline QOL assessments including standardized psychological surveys [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)] were obtained within 2 months of device implantation and at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Outcomes including ICD shocks were followed over the 12-month study period. Results:The number of patients meeting criteria for anxiety or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at baseline (78/223, 35%) was higher than at 6 (34/223, 15%) or 12 (34/223, 15%) months (P < 0.01). There was a significant improvement over time in HADS (P < 0.001) and IES-R (PTSD) scores (P < 0.001). Amongst the 20 patients who received ICD shocks, no significant differences were observed in IES-R, SF-36, or HADS scores when compared with those who did not receive shocks at any time point. Patients who experienced electrical storms (N = 5) had significantly higher baseline PTSD scores (29.6 ± 11.4 vs 14.6 ± 11.6, P < 0.01). Conclusions:Patients receiving ICDs have significant rates of baseline psychopathology after implantation. However, psychological assessment scores tend to improve with time. ICD shocks do not appear to significantly impact psychological state. These results suggest the importance of close screening and referral for possible psychopathology in patients receiving ICDs, especially in the peri-implant period. (PACE 2010; 33:198,208) [source]

Do Pain Patients at High Risk for Substance Misuse Experience More Pain?: A Longitudinal Outcomes Study

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
Robert N. Jamison PhD
ABSTRACT Objectives., The Screener and Opioid Assessment of Pain Patients (SOAPP v.1) has been shown to be a reliable measure of risk potential for substance misuse and to correlate with a history of substance abuse, legal problems, craving, smoking, and mood disorders among chronic pain patients. The aim of this study was to examine differences over time on a number of measures among chronic pain patients who were classified as high or low risk for opioid misuse based on scores on the SOAPP. Methods., From an initial sample of one hundred thirty-four participants (N = 134), one hundred and ten (N = 110) completed the SOAPP and were grouped as high or low risk for misuse of medication based on SOAPP scores of ,7. All subjects were asked to complete baseline measures and in-clinic monthly diaries of their pain, mood, activity interference, medication, and side effects over a 10-month study period. Results., The results showed that although those who were classified as high-risk for opioid misuse reported significantly higher levels of pain intensity, activity interference, pain catastrophizing, disability, and depressed mood at baseline (P < 0.05), only pain intensity ratings were found to differentiate groups over time (P < 0.01). These results were unrelated to perceived helpfulness of pain treatment. Conclusions., Differences in subjective pain intensity were found between those who are high risk for opioid misuse compared with those at low risk for medication misuse, implying that higher-risk patients may experience more subjective pain. Consequently, these patients may be more challenging to treat. [source]

Plasma ghrelin concentration is a signal of decreased fat free mass in healthy elderly females

Jaak Jürimäe
This study aimed to evaluate whether circulating ghrelin is associated with changes in different body composition parameters over a 12-month prospective study period in healthy older females. On 41 postmenopausal women (mean age: 71.0 ± 6.5 years), ghrelin, leptin, insulin resistance (IR), and body composition parameters were assessed before and after the study period. Trunk fat: leg fat ratio (+3.6%), fat free mass (FFM) (,4.1%), glucose (+5.8%), and IR (+7.0%) were significantly changed (P < 0.05), whereas no changes in height, body mass, body mass index, fat mass (FM), %FM, trunk fat, leptin, ghrelin, and insulin were observed as a result of study period. At baseline, ghrelin correlated negatively (r > ,0.306; P < 0.05) with body mass, FM, %FM, trunk fat, FFM, leptin, insulin, and IR. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that baseline ghrelin concentration was significantly associated only with the mean change in FFM value over the 12-month study period. In conclusion, basal ghrelin concentration predicted the loss of FFM in healthy elderly females. In addition, these results suggest that circulating ghrelin concentration could be regarded as a signal of decreased FFM in healthy elderly females. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Psychological impact of the detection of soft markers on routine ultrasound scanning: a pilot study investigating the modifying role of information

Melanie S. Watson
Abstract Objectives To determine the impact on maternal anxiety of detecting a soft marker, and the association between anxiety and the information given during the scan. Methods Routine 20-week fetal anomaly scans were audiotaped in the obstetric ultrasound unit of a London teaching hospital, across a four month study period. The study sample comprised 28 pregnant women: 14 in whom a soft marker was detected and a comparison group of 14 women in whom no marker was identified. Telephone interviews were conducted within one week of the scan, at 30,weeks' gestation, and one month after the birth of their children. The main outcome was anxiety, assessed using a standardized scale. Information provided during the scan was coded from transcripts. Results In the week following the scan, women with soft markers had clinically significant levels of anxiety. At 30,weeks' gestation and one month post-partum their levels were within the normal range. Women who were told during their scan that their baby would probably be all right, compared with women not told this, were significantly less anxious and worried about their baby. Conclusions Results from this small longitudinal study suggest that the detection of soft markers on routine prenatal ultrasound causes considerable short-term anxiety for women and that providing reassurance during the scan may prevent some of this anxiety. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Model for collecting colorectal cancer staging information in Western Australia

Padabphet Boutard
Background: There is recognition that to improve the management of patients with cancer we need to monitor outcomes, especially survival outcomes based on tumour stage. Unfortunately, there are few centres in Australia that can provide stage stratified survival information, despite the large investments that have been made in data collection. The aim of this study was to collect staging information for all colorectal cancers diagnosed in Western Australia over a 12-month period. This information could then serve as a basis for more meaningful analysis. Methods: A project officer was appointed to coordinate a programme through the Western Australian Cancer Registry. A consensus was reached among pathologists on the standardized reporting of colorectal cancers to the registry. Clinicians were asked to provide, on pathology request forms, information on tumour location, the presence of metastatic disease (on X-ray or at laparotomy), and type of surgery. Use was also made of existing hospital and unit based databases to acquire and crosscheck information. Results: Over a 12-month study period, 1008 patients with colorectal cancers were notified to the Cancer Registry. Their mean age was 69.1 years (range 23,100 years), 56% were men and 44% women. The rectum was the most common site for disease location (32.5%). At cessation of the project, 743 patients (74%) were fully staged, with a further 221 patients (22%) having completed data on tumour depth of penetration and nodal status, but insufficient information on the presence of metastases. The stage distributions were: stage I , 20.5%; stage II , 29.9%; stage III , 26.2%; stage IV , 23.4%. Conclusions: It is feasible to collect staging information on colorectal cancers notified to a population based cancer registry. This information will be invaluable for stage stratified survival analysis and research. [source]

Development and Implementation of a Model to Improve Identification of Patients Infected with HIV Using Diagnostic Rapid Testing in the Emergency Department

Jason S. Haukoos MD
Objectives Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to expand in nontraditional risk groups, and the prevalence of undiagnosed infection remains relatively high in the patient populations of urban emergency departments (EDs). Unfortunately, HIV testing in this setting remains uncommon. The objectives of this study were 1) to develop a physician-based diagnostic rapid HIV testing model, 2) to implement this model in a high-volume urban ED, and 3) to prospectively characterize the patients who were targeted by physicians for testing and determine the proportions who completed rapid HIV counseling, testing, and referral; tested positive for HIV infection; and were successfully linked into medical and preventative care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of investigators developed a model for performing physician-based diagnostic rapid HIV testing in the ED. This model was then evaluated using a prospective cohort study design. Emergency physicians identified patients at risk for undiagnosed HIV infection using clinical judgment and consensus guidelines. Testing was performed by the hospital's central laboratory, and clinical social workers performed pretest and posttest counseling and provided appropriate medical and preventative care referrals, as defined by the model. Results Over the 30-month study period, 105,856 patients were evaluated in the ED. Of these, 681 (0.64%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60% to 0.69%) were identified by physicians and completed rapid HIV counseling, testing, and referral. Of the 681 patients, 15 (2.2%; 95% CI = 1.2% to 3.6%) patients tested positive for HIV infection and 12 (80%; 95% CI = 52% to 96%) were successfully linked into care. Conclusions A physician-based diagnostic HIV testing model was developed, successfully implemented, and sustained in a high-volume, urban ED setting. While the use of this model successfully identified patients with undiagnosed HIV infection in the ED, the overall level of testing remained low. Innovative testing programs, such as nontargeted screening, more specific targeted screening, or alternative hybrid methods, are needed to more effectively identify undiagnosed HIV infection in the ED patient population. [source]

A randomized controlled trial of positioning treatments in infants with positional head shape deformities

B Lynne Hutchison
Abstract Background:, Randomized controlled trials of treatment for deformational plagiocephaly and brachycephaly have been lacking in the literature. Methods:, Infants (n = 126) presenting to a plagiocephaly clinic were randomized to either positioning strategies or to positioning plus the use of a Safe T SleepÔ positioning wrap. Head shape was measured using a digital photographic technique, and neck function was assessed. They were followed up at home 3, 6 and 12 months later. Results:, There was no difference in head shape outcomes for the two treatment groups after 12 months of follow-up, with 42% of infants having head shapes in the normal range by that time. Eighty per cent of children showed good improvement. Those that had poor improvement were more likely to have both plagiocephaly and brachycephaly and to have presented later to clinic. Conclusions:, Most infants improved over the 12-month study period, although the use of a sleep positioning wrap did not increase the rate of improvement. [source]

Transition to adult care: experiences and expectations of adolescents with a chronic illness

L. K. Tuchman
Abstract Background Effective means of transitioning adolescent patients with chronic illness from paediatric to adult medical care are poorly documented and supported by limited evidence. The purpose of this study is to describe expectations and concerns of adolescents with chronic illness regarding transition from subspecialty paediatric to adult-centred care during the transition process in order guide effective programme design and implementation. Methods Qualitative content and thematic analysis of semi-structured individual interviews with 22 adolescents with chronic illness, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Interviews took place at 1,3 time points over an 18-month study period. Results Transition topics included: timing of transfer to adult care, the transition process, attitudes about transition, and factors that might aid transition. During the study period, one-third of participants made the transition to adult-oriented health care. All participants who had transitioned to adult-oriented care reported participating in a structured transition programme. Concerns of those who had not initiated the transition process centred on re-establishing relationships and bringing a new team ,up to speed'. Most adolescents anticipating transfer to adult care identified only downsides and felt unprepared to transition at the time of the interview. Subjects who had transitioned noted benefits of the adult-oriented system, even if they had been ambivalent prior to transfer of care. Participants suggested that earlier discussions about transition, opportunities to meet new healthcare teams and visits to adult-oriented venues prior to transition might aid in the transition process. Conclusions Subspecialty paediatric providers should anticipate common fears and concerns of adolescents and discuss the benefits of transfer to adult-oriented care. Further evaluation of existing transition programmes is an area for future study and is necessary for improvement of the continuum of care for adolescents with chronic medical conditions. [source]

In-patient comparison of immediate and conventional loaded implants in mandibular molar sites within 12 months

Güncü, M. Bar
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of dental implants placed in the mandibular molar sites and immediately functionally restored compared with conventionally loaded controls in an in-patient study. Material and methods: Twenty-four dental implants were placed in 12 patients who had first molar loss bilaterally in the mandibular area. One site of the patient was determined as immediately loaded (IL) and the other side was conventionally loaded (CL). Resonance frequency analyses for implant stability measurements, radiographic examinations for marginal bone levels and peri-implant evaluations were performed during the clinical follow-up appointments within 12 months. Results: During the 12-month follow-up period, only one implant was lost in the IL group. The mean implant stability quotient values were 74.18±5.72 and 75.18±3.51 for Groups IL and CL at surgery, respectively, and the corresponding values were 75.36±5.88 and 75.64±4.84 at 1-year recall, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant between the two groups during the 12-month study period (P>0.05). When peri-implant parameters were evaluated, excellent peri-implant health was demonstrated during the 1-year observation period and all implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone resorption during the first year. Conclusions: In the present study, immediate functionally loading did not negatively affect implant stability, marginal bone levels and peri-implant health when compared with conventional loading of single-tooth implants. [source]